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Rickman, Hans
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Deshapriya, J. D., Barucci, M. A., Fornasier, S., Hasselmann, P. H., Feller, C., Sierks, H., . . . Vincent, J.-B. -. (2018). Exposed bright features on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: distribution and evolution. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 613, Article ID A36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exposed bright features on the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: distribution and evolution
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2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 613, article id A36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. Since its arrival at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in August 2014, the Rosetta spacecraft followed the comet as it went past the perihelion and beyond until September 2016. During this time there were many scientific instruments operating on board Rosetta to study the comet and its evolution in unprecedented detail. In this context, our study focusses on the distribution and evolution of exposed bright features that have been observed by OSIRIS, which is the scientific imaging instrument aboard Rosetta. Aims. We envisage investigating various morphologies of exposed bright features and the mechanisms that triggered their appearance. Methods. We co-registered multi-filter observations of OSIRIS images that are available in reflectance. The Lommel-Seeliger disk function was used to correct for the illumination conditions and the resulting colour cubes were used to perform spectrophotometric analyses on regions of interest. Results. We present a catalogue of 57 exposed bright features observed on the nucleus of the comet, all of which are attributed to the presence of H2O ice on the comet. Furthermore, we categorise these patches under four different morphologies and present geometric albedos for each category. Conclusions. Although the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko appears to be dark in general, there are localised H2O ice sources on the comet. Cometary activity escalates towards the perihelion passage and reveals such volatile ices. We propose that isolated H2O ice patches found in smooth terrains in regions, such as Imhotep, Bes, and Hapi, result from frost as an aftermath of the cessation of the diurnal water cycle on the comet as it recedes from perihelion. Upon the comet's return to perihelion, such patches are revealed when sublimation-driven erosion removes the thin dust layers that got deposited earlier. More powerful activity sources such as cometary outbursts are capable of revealing much fresher, less contaminated H2O ice that is preserved with consolidated cometary material, as observed on exposed patches resting on boulders. This is corroborated by our albedo calculations that attribute higher albedos for bright features with formations related to outbursts.

Keywords
comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, techniques: photometric, methods: data analysis
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357562 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201732112 (DOI)000433276000005 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Attree, N., Groussin, O., Jorda, L., Nebouy, D., Thomas, N., Brouet, Y., . . . Shi, X. (2018). Tensile strength of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus material from overhangs. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 611, Article ID A33.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tensile strength of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus material from overhangs
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2018 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 611, article id A33Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We directly measured twenty overhanging cliffs on the surface of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko extracted from the latest shape model and estimated the minimum tensile strengths needed to support them against collapse under the comet's gravity. We find extremely low strengths of around 1 Pa or less (1 to 5 Pa, when scaled to a metre length). The presence of eroded material at the base of most overhangs, as well as the observed collapse of two features and the implied previous collapse of another, suggests that they are prone to failure and that the true material strengths are close to these lower limits (although we only consider static stresses and not dynamic stress from, for example, cometary activity). Thus, a tensile strength of a few pascals is a good approximation for the tensile strength of the 67P nucleus material, which is in agreement with previous work. We find no particular trends in overhang properties either with size over the similar to 10-100 m range studied here or location on the nucleus. There are no obvious differences, in terms of strength, height or evidence of collapse, between the populations of overhangs on the two cometary lobes, suggesting that 67P is relatively homogenous in terms of tensile strength. Low material strengths are supportive of cometary formation as a primordial rubble pile or by collisional fragmentation of a small body (tens of km).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2018
Keywords
comets: general, comets: individual: Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Methods: observational
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-351423 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201732155 (DOI)000427920100002 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 686709
Available from: 2018-06-01 Created: 2018-06-01 Last updated: 2018-06-01Bibliographically approved
Fulle, M., Bertini, I., Della Corte, V., Guttler, C., Ivanovski, S., La Forgia, F., . . . Tubiana, C. (2018). The phase function and density of the dust observed at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 476(2), 2835-2839
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The phase function and density of the dust observed at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2018 (English)In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 476, no 2, p. 2835-2839Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The OSIRIS camera onboard Rosetta measured the phase function of both the coma dust and the nucleus. The two functions have a very different slope versus the phase angle. Here, we show that the nucleus phase function should be adopted to convert the brightness to the size of dust particles larger than 2.5 mm only. This makes the dust bursts observed close to Rosetta by OSIRIS, occurring about every hour, consistent with the fragmentation on impact with Rosetta of parent particles, whose flux agrees with the dust flux observed by GIADA. OSIRIS also measured the antisunward acceleration of the fragments, thus providing the first direct measurement of the solar radiation force acting on the dust fragments and thus of their bulk density, excluding any measurable rocket effect by the ice sublimation from the dust. The obtained particle density distribution has a peak matching the bulk density of most COSIMA particles, and represents a subset of the density distribution measured by GIADA. This implies a bias in the elemental abundances measured by COSIMA, which thus are consistent with the 67P dust mass fractions inferred by GIADA, i.e. (38 +/- 8) per cent of hydrocarbons versus the (62 +/- 8) per cent of sulphides and silicates.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018
Keywords
space vehicles, comets: general, comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356196 (URN)10.1093/mnras/sty464 (DOI)000430940900106 ()
Available from: 2018-07-30 Created: 2018-07-30 Last updated: 2018-07-30Bibliographically approved
Rickman, H., Wisniowski, T., Gabryszewski, R., Wajer, P., Wojcikowski, K., Szutowicz, S., . . . Morbidelli, A. (2017). Cometary impact rates on the Moon and planets during the late heavy bombardment. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 598, Article ID A67.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cometary impact rates on the Moon and planets during the late heavy bombardment
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 598, article id A67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. The Nice model predicts that the trans-planetary planetesimal disk made a large or even dominant contribution to the cratering in the inner solar system during the late heavy bombardment (LHB). In the presence of evidence that lunar craters and mare basins may be mainly of asteroidal origin, there is a dilemma of the missing comets that is not yet resolved. Aims. We aim to revisit the problem of cometary impact rates on the Moon and the terrestrial planets during the LHB with a flexible model, allowing us to study the influences of physical destruction of comets, the mass of the primordial disk, and the distribution of this mass over the entire size range. Methods. We performed a Monte Carlo study of the dynamics of the cometary LHB projectiles and derive the impact rates by calculating individual collision probabilities for a huge sample of projectile orbits. We used Minimum Orbit Intersection Distances (MOIDs) according to a new scheme introduced here. Different calculations were performed using different models for the physical evolution of comet nuclei and for the properties of the primordial, trans-planetary disk. Results. Based on the capture probability of Jupiter Trojans, we find a best fit radius of the largest LHB comet impacting the Moon for a low-mass primordial disk. For this disk mass, the LHB cratering of the Moon, Mercury and Mars were dominated by asteroids. However, some smaller lunar maria were likely preceded by comet impacts. The volatile delivery to the Earth and Mars by LHB comets was much less than their water inventories. Conclusions. There is no excessive cometary cratering, if the LHB was caused by a late planetary instability in the Nice Model. The Earth and Mars obtained their water very early in their histories. The Noachian water flows on Mars cannot be attributed to the arrival of LHB-related H2O or CO2.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keywords
comets: general, Earth, Moon, planets and satellites: surfaces
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320505 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201629376 (DOI)000394465000067 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 74/10:2
Available from: 2017-04-20 Created: 2017-04-20 Last updated: 2017-04-20Bibliographically approved
Drolshagen, E., Ott, T., Koschny, D., Guetler, C., Tubiana, C., Agarwal, J., . . . Poppe, B. (2017). Distance determination method of dust particles using Rosetta OSIRIS NAC and WAC data. Paper presented at 9th Meteoroids Conference, JUN 06-10, 2016, ESTEC, NETHERLANDS. Planetary and Space Science, 143, 256-264
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distance determination method of dust particles using Rosetta OSIRIS NAC and WAC data
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2017 (English)In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 143, p. 256-264Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ESA Rosetta spacecraft has been tracking its target, the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, in close vicinity for over two years. It hosts the OSIRIS instruments: the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System composed of two cameras, see e.g. Keller et al. (2007). In some imaging sequences dedicated to observe dust particles in the comet's coma, the two cameras took images at the same time. The aim of this work is to use these simultaneous double camera observations to calculate the dust particles' distance to the spacecraft. As the two cameras are mounted on the spacecraft with an offset of 70 cm, the distance of particles observed by both cameras can be determined by a shift of the particles' apparent trails on the images. This paper presents first results of the ongoing work, introducing the distance determination method for the OSIRIS instrument and the analysis of an example particle. We note that this method works for particles in the range of about 500-6000 m from the spacecraft.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017
Keywords
Parallax, Stereo observations, Comets, 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta, Dust
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329890 (URN)10.1016/j.pss.2017.04.018 (DOI)000405050600037 ()
Conference
9th Meteoroids Conference, JUN 06-10, 2016, ESTEC, NETHERLANDS
Available from: 2018-02-22 Created: 2018-02-22 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
Fouchard, M., Rickman, H., Froeschle, C. & Valsecchi, G. B. (2017). Distribution of long-period comets: comparison between simulations and observations. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 604, Article ID A24.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distribution of long-period comets: comparison between simulations and observations
2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 604, article id A24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: This paper is devoted to a comparison between observations and simulations of the so-called Oort spike formed by the "new" observable long-period comets.

Methods: The synthetic distributions of observable comets come from the propagation of a huge sample of objects during the age of the solar system that were initially in a proto-Oort cloud, which was flattened around the ecliptic and had perihelia in the region of Uranus and Neptune. For the known new long-period comets, two samples were used, one that is assumed to be complete, and the comets of the other exclusively come from the Warsaw catalog of comets. The original orbital energy of the comets in this catalog is more reliable.

Results: Considering comets with a perihelion distance smaller than 4 AU, for which one of our samples of known comets can be assumed to be complete, the comparison shows small but significant differences in the orbital energy distribution and in the proportion of retrograde comets. When we extend the limiting perihelion distance to 10 AU, the observed samples are obviously strongly incomplete. The synthetic distribution shows that the number of observable comets per year and per perihelion distance unit is proportional to q(1.09) for q < 4 AU and proportional to q(2.13) for 6 < q < 10 AU. The increase for q > 6 AU comes from comets that were already within the Jupiter-Saturn barrier (q < 15 AU) at their previous perihelion passage (which we call creepers and Kaib and Quinn creepers), with original semi-major axes generally smaller than 20 000 AU.

Conclusions: To explain the small but significant differences between our synthetic sample and the known comets for a perihelion distance smaller than 4 AU, different hypotheses are proposed: a still erroneous value of the original orbital energy in the observed sample, a higher density of low-mass stars in the actual solar neighborhood, a ninth planet, and obviously the initial population of objects from which the synthetic distributions are derived.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keywords
comets: general, celestial mechanics
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335720 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201630343 (DOI)000408480100056 ()
Available from: 2017-12-08 Created: 2017-12-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Perna, D., Fulchignoni, M., Barucci, M. A., Fornasier, S., Feller, C., Deshapriya, J. D., . . . Vincent, J.-B. -. (2017). Multivariate statistical analysis of OSIRIS/Rosetta spectrophotometric data of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 600, Article ID A115.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multivariate statistical analysis of OSIRIS/Rosetta spectrophotometric data of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 600, article id A115Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. The ESA Rosetta mission explored comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014 2016, following its target before and after the perihelion passage on 13 August 2015. The NAC camera of the OSIRIS imaging system allowed to map the nucleus surface acquiring images with different filters in the visible wavelength range.

Aims. Here we study the spectrophotometric behaviour of the nucleus by a multivariate statistical analysis, aiming to distinguish homogeneous groups and to constrain the bulk composition.

Methods. We applied the G-mode clustering algorithm to 16 OSIRIS data cubes acquired on 5 6 August 2014 (mostly covering the northern hemisphere) and 2 May 2015 (mostly covering the southern hemisphere), selected to have complete coverage of the comet's surface with similar observing conditions.

Results. We found four similar homogeneous groups for each of the analysed cubes. The first group corresponds to the average spectrophotometric behaviour of the nucleus. The second (spectrally redder) and the third (spectrally bluer) groups are found in regions that were already found to deviate from the average terrain of the comet by previous studies. A fourth group (characterised by enhancements of the flux at 700 750 nm and 989 nm, possibly due to H2O+ and /or NH2 emissions) seems connected with the cometary activity rather than with the bulk composition.

Conclusions. While our aim in this work was to study the spectrophotometric behaviour of the nucleus of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as a whole, we found that a follow-up application of the G-mode to smaller regions of the surface could be useful in particular to identify and study the temporal evolution of ice patches, as well as to constrain the composition and physical processes behind the emission of dust jets.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keywords
comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, methods: data analysis, techniques: photometric
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-324341 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201630015 (DOI)000400754000109 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2017-06-15 Created: 2017-06-15 Last updated: 2017-06-15Bibliographically approved
Fouchard, M., Rickman, H., Froeschle, C. & Valsecchi, G. B. (2017). On the present shape of the Oort cloud and the flux of "new" comets. Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), 292, 218-233
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the present shape of the Oort cloud and the flux of "new" comets
2017 (English)In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 292, p. 218-233Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Long term evolution of an initial set of 10(7) Oort cloud comets is performed for the age of the solar system taking into account the action of passing stars using 10 different sequences of stellar encounters, Galactic tides and the gravity of the giant planets. The initial conditions refer to a disk-shaped Oort cloud precursor, concentrated toward the ecliptic with perihelia in the region of Uranus and Neptune. Our results show that the shape of the Oort cloud quickly reach a kind of steady state beyond a semi-major axis greater than about 2000 AU (this threshold depending on the evolution time-span), with a Boltzmann distribution of the orbital energy. The stars act in an opposite way to what was found in previous papers, that is they emptied an initial Tidal Active Zone that is overfilled with respect to the isotropic case. Consequently, the inclusion of stellar perturbations strongly affect the shape of the Oort spike. On the contrary, the Oort spike shape appears to be poorly dependent on the stellar sequences used, whereas the total flux of observable comets and the proportion of retrograde comets for the inner part of the spike are significantly dependent of it. Then it has been highlighted that the total flux, the shape of the Oort spike and the shape of the final Oort cloud are almost independent of the initial distribution of orbital energy considered.

Keywords
Oort cloud, Dynamics, Comets, Formation of the solar system
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323749 (URN)10.1016/j.icarus.2017.01.013 (DOI)000401053200017 ()
Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
Masoumzadeh, N., Oklay, N., Kolokolova, L., Sierks, H., Fornasier, S., Barucci, M. A., . . . Thomas, N. (2017). Opposition effect on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta-OSIRIS images. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 599, Article ID A11.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opposition effect on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko using Rosetta-OSIRIS images
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 599, article id A11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims. We aim to explore the behavior of the opposition effect as an important tool in optical remote sensing on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P), using Rosetta-OSIRIS images acquired in different filters during the approach phase, July-August 2014 and the close flyby images on 14 of February 2015, which contain the spacecraft shadow. Methods. We based our investigation on the global and local brightness from the surface of 67P with respect to the phase angle, also known as phase curve. The local phase curve corresponds to a region that is located at the Imhotep-Ash boundary of 67P. Assuming that the region at the Imhotep-Ash boundary and the entire nucleus have similar albedo, we combined the global and local phase curves to study the opposition-surge morphology and constrain the structure and properties of 67P. The model parameters were furthermore compared with other bodies in the solar system and existing laboratory study. Results. We found that the morphological parameters of the opposition surge decrease monotonically with wavelength, whereas in the case of coherent backscattering this behavior should be the reverse. The results from comparative analysis place 67P in the same category as the two Mars satellites, Phobos and Deimos, which are notably different from all airless bodies in the solar system. The similarity between the surface phase function of 67P and a carbon soot sample at extremely small angles is identified, introducing regolith at the boundary of the Imhotep-Ash region of 67P as a very dark and fluffy layer.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keywords
planets and satellites: surfaces, techniques: photometric, comets: individual: 67P/Churyumov, Gerasimenko
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320264 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201629734 (DOI)000395821900094 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2017-04-18 Created: 2017-04-18 Last updated: 2017-04-18Bibliographically approved
Hu, X., Shi, X., Sierks, H., Fulle, M., Blum, J., Keller, H. U., . . . Thomas, N. (2017). Seasonal erosion and restoration of the dust cover on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as observed by OSIRIS onboard Rosetta. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 604, Article ID A114.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seasonal erosion and restoration of the dust cover on comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko as observed by OSIRIS onboard Rosetta
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2017 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 604, article id A114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context: Dust deposits or dust cover are a prevalent morphology in the northern hemi-nucleus of comet 67P /Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). The evolution of the dust deposits was captured by the OSIRIS camera system onboard the Rosetta spacecraft having escorted the comet for over two years. The observations shed light on the fundamental role of cometary activity in shaping and transforming the surface morphology.

Aims: We aim to present OSIRIS observations of surface changes over the dust deposits before and after perihelion. The distribution of changes and a timeline of their occurrence are provided. We perform a data analysis to quantify the surface changes and investigate their correlation to water activity from the dust deposits. We further discuss how the results of our investigation are related to other findings from the Rosetta mission.

Methods: Surface changes were detected via systematic comparison of images, and quantified using shape-from-shading technique. Thermal models were applied to estimate the erosion of water ice in response to the increasing insolation over the areas where surface changes occurred. Modeling results were used for the interpretation of the observed surface changes.

Results: Surface changes discussed here were concentrated at mid-latitudes, between about 20 degrees N and 40 degrees N, marking a global transition from the dust-covered to rugged terrains. The changes were distributed in open areas exposed to ample solar illumination and likely subject to enhanced surface erosion before perihelion. The occurrence of changes followed the southward migration of the sub-solar point across the latitudes of their distribution. The erosion at locations of most changes was at least about 0 : 5 m, but most likely did not exceed several meters. The erosive features before perihelion had given way to a fresh, smooth cover of dust deposits after perihelion, suggesting that the dust deposits had been globally restored by at least about 1 m with ejecta from the intensely illuminated southern hemi-nucleus around perihelion, when the north was inactive during polar night.

Conclusions: The erosion and restoration of the northern dust deposits are morphological expressions of seasonality on 67P. Based on observations and thermal modeling results, it is inferred that the dust deposits contained a few percent of water ice in mass on average. Local inhomogeneity in water abundance at spatial scales below tens of meters is likely. We suspect that dust ejected from the deposits may not have escaped the comet in bulk. That is, at least half of the ejected mass was afloat in the inner-coma or /and redeposited over other areas of the nucleus.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP SCIENCES S A, 2017
Keywords
comets: general, comets: individual: 67P/ Churyumov, Gerasimenko
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-335721 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201629910 (DOI)000408480100024 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2017-12-11 Created: 2017-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
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