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Friederich, Malou
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Publications (10 of 22) Show all publications
Lefranc, C., Friederich, M., Braud, L., Palacios-Ramirez, R., Karlsson, S., Boujardine, N., . . . Cat, A. N. (2019). MR (Mineralocorticoid Receptor) Induces Adipose Tissue Senescence and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Leading to Vascular Dysfunction in Obesity. Hypertension, 73(2), 458-468
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MR (Mineralocorticoid Receptor) Induces Adipose Tissue Senescence and Mitochondrial Dysfunction Leading to Vascular Dysfunction in Obesity
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2019 (English)In: Hypertension, ISSN 0194-911X, E-ISSN 1524-4563, Vol. 73, no 2, p. 458-468Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Adipose tissue (AT) senescence and mitochondrial dysfunction are associated with obesity. Studies in obese patients and animals demonstrate that the MR (mineralocorticoid receptor) contributes to obesity-associated cardiovascular complications through its specific role in AT. However, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This study aims to elucidate whether MR regulates mitochondrial function in obesity, resulting in AT premature aging and vascular dysfunction. Obese (db/db) and lean (db/+) mice were treated with an MR antagonist or a specific mitochondria-targeted antioxidant. Mitochondrial and vascular functions were determined by respirometry and myography, respectively. Molecular mechanisms were probed by Western immunoblotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction in visceral AT and arteries and focused on senescence markers and redox-sensitive pathways. db/db mice displayed AT senescence with activation of the p53-p21 pathway and decreased SIRT (sirtuin) levels, as well as mitochondrial dysfunction. Furthermore, the beneficial anticontractile effects of perivascular AT were lost in db/db via ROCK (Rho kinase) activation. MR blockade prevented these effects. Thus, MR activation in obesity induces mitochondrial dysfunction and AT senescence and dysfunction, which consequently increases vascular contractility. In conclusion, our study identifies novel mechanistic insights involving MR, adipose mitochondria, and vascular function that may be of importance to develop new therapeutic strategies to limit obesity-associated cardiovascular complications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2019
Keywords
adipose tissue, aging, mitochondria, obesity, oxidative stress, sirtuins, vasoconstriction
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381200 (URN)10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.11873 (DOI)000461318900033 ()30624990 (PubMedID)
Funder
Wenner-Gren FoundationsMagnus Bergvall FoundationÅke Wiberg Foundation
Available from: 2019-04-10 Created: 2019-04-10 Last updated: 2019-04-10Bibliographically approved
Friederich, M., Persson, P., Hansell, P. & Palm, F. (2018). Deletion of Uncoupling Protein-2 reduces renal mitochondrial leak respiration, intrarenal hypoxia and proteinuria in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Acta Physiologica, 223(4), Article ID e13058.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deletion of Uncoupling Protein-2 reduces renal mitochondrial leak respiration, intrarenal hypoxia and proteinuria in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes
2018 (English)In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 223, no 4, article id e13058Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AimUncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) can induce mitochondrial uncoupling in the diabetic kidney. Although mitochondrial uncoupling reduces oxidative stress originating from the mitochondria and can be regarded as a protective mechanism, the increased oxygen consumption occurring secondarily to increased mitochondria uncoupling, that is leak respiration, may contribute to kidney tissue hypoxia. Using UCP-2(-/-) mice, we tested the hypothesis that UCP-2-mediated leak respiration is important for the development of diabetes-induced intrarenal hypoxia and proteinuria. MethodsKidney function, invivo oxygen metabolism, urinary protein leakage and mitochondrial function were determined in wild-type and UCP-2(-/-) mice during normoglycaemia and 2weeks after diabetes induction. ResultsDiabetic wild-type mice displayed mitochondrial leak respiration, pronounced intrarenal hypoxia, proteinuria and increased urinary KIM-1 excretion. However, diabetic UCP-2(-/-) mice did not develop increased mitochondrial leak respiration and presented with normal intrarenal oxygen levels, urinary protein and KIM-1 excretion. ConclusionAlthough functioning as an antioxidant system, mitochondria uncoupling is always in co-occurrence with increased oxygen consumption, that is leak respiration; a potentially detrimental side effect as it can result in kidney tissue hypoxia; an acknowledged unifying pathway to nephropathy. Indeed, this study demonstrates a novel mechanism in which UCP-2-mediated mitochondrial leak respiration is necessary for the development of diabetes-induced intrarenal tissue hypoxia and proteinuria.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
diabetic nephropathy, kidney, kidney injury molecule-1, mitochondria, oxygen consumption
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361674 (URN)10.1111/apha.13058 (DOI)000438491300002 ()29480974 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung FoundationSwedish Diabetes Association
Available from: 2018-10-08 Created: 2018-10-08 Last updated: 2018-10-08Bibliographically approved
Sivertsson, E., Friederich Persson, M., Öberg, C. M., Fasching, A., Hansell, P., Rippe, B. & Palm, F. (2018). Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin decreases intrarenal oxygen availability and alters glomerular permeability. American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology, 314(5), F864-F872
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin decreases intrarenal oxygen availability and alters glomerular permeability
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2018 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology, ISSN 1931-857X, E-ISSN 1522-1466, Vol. 314, no 5, p. F864-F872Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An increased kidney oxygen consumption causing tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be a common pathway toward chronic kidney disease. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell proliferation and mitochondrial function. mTOR inhibitors (e.g., rapamycin) are used clinically to prevent graft rejection. mTOR has been identified as a key player in diabetes, which has stimulated the use of mTOR inhibitors to counter diabetic nephropathy. However, the effect of mTOR inhibition on kidney oxygen consumption is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of mTOR inhibition on in vivo kidney function, oxygen homeostasis, and glomerular permeability. Control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were chronically treated with rapamycin, and the functional consequences were studied 14 days thereafter. In both groups, mTOR inhibition induced mitochondrial uncoupling, resulting in increased total kidney oxygen consumption and decreased intrarenal oxygen availability. Concomitantly, mTOR inhibition induced tubular injury, as estimated from urinary excretion of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and reduced urinary protein excretion. The latter corresponded to reduced sieving coefficient for large molecules. In conclusion, mTOR inhibition induces mitochondrial dysfunction leading to decreased oxygen availability in normal and diabetic kidneys. which translates into increased KIM-1 in the urine. Reduced proteinuria after mTOR inhibition is an effect of reduced glomerular permeability for large molecules. Since hypoxia has been suggested as a common pathway in the development of chronic kidney disease, mTOR inhibition to patients with preexisting nephropathy should be used with caution, since it may accelerate the progression of the disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC, 2018
Keywords
glomerular permeability, hypoxia, mitochondrial function, mTOR, oxygen consumption, tubular injury
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363076 (URN)10.1152/ajprenal.00033.2017 (DOI)000441089200019 ()28971989 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Diabetes AssociationSwedish Society for Medical Research (SSMF)
Available from: 2018-10-12 Created: 2018-10-12 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Lefranc, C., Friederich, M., Palacios-Ramirez, R. & Cat, A. N. (2018). Mitochondrial oxidative stress in obesity: role of the mineralocorticoid receptor. Journal of Endocrinology, 238(3), R143-R159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitochondrial oxidative stress in obesity: role of the mineralocorticoid receptor
2018 (English)In: Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0022-0795, E-ISSN 1479-6805, Vol. 238, no 3, p. R143-R159Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Obesity is a multifaceted, chronic, low-grade inflammation disease characterized by excess accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissue. It is often associated with the development of cardiovascular (CV) disorders, insulin resistance and diabetes. Under pathological conditions like in obesity, adipose tissue secretes bioactive molecules called 'adipokines', including cytokines, hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is evidence suggesting that oxidative stress, in particular, the ROS imbalance in adipose tissue, may be the mechanistic link between obesity and its associated CV and metabolic complications. Mitochondria in adipose tissue are an important source of ROS and their dysfunction contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity-related type 2 diabetes. Mitochondrial function is regulated by several factors in order to preserve mitochondria integrity and dynamics. Moreover, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is over-activated in obesity. In this review, we focus on the pathophysiological role of the mineralocorticoid receptor in the adipose tissue and its contribution to obesity-associated metabolic and CV complications. More specifically, we discuss whether dysregulation of the mineralocorticoid system within the adipose tissue may be the upstream mechanism and one of the early events in the development of obesity, via induction of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, thus impacting on systemic metabolism and the CV system.

Keywords
mineralocorticoid receptor, adipose tissue, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, obesity
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-373538 (URN)10.1530/JOE-18-0163 (DOI)000451042500003 ()29875164 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Wenner-Gren FoundationMagnus Bergvall FoundationÅke Wiberg Foundation
Available from: 2019-01-21 Created: 2019-01-21 Last updated: 2019-01-21Bibliographically approved
Cat, A. N., Callera, G. E., Friederich, M., Sanchez, A., Dulak-Lis, M. G., Tsiropoulou, S., . . . Touyz, R. M. (2018). Vascular dysfunction in obese diabetic db/db mice involves the interplay between aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor and Rho kinase signaling. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 2952.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vascular dysfunction in obese diabetic db/db mice involves the interplay between aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptor and Rho kinase signaling
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 2952Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Activation of aldosterone/mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) has been implicated in vascular dysfunction of diabetes. Underlying mechanisms are elusive. Therefore, we investigated the role of Rho kinase (ROCK) in aldosterone/MR signaling and vascular dysfunction in a model of diabetes. Diabetic obese mice (db/db) and control counterparts (db/+) were treated with MR antagonist (MRA, potassium canrenoate, 30 mg/kg/day, 4 weeks) or ROCK inhibitor, fasudil (30 mg/kg/day, 3 weeks). Plasma aldosterone was increased in db/db versus db/+. This was associated with enhanced vascular MR signaling. Norepinephrine (NE)-induced contraction was increased in arteries from db/db mice. These responses were attenuated in mice treated with canrenoate or fasudil. Db/db mice displayed hypertrophic remodeling and increased arterial stiffness, improved by MR blockade. Vascular calcium sensitivity was similar between depolarized arteries from db/+ and db/db. Vascular hypercontractility in db/db mice was associated with increased myosin light chain phosphorylation and reduced expression of PKG-1 alpha. Vascular RhoA/ROCK signaling and expression of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic markers were exaggerated in db/db mice, effects that were attenuated by MRA. Fasudil, but not MRA, improved vascular insulin sensitivity in db/db mice, evidenced by normalization of Irs1 phosphorylation. Our data identify novel pathways involving MR-RhoA/ROCK-PKG-1 that underlie vascular dysfunction and injury in diabetic mice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348111 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-21087-5 (DOI)000424871500019 ()
Available from: 2018-04-11 Created: 2018-04-11 Last updated: 2018-04-11Bibliographically approved
Stridh, S., Palm, F., Takahashi, T., Ikegami-Kawai, M., Friederich, M. & Hansell, P. (2017). Hyaluronan Production by Renomedullary Interstitial Cells: Influence of Endothelin, Angiotensin II and Vasopressin. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(12), Article ID 2701.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hyaluronan Production by Renomedullary Interstitial Cells: Influence of Endothelin, Angiotensin II and Vasopressin
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Molecular Sciences, ISSN 1422-0067, E-ISSN 1422-0067, Vol. 18, no 12, article id 2701Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The content of hyaluronan (HA) in the interstitium of the renal medulla changes in relation to body hydration status. We investigated if hormones of central importance for body fluid homeostasis affect HA production by renomedullary interstitial cells in culture (RMICs). Simultaneous treatment with vasopressin and angiotensin II (Ang II) reduced HA by 69%. No change occurred in the mRNA expressions of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) or hyaluronidases (Hyals), while Hyal activity in the supernatant increased by 67% and CD44 expression reduced by 42%. The autocoid endothelin (ET-1) at low concentrations (10−10 and 10−8 M) increased HA 3-fold. On the contrary, at a high concentration (10−6 M) ET-1 reduced HA by 47%. The ET-A receptor antagonist BQ123 not only reversed the reducing effect of high ET-1 on HA, but elevated it to the same level as low concentration ET-1, suggesting separate regulating roles for ET-A and ET-B receptors. This was corroborated by the addition of ET-B receptor antagonist BQ788 to low concentration ET-1, which abolished the HA increase. HAS2 and Hyal2 mRNA did not alter, while Hyal1 mRNA was increased at all ET-1 concentrations tested. Hyal activity was elevated the most by high ET-1 concentration, and blockade of ET-A receptors by BQ123 prevented about 30% of this response. The present study demonstrates an important regulatory influence of hormones involved in body fluid balance on HA handling by RMICs, thereby supporting the concept of a dynamic involvement of interstitial HA in renal fluid handling.

Keywords
hyaluronan, kidney, interstitium, medulla, endothelin, vasopressin, angiotensin II
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340316 (URN)10.3390/ijms18122701 (DOI)000418896700203 ()
Available from: 2018-02-08 Created: 2018-02-08 Last updated: 2018-02-08Bibliographically approved
Schiffer, T. A. & Friederich-Persson, M. (2017). Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species and Kidney Hypoxia in the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy. Frontiers in Physiology, 8, Article ID 211.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species and Kidney Hypoxia in the Development of Diabetic Nephropathy
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 8, article id 211Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The underlying mechanisms in the development of diabetic nephropathy are currently unclear and likely consist of a series of dynamic events from the early to late stages of the disease. Diabetic nephropathy is currently without curative treatments and it is acknowledged that even the earliest clinical manifestation of nephropathy is preceded by an established morphological renal injury that is in turn preceded by functional and metabolic alterations. An early manifestation of the diabetic kidney is the development of kidney hypoxia that has been acknowledged as a common pathway to nephropathy. There have been reports of altered mitochondrial function in the diabetic kidney such as altered mitophagy, mitochondrial dynamics, uncoupling, and cellular signaling through hypoxia inducible factors and AMP-kinase. These factors are also likely to be intertwined in a complex manner. In this review, we discuss how these pathways are connected to mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and how they may relate to the development of kidney hypoxia in diabetic nephropathy. From available literature, it is evident that early correction and/or prevention of mitochondrial dysfunction may be pivotal in the prevention and treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2017
Keywords
diabetic nephropathy, kidney hypoxia, mitochondrial function, superoxide production, mitochondrial uncoupling, mitochondrial ROS, hypoxia inducible factors
National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321837 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2017.00211 (DOI)000398718900001 ()28443030 (PubMedID)
Funder
Wenner-Gren Foundations
Available from: 2017-05-15 Created: 2017-05-15 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Nordquist, L., Friederich-Persson, M., Fasching, A., Liss, P., Shoji, K., Nangaku, M., . . . Palm, F. (2015). Activation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 26(2), 328-338
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activation of Hypoxia-Inducible Factors Prevents Diabetic Nephropathy
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2015 (English)In: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, ISSN 1046-6673, E-ISSN 1533-3450, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 328-338Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hyperglycemia results in increased oxygen consumption and decreased oxygen tension in the kidney. We tested the hypothesis that activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) protects against diabetes-induced alterations in oxygen metabolism and kidney function. Experimental groups consisted of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with or without chronic cobalt chloride to activate HIFs. We elucidated the involvement of oxidative stress by studying the effects of acute administration of the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol. Compared with controls, diabetic rats displayed tissue hypoxia throughout the kidney, glomerular hyperfiltration, increased oxygen consumption, increased total mitochondrial leak respiration, and decreased tubular sodium transport efficiency. Diabetic kidneys showed proteinuria and tubulointerstitial damage. Cobalt chloride activated HIFs, prevented the diabetes-induced alterations in oxygen metabolism, mitochondrial leak respiration, and kidney function, and reduced proteinuria and tubulointerstitial damage. The beneficial effects of tempol were less pronounced after activation of HIFs, indicating improved oxidative stress status. In conclusion, activation of HIFs prevents diabetes-induced alteration in kidney oxygen metabolism by normalizing glomerular filtration, which reduces tubular electrolyte load, preventing mitochondrial leak respiration and improving tubular transport efficiency. These improvements could be related to reduced oxidative stress and account for the reduced proteinuria and tubulointerstitial damage. Thus, pharmacologic activation of the HIF system may prevent development of diabetic nephropathy.

National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-232171 (URN)10.1681/ASN.2013090990 (DOI)000348623700012 ()25183809 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-09-15 Created: 2014-09-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Persson, P., Friederich-Persson, M., Fasching, A., Hansell, P., Inagi, R. & Palm, F. (2015). Adenosine A2 a receptor stimulation prevents proteinuria in diabetic rats by promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype without affecting oxidative stress. Acta Physiologica, 214(3), 311-318
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adenosine A2 a receptor stimulation prevents proteinuria in diabetic rats by promoting an anti-inflammatory phenotype without affecting oxidative stress
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2015 (English)In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 214, no 3, p. 311-318Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AIM: Diabetic patients are at increased risk for kidney disease. There is presently no clinical treatment available that effectively protects kidney function in diabetics. The present study investigates if chronic stimulation of the adenosine A2a receptor (A2a AR) protects kidney function in insulinopenic diabetic rats.

METHODS: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and corresponding controls were chronically treated with the adenosine A2a AR agonist CGS21680 throughout the four-week diabetes duration. Kidney function was thereafter investigated and urine and plasma samples were collected for analysis of protein, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers.

RESULTS: Glomerular filtration rate, renal blood flow, filtration fraction and diabetes-induced kidney hypoxia were all unaffected by chronic A2a AR stimulation. Furthermore, diabetic rats had increased oxidative stress, which was further increased by chronic A2a AR stimulation. However, the 10-fold increased urinary protein excretion observed in the diabetic rats was completely prevented by chronic A2a AR stimulation. These beneficial effects were accompanied by reduced levels of the pro-inflammatory TNF-α and increased levels of the anti-inflammatory IL-10 as well as decreased infiltration of macrophages, glomerular damage and basement membrane thickness.

CONCLUSION: Chronic A2a AR stimulation prevents proteinuria and glomerular damage in experimental diabetes via an anti-inflammatory mechanism independent of oxidative stress and kidney hypoxia.

National Category
Physiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252416 (URN)10.1111/apha.12511 (DOI)000356306300007 ()25891445 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Heart Lung FoundationSwedish Research CouncilÅke Wiberg FoundationSwedish Diabetes Association
Available from: 2015-05-06 Created: 2015-05-06 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Papazova, D. A., Friederich-Persson, M., Joles, J. A. & Verhaar, M. C. (2015). Renal transplantation induces mitochondrial uncoupling, increased kidney oxygen consumption, and decreased kidney oxygen tension. American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology, 308(1), F22-F28
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Renal transplantation induces mitochondrial uncoupling, increased kidney oxygen consumption, and decreased kidney oxygen tension
2015 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology - Renal Physiology, ISSN 0363-6127, E-ISSN 1522-1466, Vol. 308, no 1, p. F22-F28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hypoxia is an acknowledged pathway to renal injury and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and is known to reduce renal oxygen tension (PO2). We hypothesized that renal I/R increases oxidative damage and induces mitochondrial uncoupling, resulting in increased oxygen consumption and hence kidney hypoxia. Lewis rats underwent syngenic renal transplantation (TX) and contralateral nephrectomy. Controls were uninephrectomized (1K-CON) or left untreated (2K-CON). After 7 days, urinary excretion of protein and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were measured, and after 14 days glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal blood flow, whole kidney QO(2), cortical PO2, kidney cortex mitochondrial uncoupling, renal oxidative damage, and tubulointerstitial injury were assessed. TX, compared with 1K-CON, resulted in mitochondrial uncoupling mediated via uncoupling protein-2 (16 +/- 3.3 vs. 0.9 +/- 0.4 pmol O-2.s(-1) .mg protein(-1), P < 0.05) and increased whole kidney Q(O2) (55 +/- 16 vs. 33 +/- 10 mu mol O-2/min, P < 0.05). Corticomedullary P-O2 was lower in TX compared with 1K-CON (30 +/- 13 vs. 47 +/- 4 mu M, P < 0.05) whereas no significant difference was observed between 2K-CON and 1K-CON rats. Proteinuria, oxidative damage, and the tubulointerstitial injury score were not significantly different in 1K-CON and TX. Treatment of donors for 5 days with mito-TEMPO reduced mitochondrial uncoupling but did not affect renal hemodynamics, Q(O2), P-O2, or injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate increased mitochondrial uncoupling as an early event after experimental renal transplantation associated with increased oxygen consumption and kidney hypoxia in the absence of increases in markers of damage.

Keywords
mitochondrial uncoupling, oxidative damage, transplantation, hypoxia
National Category
Physiology Urology and Nephrology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-243435 (URN)10.1152/ajprenal.00278.2014 (DOI)000347229000003 ()
Available from: 2015-02-16 Created: 2015-02-09 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
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