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Nylander, Ruta
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Lind, L., Nylander, R., Johansson, L., Kullberg, J., Ahlström, H. & Larsson, E.-M. (2017). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is related to the occurrence of cortical brain infarcts at MR imaging: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 37(2), 194-197
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is related to the occurrence of cortical brain infarcts at MR imaging: The Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study
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2017 (English)In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 194-197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Infarcts in the brain can be divided into larger cortical and smaller deep lacunar infarcts. The pathogenesis differs between these two types of infarctions.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the relationship between measures of endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) and occurrence of cortical and lacunar infarcts in a population-based sample.

METHODS: In the Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study, 1016 subjects aged 70 were evaluated by the invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine (EDV) and brachial artery ultrasound to assess flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD). Six to seven years later MRI of the brain was performed, and the prevalence of cortical and lacunar infarcts was visually assessed in 407 randomly selected subjects.

RESULTS: Lacunar infarcts were found in 22% and cortical infarcts in 5·9% of the subjects. EDV and FMD were both significantly related to the occurrence of cortical, but not lacunar infarcts. In a model adjusting for gender, waist circumference, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, smoking, antihypertensive treatment and statin use, both EDV and FMD were independent predictors of cortical infarcts (P = 0·035 and P = 0·008, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Endothelium-dependent vasodilation in both forearm resistance vessels and the brachial artery was related to the occurrence of cortical, but not lacunar, infarcts at MRI in a population-based sample independently of traditional risk factors.

National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261198 (URN)10.1111/cpf.12285 (DOI)000395108400014 ()26303051 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-08-31 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2017-04-25Bibliographically approved
Nylander, R. (2017). Magnetic resonance imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease in an elderly population – association with cardiovascular disease and cognitive function. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetic resonance imaging markers of cerebral small vessel disease in an elderly population – association with cardiovascular disease and cognitive function
2017 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is identifiable by clinical, neuroimaging, neuropathological and cognitive findings.

The aim of this thesis was to assess SVD and cerebral perfusion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a 75-year-old population and compare the findings with scars of myocardial infarctions, cardiovascular risk markers and cognitive function. In addition, the evolution of SVD over 5 years was studied.

The study population included subjects from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. The subjects had been chosen in a randomized manner from the register of the municipality. MRI of the brain and the heart, cognitive tests and blood tests for cardiovascular risk factors were performed in 406 subjects at age 75 years and 250 of them were re-examined 5 years later at the age of 80.

Paper 1 showed that unrecognized myocardial infarctions (UMIs) were found in 120 subjects (30%) and recognized myocardial infarctions (RMIs) in 21 (5%). Men with RMIs displayed an increased prevalence of cortical and lacunar cerebral infarctions, whereas women with UMIs more frequently had cortical cerebral infarctions.

Paper 2 showed that one or more brain infarcts were seen in 23% of the subjects (20% had only lacunar infarcts, 1% had only cortical infarcts and 2% had both). Hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with an increased risk of infarction.  The newer risk markers investigated were not significantly associated with brain infarcts.

Paper 3 showed that MRI manifestations of SVD progressed over 5 years. Relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was not associated with WMH volume or progression of WMH volume.

Paper 4 showed that moderate to severe WMHs and incident lacunar infarcts on brain MRI were associated with a mild impairment of executive function.

In conclusion, this longitudinal population based study compares MRI manifestations of SVD with clinical data, providing knowledge that may be used in further investigations of preventive interventions and for identification of disease in early stages.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2017. p. 55
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1327
Keyword
Magnetic resonance imaging, cerebral perfusion, small vessel disease, cognitive function
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Research subject
Radiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319766 (URN)978-91-554-9900-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2017-06-02, Rosénsalen, Akademiska Barnsjukhuset, ing. 95-96, Uppsala, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-05-12 Created: 2017-04-10 Last updated: 2017-05-23
Nylander, R., Lind, L., Wikström, J., Lindahl, B., Venge, P., Larsson, A., . . . Larsson, E.-M. (2015). Relation between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers and Brain Infarcts Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Elderly Population. Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases, 24(2), 312-318
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relation between Cardiovascular Disease Risk Markers and Brain Infarcts Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging in an Elderly Population
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Stroke & Cerebrovascular Diseases, ISSN 1052-3057, E-ISSN 1532-8511, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 312-318Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

Established cardiovascular risk markers, such as hypertension, are associated with increased risk of brain infarcts. The newer markers N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, troponin I, C-reactive protein, and cystatin C may affect the risk of cardiovascular events and potentially, thereby, also stroke. We investigated the association between established and new risk markers for cardiovascular disease and brain infarcts detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at age 75.

METHODS:

Four hundred six randomly selected subjects from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors study were examined with MRI of the brain at age 75. Blood samples, measurements, and dedicated questionnaires at age 70 were used for analysis of risk markers. A history of diseases had been obtained at age 70 and 75. MRI was evaluated regarding lacunar and cortical infarcts. Univariate associations between outcomes and risk markers were assessed with logistic regression models.

RESULTS:

One or more infarcts were seen in 23% of the subjects (20% had only lacunar infarcts, 1% had only cortical infarcts, and 2% had both). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4, 4.7) and obesity (OR 1.3; CI 1.0, 1.8) were significantly associated with increased risk of brain infarction. The newer risk markers were not significantly associated with the brain infarcts.

CONCLUSIONS:

The new markers were not associated with the predominantly lacunar infarcts in our 75-year-old population, why troponin I and NT-proBNP may be associated mainly with cardioembolic infarcts as shown recently.

National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238456 (URN)10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2014.08.027 (DOI)000349177300010 ()25444032 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-12-12 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hagström, E., Kilander, L., Nylander, R., Larsson, E.-M., Michaëlsson, K., Melhus, H., . . . Arnlöv, J. (2014). Plasma Parathyroid Hormone Is Associated with Vascular Dementia and Cerebral Hyperintensities in Two Community-Based Cohorts. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 99(11), 4181-4189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma Parathyroid Hormone Is Associated with Vascular Dementia and Cerebral Hyperintensities in Two Community-Based Cohorts
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2014 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 99, no 11, p. 4181-4189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context:

In diseases with increased PTH such as hyperparathyroidism and chronic renal failure, dementia is common. Little is known of PTH and dementia in the community.

Objective:

We sought to investigate relations between PTH, clinical dementia and cerebral micro-vascular disease.

Setting and Design:

The Uppsala Longitudinal Study Of Adult Men (ULSAM) was prospective, baseline, 1991-1995; followup, 15.8 years. The Prospective Investigation Of The Vasculature In Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) was cross-sectional, baseline, 2001. Both settings were community based.

Participants and Main Outcome Measure:

In the ULSAM study of 998 men (age 71) the association between PTH and dementia was investigated. In the PIVUS study of 406 men and women (age 70) the relation between PTH and magnetic resonance imaging signs of cerebral small vascular disease was investigated.

Results:

During followup, 56 individuals were diagnosed with vascular, 91 with Alzheimer's, and 59 with other dementias. In Cox-regression analyses, higher PTH was associated with vascular dementia (hazard ratio per 1 SD increase of PTH, 1.41; P < .01), but not with other dementias. The top tertile of PTH accounted for 18.5% of the population-attributable risk for vascular dementia, exceeding all other risk factors. In linear regression analysis in PIVUS, PTH was associated with increasing white matter hyperintensities (WMHI), reflecting increasing burden of cerebral small vessel disease (1 SD PTH increase, 0.31 higher category of WMHI; P = .016). All models were adjusted for vascular risk factors and mineral metabolism.

Conclusions:

In two community-based samples, PTH predicted clinically diagnosed and neuroimaging indices of vascular dementia and cerebral small vessel disease. Our data suggest a role for PTH in the development of vascular dementia.

National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230385 (URN)10.1210/jc.2014-1736 (DOI)000346743100035 ()25140397 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-08-25 Created: 2014-08-25 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Brooks, S. J., Benedict, C., Burgos, J., Kempton, M. J., Kullberg, J., Nordenskjöld, R., . . . Schiöth, H. B. (2013). Late-life obesity is associated with smaller global and regional gray matter volumes: a voxel-based morphometric study. International Journal of Obesity, 37(2), 230-236
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Late-life obesity is associated with smaller global and regional gray matter volumes: a voxel-based morphometric study
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2013 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 230-236Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: 

Obesity adversely affects frontal lobe brain structure and function. Here we sought to show that people who are obese versus those who are of normal weight over a 5-year period have differential global and regional brain volumes.

DESIGN: 

Using voxel-based morphometry, contrasts were done between those who were recorded as being either obese or of normal weight over two time points in the 5 years prior to the brain scan. In a post-hoc preliminary analysis, we compared scores for obese and normal weight people who completed the trail-making task.

SUBJECTS: 

A total of 292 subjects were examined following exclusions (for example, owing to dementia, stroke and cortical infarcts) from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors cohort with a body mass index of normal weight (<25 kg m−2) or obese (30 kg m−2).

RESULTS: 

People who were obese had significantly smaller total brain volumes and specifically, significantly reduced total gray matter (GM) volume (GMV) (with no difference in white matter or cerebrospinal fluid). Initial exploratory whole brain uncorrected analysis revealed that people who were obese had significantly smaller GMV in the bilateral supplementary motor area, bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), left inferior frontal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus. Secondary more stringent corrected analyses revealed a surviving cluster of GMV difference in the left DLPFC. Finally, post-hoc contrasts of scores on the trail-making task, which is linked to DLPFC function, revealed that obese people were significantly slower than those of normal weight.

CONCLUSION: 

These findings suggest that in comparison with normal weight, people who are obese have smaller GMV, particularly in the left DLPFC. Our results may provide evidence for a potential working memory mechanism for the cognitive suppression of appetite that may lower the risk of developing obesity in later life.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-167976 (URN)10.1038/ijo.2012.13 (DOI)000316932100012 ()22290540 (PubMedID)
Note

De två första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

Available from: 2012-02-03 Created: 2012-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Randakeviciene, G., Gleizniene, R. & Nylander, R. (2013). Susac's Syndrome: A Case Presentation and Radiological Approach to this Rare Autoimmune Endotheliopathy. Medicina (Kaunas), 49(1), 15-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Susac's Syndrome: A Case Presentation and Radiological Approach to this Rare Autoimmune Endotheliopathy
2013 (English)In: Medicina (Kaunas), ISSN 1010-660X, E-ISSN 1648-9144, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 15-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Susac's syndrome is an uncommon neurologic disorder, consisting of the clinical triad of encephalopathy, branch retinal artery occlusions, and hearing loss. We report a case of a sudden vision and hearing impairment in a 35-year-old female patient. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed multiple lesions in the white matter and the corpus callosum, typical of Susac's syndrome.

Keyword
Susac's syndrome, microangiopathy, magnetic resonance imaging, corpus callosum, lesions
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-201304 (URN)000318459900003 ()23652712 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-06-10 Created: 2013-06-10 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Benedict, C., Brooks, S. J., Kullberg, J., Burgos, J., Kempton, M. J., Nordenskjöld, R., . . . Schiöth, H. B. (2012). Impaired Insulin Sensitivity as Indexed by the HOMA Score Is Associated With Deficits in Verbal Fluency and Temporal Lobe Gray Matter Volume in the Elderly. Diabetes Care, 35(3), 488-494
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impaired Insulin Sensitivity as Indexed by the HOMA Score Is Associated With Deficits in Verbal Fluency and Temporal Lobe Gray Matter Volume in the Elderly
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2012 (English)In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 35, no 3, p. 488-494Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE

Impaired insulin sensitivity is linked to cognitive deficits and reduced brain size. However, it is not yet known whether insulin sensitivity involves regional changes in gray matter volume. Against this background, we examined the association between insulin sensitivity, cognitive performance, and regional gray matter volume in 285 cognitively healthy elderly men and women aged 75 years from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS

Insulin sensitivity was calculated from fasting serum insulin and plasma glucose determinations using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) method. Cognitive performance was examined by a categorical verbal fluency. Participants also underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. Multivariate analysis using linear regression was conducted, controlling for potential confounders (sex, education, serum LDL cholesterol, mean arterial blood pressure, and abdominal visceral fat volume).

RESULTS

The HOMA-IR was negatively correlated with verbal fluency performance, brain size (S1), and temporal lobe gray matter volume in regions known to be involved in speech production (Brodmann areas 21 and 22, respectively). No such effects were observed when examining diabetic (n = 55) and cognitively impaired (n = 27) elderly subjects as separate analyses.

CONCLUSIONS

These cross-sectional findings suggest that both pharmacologic and lifestyle interventions improving insulin signaling may promote brain health in late life but must be confirmed in patient studies.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-168257 (URN)10.2337/dc11-2075 (DOI)000300801400009 ()22301128 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-02-07 Created: 2012-02-07 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Ebeling Barbier, C., Nylander, R., Themudo, R., Ahlström, H., Lind, L., Larsson, E.-M., . . . Johansson, L. (2011). Prevalence of unrecognized myocardial infarction detected with magnetic resonance imaging and its relationship to cerebral ischemic lesions in both sexes. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 58(13), 1372-1377
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prevalence of unrecognized myocardial infarction detected with magnetic resonance imaging and its relationship to cerebral ischemic lesions in both sexes
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2011 (English)In: Journal of the American College of Cardiology, ISSN 0735-1097, E-ISSN 1558-3597, Vol. 58, no 13, p. 1372-1377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of unrecognized myocardial infarction (UMI) detected with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and whether it is related to cerebral ischemic lesions on MRI in an elderly population-based cohort.

BACKGROUND: There is a correlation between stroke and recognized myocardial infarction (RMI) and between stroke and UMI detected with electrocardiography, whereas the prevalence of stroke in subjects with MRI-detected UMI is unknown.

METHODS: Cerebral MRI and cardiac late-enhancement MRI were performed on 394 randomly selected 75-year-old subjects (188 women, 206 men). Images were assessed for cerebral ischemic lesions and myocardial infarction (MI) scars. Medical records were scrutinized. Subjects with MI scars, with or without a hospital diagnosis of MI, were classified as RMI or UMI, respectively.

RESULTS: UMIs were found in 120 subjects (30%) and RMIs in 21 (5%). The prevalence of UMIs (p = 0.004) and RMIs (p = 0.02) was greater in men than in women. Men with RMI displayed an increased prevalence of cortical and lacunar cerebral infarctions, whereas women with UMI more frequently had cortical cerebral infarctions (p = 0.003).

CONCLUSIONS: MI scars are more frequent in men than in women at 75 years of age. The prevalence of RMI is related to that of cerebral infarctions.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160996 (URN)10.1016/j.jacc.2011.06.028 (DOI)21920267 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-11-04 Created: 2011-11-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Canto Moreira, N., Nylander, R., Briaukaite, I., Velyvyte, S., Gleizniene, R. & Monastyreckiene, E. (2011). Superficial Siderosis: A Case Report. Medicina (Kaunas), 47(6), 320-322
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Superficial Siderosis: A Case Report
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2011 (English)In: Medicina (Kaunas), ISSN 1010-660X, E-ISSN 1648-9144, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 320-322Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system is the result of chronic recurrent hemorrhages (e.g., arteriovenous malformations, tumors, or trauma), which leads to the accumulation of cytotoxic hemosiderin and presents with hearing loss, cerebellar dysfunction, and myelopathy. This article presents a clinical case of an 11-year-old boy in whom the diagnosis of medulloblastoma was established. He underwent surgery, and after a few years, he began to complain of hearing loss. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the cause of the hearing disturbance. The aim of this article is to review the recent literature related to the etiology, clinical and radiologic features of superficial siderosis, emphasizing the role of magnetic resonance imaging.

Keyword
superficial siderosis, magnetic resonance imaging
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-161775 (URN)000296122700003 ()21968884 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-11-21 Created: 2011-11-17 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
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