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Matonti, C., Attree, N., Groussin, O., Jorda, L., Viseur, S., Hviid, S. F., . . . Vincent, J.-B. (2019). Bilobate comet morphology and internal structure controlled by shear deformation. Nature Geoscience, 12(3), 157-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bilobate comet morphology and internal structure controlled by shear deformation
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2019 (English)In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 157-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bilobate comets-small icy bodies with two distinct lobes-are a common configuration among comets, but the factors shaping these bodies are largely unknown. Cometary nuclei, the solid centres of comets, erode by ice sublimation when they are sufficiently close to the Sun, but the importance of a comet's internal structure on its erosion is unclear. Here we present three-dimensional analyses of images from the Rosetta mission to illuminate the process that shaped the Jupiter-family bilobate comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko over billions of years. We show that the comet's surface and interior exhibit shear-fracture and fault networks, on spatial scales of tens to hundreds of metres. Fractures propagate up to 500 m below the surface through a mechanically homogeneous material. Through fracture network analysis and stress modelling, we show that shear deformation generates fracture networks that control mechanical surface erosion, particularly in the strongly marked neck trough of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, exposing its interior. We conclude that shear deformation shapes and structures the surface and interior of bilobate comets, particularly in the outer Solar System where water ice sublimation is negligible.

National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379333 (URN)10.1038/s41561-019-0307-9 (DOI)000460103000007 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Lai, I.-L., Ip, W.-H., Lee, J.-C., Lin, Z. Y., Vincent, J.-B., Oklay, N., . . . Thomas, N. (2019). Seasonal variations in source regions of the dust jets on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 630, Article ID A17.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seasonal variations in source regions of the dust jets on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2019 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 630, article id A17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: We investigate the surface distribution of the source regions of dust jets on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as a function of time.

Methods: The dust jet source regions were traced by the comprehensive imaging data set provided by the OSIRIS scientific camera.

Results: We show in detail how the projected footpoints of the dust jets and hence the outgassing zone would move in consonance with the sunlit belt. Furthermore, a number of source regions characterized by repeated jet activity might be the result of local topographical variations or compositional heterogeneities.

Conclusions: The spatial and temporal variations in source regions of the dust jets are influenced significantly by the seasonal effect. The strong dependence on the solar zenith angle and local time could be related to the gas sublimation process driven by solar insolation on a surface layer of low thermal inertia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2019
Keywords
comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395682 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201732094 (DOI)000486989400017 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2019-10-24 Created: 2019-10-24 Last updated: 2019-10-24Bibliographically approved
Rickman, H., Blecka, M. I., Gurgurewicz, J., Jorgensen, U. G., Slaby, E., Szutowicz, S. & Zalewska, N. (2019). Water in the history of Mars: An assessment. Planetary and Space Science, 166, 70-89
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Water in the history of Mars: An assessment
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2019 (English)In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 166, p. 70-89Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a review of recent literature concerning issues related to the origin of water in planet Mars and its role in the geologic evolution of that planet. The baseline case of our discussion is the Grand Tack model of planetary migration in the solar nebula and an early planetary orbital instability according to the Nice Model. This discussion also benefits from a comparison with the Earth's accretional history. Recent observations are used to check the results of planetary accretion models, leading to a new picture of the early history of water on planet Mars. The embryo forming the basis of the planet is found to have been very deficient in water. During the following period, predating the formation of the Earth's Moon, the accreted water may have been as high as ∼5 km Global Equivalent Layer (GEL) while the amount accreted at later times may have been as low as ∼10 m GEL according to recent studies. In particular, the trans-planetary source was insignificant, at whatever time it was active. The proposed resurfacing event creating the Borealis basin could have been important for the loss of a significant part of the early Martian water inventory.

Keywords
Mars, Planet formation, Martian meteorites, D/H ratios, Martian ocean, Impact craters
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378738 (URN)10.1016/j.pss.2018.08.003 (DOI)000458941300006 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 74/10:2
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Deshapriya, J. D., Barucci, M. A., Fornasier, S., Hasselmann, P. H., Feller, C., Sierks, H., . . . Vincent, J.-B. -. (2018). Exposed bright features on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: distribution and evolution. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 613, Article ID A36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposed bright features on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: distribution and evolution
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2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 613, article id A36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. Since its arrival at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014, the Rosetta spacecraft followed the comet as it went past the perihelion and beyond until September 2016. During this time there were many scientific instruments operating on board Rosetta to study the comet and its evolution in unprecedented detail. In this context, our study focusses on the distribution and evolution of exposed bright features that have been observed by OSIRIS, which is the scientific imaging instrument aboard Rosetta. Aims. We envisage investigating various morphologies of exposed bright features and the mechanisms that triggered their appearance. Methods. We co-registered multi-filter observations of OSIRIS images that are available in reflectance. The Lommel-Seeliger disk function was used to correct for the illumination conditions and the resulting colour cubes were used to perform spectrophotometric analyses on regions of interest. Results. We present a catalogue of 57 exposed bright features observed on the nucleus of the comet, all of which are attributed to the presence of H2O ice on the comet. Furthermore, we categorise these patches under four different morphologies and present geometric albedos for each category. Conclusions. Although the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko appears to be dark in general, there are localised H2O ice sources on the comet. Cometary activity escalates towards the perihelion passage and reveals such volatile ices. We propose that isolated H2O ice patches found in smooth terrains in regions, such as Imhotep, Bes, and Hapi, result from frost as an aftermath of the cessation of the diurnal water cycle on the comet as it recedes from perihelion. Upon the comet's return to perihelion, such patches are revealed when sublimation-driven erosion removes the thin dust layers that got deposited earlier. More powerful activity sources such as cometary outbursts are capable of revealing much fresher, less contaminated H2O ice that is preserved with consolidated cometary material, as observed on exposed patches resting on boulders. This is corroborated by our albedo calculations that attribute higher albedos for bright features with formations related to outbursts.

Keywords
comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, techniques: photometric, methods: data analysis
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357562 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201732112 (DOI)000433276000005 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Attree, N., Groussin, O., Jorda, L., Nebouy, D., Thomas, N., Brouet, Y., . . . Shi, X. (2018). Tensile strength of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus material from overhangs. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 611, Article ID A33.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tensile strength of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus material from overhangs
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2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 611, article id A33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We directly measured twenty overhanging cliffs on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko extracted from the latest shape model and estimated the minimum tensile strengths needed to support them against collapse under the comet's gravity. We find extremely low strengths of around 1 Pa or less (1 to 5 Pa, when scaled to a metre length). The presence of eroded material at the base of most overhangs, as well as the observed collapse of two features and the implied previous collapse of another, suggests that they are prone to failure and that the true material strengths are close to these lower limits (although we only consider static stresses and not dynamic stress from, for example, cometary activity). Thus, a tensile strength of a few pascals is a good approximation for the tensile strength of the 67P nucleus material, which is in agreement with previous work. We find no particular trends in overhang properties either with size over the similar to 10-100 m range studied here or location on the nucleus. There are no obvious differences, in terms of strength, height or evidence of collapse, between the populations of overhangs on the two cometary lobes, suggesting that 67P is relatively homogenous in terms of tensile strength. Low material strengths are supportive of cometary formation as a primordial rubble pile or by collisional fragmentation of a small body (tens of km).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2018
Keywords
comets: general, comets: individual: Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Methods: observational
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-351423 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201732155 (DOI)000427920100002 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 686709
Note

Correction in: Astronomy & Astrophysics, 614:C2 (2018), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201732155e

Available from: 2018-06-01 Created: 2018-06-01 Last updated: 2018-11-12Bibliographically approved
Fulle, M., Bertini, I., Della Corte, V., Guttler, C., Ivanovski, S., La Forgia, F., . . . Tubiana, C. (2018). The phase function and density of the dust observed at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 476(2), 2835-2839
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The phase function and density of the dust observed at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2018 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 476, no 2, p. 2835-2839Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The OSIRIS camera onboard Rosetta measured the phase function of both the coma dust and the nucleus. The two functions have a very different slope versus the phase angle. Here, we show that the nucleus phase function should be adopted to convert the brightness to the size of dust particles larger than 2.5 mm only. This makes the dust bursts observed close to Rosetta by OSIRIS, occurring about every hour, consistent with the fragmentation on impact with Rosetta of parent particles, whose flux agrees with the dust flux observed by GIADA. OSIRIS also measured the antisunward acceleration of the fragments, thus providing the first direct measurement of the solar radiation force acting on the dust fragments and thus of their bulk density, excluding any measurable rocket effect by the ice sublimation from the dust. The obtained particle density distribution has a peak matching the bulk density of most COSIMA particles, and represents a subset of the density distribution measured by GIADA. This implies a bias in the elemental abundances measured by COSIMA, which thus are consistent with the 67P dust mass fractions inferred by GIADA, i.e. (38 +/- 8) per cent of hydrocarbons versus the (62 +/- 8) per cent of sulphides and silicates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018
Keywords
space vehicles, comets: general, comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356196 (URN)10.1093/mnras/sty464 (DOI)000430940900106 ()
Available from: 2018-07-30 Created: 2018-07-30 Last updated: 2018-07-30Bibliographically approved
Penasa, L., Massironi, M., Naletto, G., Simioni, E., Ferrari, S., Pajola, M., . . . Vincent, J. B. (2017). A three-dimensional modelling of the layered structure of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Paper presented at International Conference on Cometary Science - Comets - A New Vision after Rosetta and Philae, NOV 14-18, 2016, Toulouse, FRANCE. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 469, S741-S754
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A three-dimensional modelling of the layered structure of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2017 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, p. S741-S754Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We provide a three-dimensional model of the inner layered structure of comet 67P based on the hypothesis of an extended layering independently wrapping each lobe. A large set of terrace orientations was collected on the latest shape model and then used as a proxy for the local orientation of the surfaces of discontinuity which defines the layers. We modelled the terraces as a family of concentric ellipsoidal shells with fixed axis ratios, producing a model that is completely defined by just eight free parameters. Each lobe of 67P has been modelled independently, and the two sets of parameters have been estimated by means of non-linear optimization of the measured terrace orientations. The proposed model is able to predict the orientation of terraces, the elongation of cliffs, the linear traces observed in the Wosret and Hathor regions and the peculiar alignment of boulder-like features which has been observed in the Hapi region, which appears to be related to the inner layering of the big lobe. Our analysis allowed us to identify a plane of junction between the two lobes, further confirming the independent nature of the lobes. Our layering models differ from the best-fitting topographic ellipsoids of the surface, demonstrating that the terraces are aligned to an internal structure of discontinuities, which is unevenly exposed on the surface, suggesting a complex history of localized material removal from the nucleus.

Keywords
methods: data analysis, comets: general, comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376845 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stx2899 (DOI)000443940500066 ()
Conference
International Conference on Cometary Science - Comets - A New Vision after Rosetta and Philae, NOV 14-18, 2016, Toulouse, FRANCE
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2019-02-12 Created: 2019-02-12 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
Guettler, C., Hasselmann, P. H., Li, Y., Fulle, M., Tubiana, C., Kovacs, G., . . . Vincent, J.-B. -. (2017). Characterization of dust aggregates in the vicinity of the Rosetta spacecraft. Paper presented at International Conference on Cometary Science - Comets - A New Vision after Rosetta and Philae, NOV 14-18, 2016, Toulouse, FRANCE. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 469, S312-S320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of dust aggregates in the vicinity of the Rosetta spacecraft
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2017 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, p. S312-S320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a Rosetta/OSIRIS imaging activity in 2015 June, we have observed the dynamic motion of particles close to the spacecraft. Due to the focal setting of the OSIRIS wide angle camera, these particles were blurred, which can be used to measure their distances to the spacecraft. We detected 109 dust aggregates over a 130 min long sequence, and find that their sizes are around a millimetre and their distances cluster between 2 and 40 m from the spacecraft. Their number densities are about a factor 10 higher than expected for the overall coma and highly fluctuating. Their velocities are small compared to the spacecraft orbital motion and directed away from the spacecraft, towards the comet. From this we conclude that they have interacted with the spacecraft and assess three possible scenarios. In the likeliest of the three scenarios, centimetre-sized aggregates collide with the spacecraft and we would observe the fragments. Ablation of a dust layer on the spacecraft's z panel (remote instrument viewing direction) when rotated towards the Sun is a reasonable alternative. We could also measure an acceleration for a subset of 18 aggregates, which is directed away from the Sun and can be explain by a rocket effect, which requires a minimum ice fraction of the order of 0.1 per cent.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2017
Keywords
techniques: image processing, comets: general, comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376688 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stx1692 (DOI)000443940500030 ()
Conference
International Conference on Cometary Science - Comets - A New Vision after Rosetta and Philae, NOV 14-18, 2016, Toulouse, FRANCE
Available from: 2019-02-15 Created: 2019-02-15 Last updated: 2019-02-15Bibliographically approved
Rickman, H., Wisniowski, T., Gabryszewski, R., Wajer, P., Wojcikowski, K., Szutowicz, S., . . . Morbidelli, A. (2017). Cometary impact rates on the Moon and planets during the late heavy bombardment. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 598, Article ID A67.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cometary impact rates on the Moon and planets during the late heavy bombardment
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 598, article id A67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. The Nice model predicts that the trans-planetary planetesimal disk made a large or even dominant contribution to the cratering in the inner solar system during the late heavy bombardment (LHB). In the presence of evidence that lunar craters and mare basins may be mainly of asteroidal origin, there is a dilemma of the missing comets that is not yet resolved. Aims. We aim to revisit the problem of cometary impact rates on the Moon and the terrestrial planets during the LHB with a flexible model, allowing us to study the influences of physical destruction of comets, the mass of the primordial disk, and the distribution of this mass over the entire size range. Methods. We performed a Monte Carlo study of the dynamics of the cometary LHB projectiles and derive the impact rates by calculating individual collision probabilities for a huge sample of projectile orbits. We used Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOIDs) according to a new scheme introduced here. Different calculations were performed using different models for the physical evolution of comet nuclei and for the properties of the primordial, trans-planetary disk. Results. Based on the capture probability of Jupiter Trojans, we find a best fit radius of the largest LHB comet impacting the Moon for a low-mass primordial disk. For this disk mass, the LHB cratering of the Moon, Mercury and Mars were dominated by asteroids. However, some smaller lunar maria were likely preceded by comet impacts. The volatile delivery to the Earth and Mars by LHB comets was much less than their water inventories. Conclusions. There is no excessive cometary cratering, if the LHB was caused by a late planetary instability in the Nice Model. The Earth and Mars obtained their water very early in their histories. The Noachian water flows on Mars cannot be attributed to the arrival of LHB-related H2O or CO2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keywords
comets: general, Earth, Moon, planets and satellites: surfaces
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320505 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201629376 (DOI)000394465000067 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 74/10:2
Available from: 2017-04-20 Created: 2017-04-20 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved
Vincent, J.-B. -., Hviid, S. F., Mottola, S., Kuehrt, E., Preusker, F., Scholten, F., . . . Tubiana, C. (2017). Constraints on cometary surface evolution derived from a statistical analysis of 67P's topography. Paper presented at International Conference on Cometary Science - Comets - A New Vision after Rosetta and Philae, NOV 14-18, 2016, Toulouse, FRANCE. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 469, S329-S338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Constraints on cometary surface evolution derived from a statistical analysis of 67P's topography
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2017 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 469, p. S329-S338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a statistical analysis of the distribution of large-scale topographic features on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. We observe that the cumulative cliff height distribution across the surface follows a power law with a slope equal to -1.69 +/- 0.02. When this distribution is studied independently for each region, we find a good correlation between the slope of the power law and the orbital erosion rate of the surface. For instance, the Northern hemisphere topography is dominated by structures on the 100 m scale, while the Southern hemisphere topography, illuminated at perihelion, is dominated by 10 m scale terrain features. Our study suggests that the current size of a cliff is controlled not only by material cohesion but also by the dominant erosional process in each region. This observation can be generalized to other comets, where we argue that primitive nuclei are characterized by the presence of large cliffs with a cumulative height-power index equal to or above -1.5, while older, eroded cometary surfaces have a power index equal to or below -2.3. In effect, our model shows that a measure of the topography provides a quantitative assessment of a comet's erosional history, that is, its evolutionary age.

Keywords
comets: general, comets: individual: 67P
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376848 (URN)10.1093/mnras/stx1691 (DOI)000443940500032 ()
Conference
International Conference on Cometary Science - Comets - A New Vision after Rosetta and Philae, NOV 14-18, 2016, Toulouse, FRANCE
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 686709Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2019-02-12 Created: 2019-02-12 Last updated: 2019-02-12Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9603-6619

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