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Rickman, Hans
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Publications (10 of 101) Show all publications
Rickman, H., Wisniowski, T., Gabryszewski, R., Wajer, P., Wojcikowski, K., Szutowicz, S., . . . Morbidelli, A. (2017). Cometary impact rates on the Moon and planets during the late heavy bombardment. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 598, Article ID A67.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cometary impact rates on the Moon and planets during the late heavy bombardment
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 598, A67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. The Nice model predicts that the trans-planetary planetesimal disk made a large or even dominant contribution to the cratering in the inner solar system during the late heavy bombardment (LHB). In the presence of evidence that lunar craters and mare basins may be mainly of asteroidal origin, there is a dilemma of the missing comets that is not yet resolved. Aims. We aim to revisit the problem of cometary impact rates on the Moon and the terrestrial planets during the LHB with a flexible model, allowing us to study the influences of physical destruction of comets, the mass of the primordial disk, and the distribution of this mass over the entire size range. Methods. We performed a Monte Carlo study of the dynamics of the cometary LHB projectiles and derive the impact rates by calculating individual collision probabilities for a huge sample of projectile orbits. We used Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOIDs) according to a new scheme introduced here. Different calculations were performed using different models for the physical evolution of comet nuclei and for the properties of the primordial, trans-planetary disk. Results. Based on the capture probability of Jupiter Trojans, we find a best fit radius of the largest LHB comet impacting the Moon for a low-mass primordial disk. For this disk mass, the LHB cratering of the Moon, Mercury and Mars were dominated by asteroids. However, some smaller lunar maria were likely preceded by comet impacts. The volatile delivery to the Earth and Mars by LHB comets was much less than their water inventories. Conclusions. There is no excessive cometary cratering, if the LHB was caused by a late planetary instability in the Nice Model. The Earth and Mars obtained their water very early in their histories. The Noachian water flows on Mars cannot be attributed to the arrival of LHB-related H2O or CO2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keyword
comets: general, Earth, Moon, planets and satellites: surfaces
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320505 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201629376 (DOI)000394465000067 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 74/10:2
Available from: 2017-04-20 Created: 2017-04-20 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved
Fouchard, M., Rickman, H., Froeschle, C. & Valsecchi, G. B. (2017). Distribution of long-period comets: comparison between simulations and observations. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 604, Article ID A24.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution of long-period comets: comparison between simulations and observations
2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 604, A24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: This paper is devoted to a comparison between observations and simulations of the so-called Oort spike formed by the "new" observable long-period comets.

Methods: The synthetic distributions of observable comets come from the propagation of a huge sample of objects during the age of the solar system that were initially in a proto-Oort cloud, which was flattened around the ecliptic and had perihelia in the region of Uranus and Neptune. For the known new long-period comets, two samples were used, one that is assumed to be complete, and the comets of the other exclusively come from the Warsaw catalog of comets. The original orbital energy of the comets in this catalog is more reliable.

Results: Considering comets with a perihelion distance smaller than 4 AU, for which one of our samples of known comets can be assumed to be complete, the comparison shows small but significant differences in the orbital energy distribution and in the proportion of retrograde comets. When we extend the limiting perihelion distance to 10 AU, the observed samples are obviously strongly incomplete. The synthetic distribution shows that the number of observable comets per year and per perihelion distance unit is proportional to q(1.09) for q < 4 AU and proportional to q(2.13) for 6 < q < 10 AU. The increase for q > 6 AU comes from comets that were already within the Jupiter-Saturn barrier (q < 15 AU) at their previous perihelion passage (which we call creepers and Kaib and Quinn creepers), with original semi-major axes generally smaller than 20 000 AU.

Conclusions: To explain the small but significant differences between our synthetic sample and the known comets for a perihelion distance smaller than 4 AU, different hypotheses are proposed: a still erroneous value of the original orbital energy in the observed sample, a higher density of low-mass stars in the actual solar neighborhood, a ninth planet, and obviously the initial population of objects from which the synthetic distributions are derived.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keyword
comets: general, celestial mechanics
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335720 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201630343 (DOI)000408480100056 ()
Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Perna, D., Fulchignoni, M., Barucci, M. A., Fornasier, S., Feller, C., Deshapriya, J. D., . . . Vincent, J.-B. -. (2017). Multivariate statistical analysis of OSIRIS/Rosetta spectrophotometric data of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 600, Article ID A115.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multivariate statistical analysis of OSIRIS/Rosetta spectrophotometric data of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 600, A115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. The ESA Rosetta mission explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014 2016, following its target before and after the perihelion passage on 13 August 2015. The NAC camera of the OSIRIS imaging system allowed to map the nucleus surface acquiring images with different filters in the visible wavelength range.

Aims. Here we study the spectrophotometric behaviour of the nucleus by a multivariate statistical analysis, aiming to distinguish homogeneous groups and to constrain the bulk composition.

Methods. We applied the G-mode clustering algorithm to 16 OSIRIS data cubes acquired on 5 6 August 2014 (mostly covering the northern hemisphere) and 2 May 2015 (mostly covering the southern hemisphere), selected to have complete coverage of the comet's surface with similar observing conditions.

Results. We found four similar homogeneous groups for each of the analysed cubes. The first group corresponds to the average spectrophotometric behaviour of the nucleus. The second (spectrally redder) and the third (spectrally bluer) groups are found in regions that were already found to deviate from the average terrain of the comet by previous studies. A fourth group (characterised by enhancements of the flux at 700 750 nm and 989 nm, possibly due to H2O+ and /or NH2 emissions) seems connected with the cometary activity rather than with the bulk composition.

Conclusions. While our aim in this work was to study the spectrophotometric behaviour of the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as a whole, we found that a follow-up application of the G-mode to smaller regions of the surface could be useful in particular to identify and study the temporal evolution of ice patches, as well as to constrain the composition and physical processes behind the emission of dust jets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keyword
comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, methods: data analysis, techniques: photometric
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-324341 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201630015 (DOI)000400754000109 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2017-06-15 Created: 2017-06-15 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
Fouchard, M., Rickman, H., Froeschle, C. & Valsecchi, G. B. (2017). On the present shape of the Oort cloud and the flux of "new" comets. Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), 292, 218-233.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the present shape of the Oort cloud and the flux of "new" comets
2017 (English)In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 292, 218-233 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Long term evolution of an initial set of 10(7) Oort cloud comets is performed for the age of the solar system taking into account the action of passing stars using 10 different sequences of stellar encounters, Galactic tides and the gravity of the giant planets. The initial conditions refer to a disk-shaped Oort cloud precursor, concentrated toward the ecliptic with perihelia in the region of Uranus and Neptune. Our results show that the shape of the Oort cloud quickly reach a kind of steady state beyond a semi-major axis greater than about 2000 AU (this threshold depending on the evolution time-span), with a Boltzmann distribution of the orbital energy. The stars act in an opposite way to what was found in previous papers, that is they emptied an initial Tidal Active Zone that is overfilled with respect to the isotropic case. Consequently, the inclusion of stellar perturbations strongly affect the shape of the Oort spike. On the contrary, the Oort spike shape appears to be poorly dependent on the stellar sequences used, whereas the total flux of observable comets and the proportion of retrograde comets for the inner part of the spike are significantly dependent of it. Then it has been highlighted that the total flux, the shape of the Oort spike and the shape of the final Oort cloud are almost independent of the initial distribution of orbital energy considered.

Keyword
Oort cloud, Dynamics, Comets, Formation of the solar system
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323749 (URN)10.1016/j.icarus.2017.01.013 (DOI)000401053200017 ()
Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
Masoumzadeh, N., Oklay, N., Kolokolova, L., Sierks, H., Fornasier, S., Barucci, M. A., . . . Thomas, N. (2017). Opposition effect on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta-OSIRIS images. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 599, Article ID A11.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opposition effect on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta-OSIRIS images
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 599, A11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims. We aim to explore the behavior of the opposition effect as an important tool in optical remote sensing on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), using Rosetta-OSIRIS images acquired in different filters during the approach phase, July-August 2014 and the close flyby images on 14 of February 2015, which contain the spacecraft shadow. Methods. We based our investigation on the global and local brightness from the surface of 67P with respect to the phase angle, also known as phase curve. The local phase curve corresponds to a region that is located at the Imhotep-Ash boundary of 67P. Assuming that the region at the Imhotep-Ash boundary and the entire nucleus have similar albedo, we combined the global and local phase curves to study the opposition-surge morphology and constrain the structure and properties of 67P. The model parameters were furthermore compared with other bodies in the solar system and existing laboratory study. Results. We found that the morphological parameters of the opposition surge decrease monotonically with wavelength, whereas in the case of coherent backscattering this behavior should be the reverse. The results from comparative analysis place 67P in the same category as the two Mars satellites, Phobos and Deimos, which are notably different from all airless bodies in the solar system. The similarity between the surface phase function of 67P and a carbon soot sample at extremely small angles is identified, introducing regolith at the boundary of the Imhotep-Ash region of 67P as a very dark and fluffy layer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keyword
planets and satellites: surfaces, techniques: photometric, comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov, Gerasimenko
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320264 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201629734 (DOI)000395821900094 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2017-04-18 Created: 2017-04-18 Last updated: 2017-04-18Bibliographically approved
Hu, X., Shi, X., Sierks, H., Fulle, M., Blum, J., Keller, H. U., . . . Thomas, N. (2017). Seasonal erosion and restoration of the dust cover on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as observed by OSIRIS onboard Rosetta. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 604, Article ID A114.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seasonal erosion and restoration of the dust cover on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as observed by OSIRIS onboard Rosetta
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 604, A114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Dust deposits or dust cover are a prevalent morphology in the northern hemi-nucleus of comet 67P /Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). The evolution of the dust deposits was captured by the OSIRIS camera system onboard the Rosetta spacecraft having escorted the comet for over two years. The observations shed light on the fundamental role of cometary activity in shaping and transforming the surface morphology.

Aims: We aim to present OSIRIS observations of surface changes over the dust deposits before and after perihelion. The distribution of changes and a timeline of their occurrence are provided. We perform a data analysis to quantify the surface changes and investigate their correlation to water activity from the dust deposits. We further discuss how the results of our investigation are related to other findings from the Rosetta mission.

Methods: Surface changes were detected via systematic comparison of images, and quantified using shape-from-shading technique. Thermal models were applied to estimate the erosion of water ice in response to the increasing insolation over the areas where surface changes occurred. Modeling results were used for the interpretation of the observed surface changes.

Results: Surface changes discussed here were concentrated at mid-latitudes, between about 20 degrees N and 40 degrees N, marking a global transition from the dust-covered to rugged terrains. The changes were distributed in open areas exposed to ample solar illumination and likely subject to enhanced surface erosion before perihelion. The occurrence of changes followed the southward migration of the sub-solar point across the latitudes of their distribution. The erosion at locations of most changes was at least about 0 : 5 m, but most likely did not exceed several meters. The erosive features before perihelion had given way to a fresh, smooth cover of dust deposits after perihelion, suggesting that the dust deposits had been globally restored by at least about 1 m with ejecta from the intensely illuminated southern hemi-nucleus around perihelion, when the north was inactive during polar night.

Conclusions: The erosion and restoration of the northern dust deposits are morphological expressions of seasonality on 67P. Based on observations and thermal modeling results, it is inferred that the dust deposits contained a few percent of water ice in mass on average. Local inhomogeneity in water abundance at spatial scales below tens of meters is likely. We suspect that dust ejected from the deposits may not have escaped the comet in bulk. That is, at least half of the ejected mass was afloat in the inner-coma or /and redeposited over other areas of the nucleus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keyword
comets: general, comets: individual: 67P/ Churyumov, Gerasimenko
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335721 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201629910 (DOI)000408480100024 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Rickman, H., Gabryszewski, R., Wajer, P., Wisniowski, T., Wojcikowski, K., Szutowicz, S., . . . Morbidelli, A. (2017). Secular orbital evolution of Jupiter family comets. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 598, Article ID A110.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Secular orbital evolution of Jupiter family comets
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 598, A110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. The issue of the long term dynamics of Jupiter family comets (JFCs) involves uncertain assumptions about the physical evolution and lifetimes of these comets. Contrary to what is often assumed, real effects of secular dynamics cannot be excluded and therefore merit investigation. Aims. We use a random sample of late heavy bombardment cometary projectiles to study the long-term dynamics of JFCs by a Monte Carlo approach. In a steady-state picture of the Jupiter family, we investigate the orbital distribution of JFCs, including rarely visited domains like retrograde orbits or orbits within the outer parts of the asteroid main belt. Methods. We integrate 100 000 objects over a maximum of 100 000 orbital revolutions including the Sun, a comet, and four giant planets. Considering the steady-state number of JFCs to be proportional to the total time spent in the respective orbital domain, we derive the capture rate based on observed JFCs with small perihelia and large nuclei. We consider a purely dynamical model and one where the nuclei are eroded by ice sublimation. Results. The JFC inclination distribution is incompatible with our erosional model. This may imply that a new type of comet evolution model is necessary. Considering that comets may live for a long time, we show that JFCs can evolve into retrograde orbits as well as asteroidal orbits in the outer main belt or Cybele regions. The steady-state capture rate into the Jupiter family is consistent with similar to 1 x 10(9) scattered disk objects with diameters D > 2 km. Conclusions. Our excited scattered disk makes it difficult to explain the JFC inclination distribution, unless the physical evolution of JFCs is more intricate than assumed in standard, erosional models. Independent of this, the population size of the Jupiter family is consistent with a relatively low-mass scattered disk.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keyword
comets general, celestial mechanics
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320504 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201629374 (DOI)000394465000109 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 74/10:2
Available from: 2017-04-20 Created: 2017-04-20 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved
El-Maarry, M. R., Groussin, O., Thomas, N., Pajola, M., Auger, A.-T. -., Davidsson, B., . . . Shi, X. (2017). Surface changes on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko suggest a more active past. Science, 355(6332), 1392-+.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface changes on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko suggest a more active past
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2017 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 355, no 6332, 1392-+ p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Rosetta spacecraft spent similar to 2 years orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, most of it at distances that allowed surface characterization and monitoring at submeter scales. From December 2014 to June 2016, numerous localized changes were observed, which we attribute to cometary-specific weathering, erosion, and transient events driven by exposure to sunlight and other processes. While the localized changes suggest compositional or physical heterogeneity, their scale has not resulted in substantial alterations to the comet's landscape. This suggests that most of the major landforms were created early in the comet's current orbital configuration. They may even date from earlier if the comet had a larger volatile inventory, particularly of CO or CO2 ices, or contained amorphous ice, which could have triggered activity at greater distances from the Sun.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2017
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320031 (URN)10.1126/science.aak9384 (DOI)000397809500035 ()28325842 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 74/10:2
Available from: 2017-04-13 Created: 2017-04-13 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Pajola, M., Lucchetti, A., Fulle, M., Mottola, S., Hamm, M., Da Deppo, V., . . . Thomas, N. (2017). The pebbles/boulders size distributions on Sais: Rosetta's final landing site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 471(1), 680-689.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The pebbles/boulders size distributions on Sais: Rosetta's final landing site on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2017 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 471, no 1, 680-689 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By using the imagery acquired by the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System Wide-Angle Camera (OSIRISWAC), we prepare a high-resolution morphological map of the Rosetta Sais final landing site, characterized by an outcropping consolidated terrain unit, a coarse boulder deposit and a fine particle deposit. Thanks to the 0.014 m resolution images, we derive the pebbles/boulders size-frequency distribution (SFD) of the area in the size range of 0.07-0.70 m. Sais' SFD is best fitted with a two-segment differential power law: the first segment is in the range 0.07-0.26 m, with an index of -1.7 +/- 0.1, while the second is in the range 0.26-0.50 m, with an index of -4.2 +0.4/-0.8. The 'knee' of the SFD, located at 0.26 m, is evident both in the coarse and fine deposits. When compared to the Agilkia Rosetta Lander Imaging System images, Sais surface is almost entirely free of the ubiquitous, cm-sized debris blanket observed by Philae. None the less, a similar SFD behaviour of Agilkia, with a steeper distribution above similar to 0.3 m, and a flatter trend below that, is observed. The activity evolution of 67P along its orbit provides a coherent scenario of how these deposits were formed. Indeed, different lift pressure values occurring on the two locations and at different heliocentric distances explain the presence of the cm-sized debris blanket on Agilkia observed at 3.0 au inbound. Contrarily, Sais activity after 2.1 au outbound has almost completely eroded the fine deposits fallen during perihelion, resulting in an almost dust-free surface observed at 3.8 au.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017
Keyword
methods: data analysis, methods: statistical, comets: individual (67P C-G)
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330530 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stx1620 (DOI)000408211700045 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2017-10-09 Created: 2017-10-09 Last updated: 2017-10-09
Pajola, M., Hoefner, S., Vincent, J. B., Oklay, N., Scholten, F., Preusker, F., . . . Baratti, E. (2017). The pristine interior of comet 67P revealed by the combined Aswan outburst and cliff collapse. NATURE ASTRONOMY, 1(5), Article ID 0092.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The pristine interior of comet 67P revealed by the combined Aswan outburst and cliff collapse
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2017 (English)In: NATURE ASTRONOMY, ISSN 2397-3366, Vol. 1, no 5, 0092Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Outbursts occur commonly on comets(1) with different frequencies and scales(2,3). Despite multiple observations suggesting various triggering processes(4,5), the driving mechanism of such outbursts is still poorly understood. Landslides have been invoked(6) to explain some outbursts on comet 103P/Hartley (2), although the process required a pre-existing dust layer on the verge of failure. The Rosetta mission observed several outbursts from its target comet 67P/ChuryumovGerasimenko, which were attributed to dust generated by the crumbling of materials from collapsing cliffs(7,8). However, none of the aforementioned works included definitive evidence that landslides occur on comets. Amongst the many features observed by Rosetta on the nucleus of the comet, one peculiar fracture, 70 m long and 1 m wide, was identified on images obtained in September 2014 at the edge of a cliff named Aswan(9). On 10 July 2015, the Rosetta Navigation Camera captured a large plume of dust that could be traced back to an area encompassing the Aswan escarpment(7). Five days later, the OSIRIS camera observed a fresh, sharp and bright edge on the Aswan cliff. Here we report the first unambiguous link between an outburst and a cliff collapse on a comet. We establish a new dust-plume formation mechanism that does not necessarily require the breakup of pressurized crust or the presence of supervolatile material, as suggested by previous studies(7). Moreover, the collapse revealed the fresh icy interior of the comet, which is characterized by an albedo > 0.4, and provided the opportunity to study how the crumbling wall settled down to form a new talus.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331945 (URN)10.1038/s41550-017-0092 (DOI)000406536600004 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
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