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Lindskog, M., Rogell, M., Kenward, B. & Gredebäck, G. (2019). Discrimination of Small Forms in a Deviant-Detection Paradigm by 10-month-old Infants. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article ID 1032.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Discrimination of Small Forms in a Deviant-Detection Paradigm by 10-month-old Infants
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1032Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using eye tracking, we investigated if 10-month-old infants could discriminate between members of a set of small forms based on geometric properties in a deviant-detection paradigm, as suggested by the idea of a core cognitive system for Euclidian geometry. We also investigated the precision of infants’ ability to discriminate as well as how the discrimination process unfolds over time. Our results show that infants can discriminate between small forms based on geometrical properties, but only when the difference is sufficiently large. Furthermore, our results also show that it takes infants, on average, <3.5 s to detect a deviant form. Our findings extend previous research in three ways: by showing that infants can make similar discriminative judgments as children and adults with respect to geometric properties; by providing a first crude estimate on the limit of the discriminative abilities in infants, and finally; by providing a first demonstration of how the discrimination process unfolds over time.

Keywords
geometry, eye-tracking, infants, deviant-detection, small forms
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383453 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01032 (DOI)000467849200001 ()31156498 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2012.0120Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P15-0430:1
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Poom, L., Lindskog, M., Winman, A. & Van den Berg, R. (2019). Grouping effects in numerosity perception under prolonged viewing conditions. PLoS ONE, 14(2), Article ID e0207502.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grouping effects in numerosity perception under prolonged viewing conditions
2019 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 2, article id e0207502Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Humans can estimate numerosities–such as the number sheep in a flock–without deliberate counting. A number of biases have been identified in these estimates, which seem primarily rooted in the spatial organization of objects (grouping, symmetry, etc). Most previous studies on the number sense used static stimuli with extremely brief exposure times. However, outside the laboratory, visual scenes are often dynamic and freely viewed for prolonged durations (e.g., a flock of moving sheep). The purpose of the present study is to examine grouping-induced numerosity biases in stimuli that more closely mimic these conditions. To this end, we designed two experiments with limited-dot-lifetime displays (LDDs), in which each dot is visible for a brief period of time and replaced by a new dot elsewhere after its disappearance. The dynamic nature of LDDs prevents subjects from counting even when they are free-viewing a stimulus under prolonged presentation. Subjects estimated the number of dots in arrays that were presented either as a single group or were segregated into two groups by spatial clustering, dot size, dot color, or dot motion. Grouping by color and motion reduced perceived numerosity compared to viewing them as a single group. Moreover, the grouping effect sizes between these two features were correlated, which suggests that the effects may share a common, feature-invariant mechanism. Finally, we find that dot size and total stimulus area directly affect perceived numerosity, which makes it difficult to draw reliable conclusions about grouping effects induced by spatial clustering and dot size. Our results provide new insights into biases in numerosity estimation and they demonstrate that the use of LDDs is an effective method to study the human number sense under prolonged viewing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2019
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377185 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0207502 (DOI)000458761300006 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-00371Swedish Research Council, 2013-01005
Note

Leo Poom and Ronald van der Berg contributed equally to this work.

Available from: 2019-02-15 Created: 2019-02-15 Last updated: 2019-08-01Bibliographically approved
Bergh, R. & Lindskog, M. (2019). The group-motivated sampler. Journal of experimental psychology. General, 148(5), 845-862
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The group-motivated sampler
2019 (English)In: Journal of experimental psychology. General, ISSN 0096-3445, E-ISSN 1939-2222, Vol. 148, no 5, p. 845-862Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Does ingroup favoritism reflect experience or some preset motivation? The latter possibility is well examined in social psychology, but models from cognitive psychology suggest that unrepresentative samples of experience can generate biases even in the absence of motivational concerns. It remains unclear, however, how motivation and initially sampled experiences interact when both influences are possible, and people encounter new groups. Extending classic arguments about motivated information gathering, we propose that people can be described as “group-motivated samplers”—marked by a tendency to primarily seek out information about one’s own group, and to attend more to information that portrays the ingroup in a positive light. Four experiments showed that information seeking almost always starts with the ingroup, and that people chose to gather more information from the ingroup compared to an outgroup. In subsequent group evaluations, people were excessively positive about ingroups giving a good initial impression. Participants were also fairly accurate, on average, about the direction and magnitude of group differences when the ingroup was de facto better, but downplayed those differences in the opposite situation. Further analyses indicated that first experiences led to biased evaluations because people failed to discount for nonrepresentative (positive) ingroup experiences, whereas interpretive biases seem responsible for evaluations based on belonging to a better/worse performing group. Taken together, while social psychologists know that people tend to portray ingroups in a flattering light, we show how people selectively incorporate early experiences to build those impressions. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association, 2019
Keywords
*Biased Sampling, *Cognitive Bias, *Ingroup Outgroup, *Motivation, *Social Psychology, Arguments, Cognitive Psychology, Test Construction
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383416 (URN)10.1037/xge0000601 (DOI)000467411000005 ()31070438 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-14 Created: 2019-05-14 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Gottwald, J., Gredebäck, G. & Lindskog, M. (2019). Two-step actions in infancy—the TWAIN model. Experimental Brain Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Two-step actions in infancy—the TWAIN model
2019 (English)In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we propose a novel model—the TWAIN model—to describe the durations of two-step actions in a reach-to-place task in human infants. Previous research demonstrates that infants and adults plan their actions across multiple steps. They adjust, for instance, the velocity of a reaching action depending on what they intend to do with the object once it is grasped. Despite these findings and irrespective of the larger context in which the action occurs, current models (e.g., Fitts’ law) target single, isolated actions, as, for example, pointing to a goal. In the current paper, we develop and empirically test a more ecologically valid model of two-step action planning. More specifically, 61 18-month olds took part in a reach-to-place task and their reaching and placing durations were measured with a motion-capture system. Our model explained the highest amount of variance in placing duration and outperformed six previously suggested models, when using model comparison. We show that including parameters of the first action step, here the duration of the reaching action, can improve the description of the second action step, here the duration of the placing action. This move towards more ecologically valid models of action planning contributes knowledge as well as a framework for assessing human machine interactions. The TWAIN model provides an updated way to quantify motor learning by the time these abilities develop, which might help to assess performance in typically developing human children.

National Category
Social Sciences Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390180 (URN)10.1007/s00221-019-05604-0 (DOI)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, ERC-StG CACTUS 312292Swedish Research Council, VR-PG 2017-01504
Available from: 2019-08-06 Created: 2019-08-06 Last updated: 2019-08-06
Gredebäck, G., Lindskog, M., Juvrud, J. C., Green, D. & Marciszko, C. (2018). Action Prediction Allows Hypothesis Testing via Internal Forward Models at 6 Months of Age. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, Article ID 290.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Action Prediction Allows Hypothesis Testing via Internal Forward Models at 6 Months of Age
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose that action prediction provides a cornerstone in a learning process known as internal forward models. According to this suggestion infants' predictions (looking to the mouth of someone moving a spoon upward) will moments later be validated or proven false (spoon was in fact directed toward a bowl), information that is directly perceived as the distance between the predicted and actual goal. Using an individual difference approach we demonstrate that action prediction correlates with the tendency to react with surprise when social interactions are not acted out as expected (action evaluation). This association is demonstrated across tasks and in a large sample (n = 118) at 6 months of age. These results provide the first indication that infants might rely on internal forward models to structure their social world. Additional analysis, consistent with prior work and assumptions from embodied cognition, demonstrates that the latency of infants' action predictions correlate with the infant's own manual proficiency.

Keywords
internal model, pupil dilation, prediction, action, interaction, eye tracking
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350616 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00290 (DOI)000427194500001 ()
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
Kayhan, E., Gredebäck, G. & Lindskog, M. (2018). Infants distinguish between two events based on their relative likelihood. Child Development, 89(6), e507-e519
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infants distinguish between two events based on their relative likelihood
2018 (English)In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 89, no 6, p. e507-e519Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Likelihood estimations are crucial for dealing with the uncertainty of life. Here, infants' sensitivity to the difference in likelihood between two events was investigated. Infants aged 6, 12, and 18 months (N = 75) were shown animated movies of a machine simultaneously drawing likely and unlikely samples from a box filled with different colored balls. In different trials, the difference in likelihood between the two samples was manipulated. The infants' looking patterns varied as a function of the magnitude of the difference in likelihood and were modulated by the number of items in the samples. Looking patterns showed qualitative similarities across age groups. This study demonstrates that infants' looking responses are sensitive to the magnitude of the difference in likelihood between two events.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Psychology
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334592 (URN)10.1111/cdev.12970 (DOI)000452463400005 ()28972270 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 289404
Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Lindskog, M., Winman, A. & Poom, L. (2017). Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety. Cognition, 159, 156-162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual differences in nonverbal number skills predict math anxiety
2017 (English)In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, Vol. 159, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Math anxiety (MA) involves negative affect and tension when solving mathematical problems, with potentially life-long consequences. MA has been hypothesized to be a consequence of negative learning experiences and cognitive predispositions. Recent research indicates genetic and neurophysiological links, suggesting that MA stems from a basic level deficiency in symbolic numerical processing. However, the contribution of evolutionary ancient purely nonverbal processes is not fully understood. Here we show that the roots of MA may go beyond symbolic numbers. We demonstrate that MA is correlated with precision of the Approximate Number System (ANS). Individuals high in MA have poorer ANS functioning than those low in MA. This correlation remains significant when controlling for other forms of anxiety and for cognitive variables. We show that MA mediates the documented correlation between ANS precision and math performance, both with ANS and with math performance as independent variable in the mediation model. In light of our results, we discuss the possibility that MA has deep roots, stemming from a non-verbal number processing deficiency. The findings provide new evidence advancing the theoretical understanding of the developmental etiology of MA.

Keywords
Numerical cognition, Approximate Number System, Math anxiety
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310372 (URN)10.1016/j.cognition.2016.11.014 (DOI)000392787600014 ()27960118 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-14 Created: 2016-12-14 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Gottwald, J. M., de Bortoli Vizioli, A., Lindskog, M., Nyström, P., Ekberg, T. L., von Hofsten, C. & Gredebäck, G. (2017). Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple step actions be explained by Fitts' law?. Developmental Psychology, 53(1), 4-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple step actions be explained by Fitts' law?
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2017 (English)In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 4-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place task, with difficulty of the placing action varied by goal size and goal distance. To target prospective motor control, we determined the kinematics of the prior reaching movements using a motion-tracking system. Peak velocity of the first movement unit of the reach served as indicator for prospective motor control. Both difficulty aspects (goal size and goal distance) affected prior reaching, suggesting that both these aspects of the subsequent action have an impact on the prior action. The smaller the goal size and the longer the distance to the goal, the slower infants were in the beginning of their reach toward the object. Additionally, we modeled movement times of both reaching and placing actions using a formulation of Fitts' law (as in heading). The model was significant for placement and reaching movement times. These findings suggest that 14-month-olds can plan their future actions and prospectively control their related movements with respect to future task difficulties.

Keywords
prospective motor control, action planning, action sequence, action development, movement unit, Fitts' law, infancy
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297638 (URN)10.1037/dev0000212 (DOI)000391700500002 ()28026189 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 289404
Available from: 2016-06-26 Created: 2016-06-26 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Van den Berg, R., Lindskog, M., Poom, L. & Winman, A. (2017). Recent Is More: A Negative Time-Order Effect in Nonsymbolic Numerical Judgment.. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 43(6), 1084-1097
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recent Is More: A Negative Time-Order Effect in Nonsymbolic Numerical Judgment.
2017 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523Print, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1084-1097Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Humans as well as some nonhuman animals can estimate object numerosities—such as the number of sheep in a flock—without explicit counting. Here, we report on a negative time-order effect (TOE) in this type of judgment: When nonsymbolic numerical stimuli are presented sequentially, the second stimulus is overestimated compared to the first. We examined this “recent is more” effect in two comparative judgment tasks: larger–smaller discrimination and same–different discrimination. Ideal-observer modeling revealed evidence for a TOE in 88.2% of the individual data sets. Despite large individual differences in effect size, there was strong consistency in effect direction: 87.3% of the identified TOEs were negative. The average effect size was largely independent of task but did strongly depend on both stimulus magnitude and interstimulus interval. Finally, we used an estimation task to obtain insight into the origin of the effect. We found that subjects tend to overestimate both stimuli but the second one more strongly than the first one. Overall, our findings are highly consistent with findings from studies on TOEs in nonnumerical judgments, which suggests a common underlying mechanism.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317321 (URN)10.1037/xhp0000387 (DOI)000402759300004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-03-13 Created: 2017-03-13 Last updated: 2017-08-30Bibliographically approved
Gottwald, J. M., Achermann, S., Marciszko, C., Lindskog, M. & Gredebäck, G. (2016). An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development: Prospective Motor Control in Infancy Is Related to Inhibition and Working Memory. Psychological Science, 27(12), 1600-1610
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Embodied Account of Early Executive-Function Development: Prospective Motor Control in Infancy Is Related to Inhibition and Working Memory
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2016 (English)In: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 27, no 12, p. 1600-1610Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The importance of executive functioning for later life outcomes, along with its potential to be positively affected by intervention programs, motivates the need to find early markers of executive functioning. In this study, 18-month-olds performed three executive-function tasksinvolving simple inhibition, working memory, and more complex inhibitionand a motion-capture task assessing prospective motor control during reaching. We demonstrated that prospective motor control, as measured by the peak velocity of the first movement unit, is related to infants' performance on simple-inhibition and working memory tasks. The current study provides evidence that motor control and executive functioning are intertwined early in life, which suggests an embodied perspective on executive-functioning development. We argue that executive functions and prospective motor control develop from a common source and a single motive: to control action. This is the first demonstration that low-level movement planning is related to higher-order executive control early in life.

Keywords
prospective motor control, motor development, executive functions, reaching, infancy
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314054 (URN)10.1177/0956797616667447 (DOI)000390582500006 ()
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 312292
Available from: 2017-01-26 Created: 2017-01-26 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1326-6177

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