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Axfors, C., Bränn, E., Henriksson, H. E., Hellgren, C., Kallak, T. K., Fransson, E., . . . Skalkidou, A. (2019). Cohort profile: the Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging and Cognition (BASIC) study on perinatal depression in a population-based Swedish cohort. BMJ Open, 9(10), Article ID e031514.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cohort profile: the Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging and Cognition (BASIC) study on perinatal depression in a population-based Swedish cohort
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2019 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 9, no 10, article id e031514Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: With the population-based, prospective Biology, Affect, Stress, Imaging and Cognition (BASIC) cohort, we aim to investigate the biopsychosocial aetiological processes involved in perinatal depression (PND) and to pinpoint its predictors in order to improve early detection.

PARTICIPANTS: From September 2009 to November 2018, the BASIC study at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden, has enrolled 5492 women, in 6478 pregnancies, of which 46.3% first-time pregnancies and with an average age of 31.5 years. After inclusion around gestational week 16-18, participants are followed-up with data collection points around gestational week 32, at childbirth, as well as three times postpartum: after 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year. At the last follow-up, 70.8% still remain in the cohort.

FINDINGS TO DATE: In addition to internet-based surveys with self-report instruments, participants contribute with biological samples, for example, blood samples (maternal and from umbilical cord), biopsies (umbilical cord and placenta) and microbiota samples. A nested case-control subsample also takes part in cognitive and emotional tests, heart rate variability tests and bioimpedance tests. Subprojects have identified various correlates of PND of psychological and obstetric origin in addition to factors of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system.

FUTURE PLANS: In parallel with the completion of data collection (final follow-up November 2019), BASIC study data are currently analysed in multiple subprojects. Since 2012, we are conducting an ongoing follow-up study on the participants and their children up to 6 years of age (U-BIRTH). Researchers interested in collaboration may contact Professor Alkistis Skalkidou (corresponding author) with their request to be considered by the BASIC study steering committee.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMJ Publishing Group Ltd, 2019
Keywords
cohort study, mother-child relations, pituitary-adrenal system, postpartum depression, pregnancy, psychoneuroimmunology
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404667 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2019-031514 (DOI)31641004 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 523-2014-2342Swedish Research Council, 523-2014-07605Swedish Research Council, 521-2013-2339Göran Gustafsson Foundation for promotion of scientific research at Uppala University and Royal Institute of TechnologyMarianne and Marcus Wallenberg FoundationStiftelsen Söderström - Königska sjukhemmetSwedish Society of MedicineForte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareFredrik och Ingrid Thurings Stiftelse
Available from: 2020-02-25 Created: 2020-02-25 Last updated: 2020-03-27Bibliographically approved
Breedh, J., Comasco, E., Hellgren, C., Papadopoulos, F. C., Skalkidou, A. & Sundström Poromaa, I. (2019). Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness, startle response, and sensorimotor gating in late pregnancy. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 106, 1-8
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness, startle response, and sensorimotor gating in late pregnancy
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2019 (English)In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 106, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During pregnancy, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the main regulator of the stress response, undergoes dramatic changes. The acoustic startle response (ASR) and the prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response are neurophysiological research tools and objective measures of an individual's response to an emotional context or stressor. The ASR and PPI are influenced by psychiatric diseases characterized by anxiety symptoms and are sensitive to cortisol. Hence, the ASR and the PPI can be used to investigate the effects of pregnancy-induced endocrine changes and their contribution to affective disorders. The present study sought to investigate the association between measures of HPA-axis responsiveness, startle reactivity and sensorimotor gating during pregnancy that to date remains unknown. The eye-blink component of the ASR, and its prepulse inhibition, were measured in 107 late third trimester pregnant women. Saliva samples were collected to assess the cortisol awakening response (CAR), a measure of HPA-axis activity. Blood was sampled to measure serum levels of cortisol, cortisone and the cortisone to cortisol ratio. Ongoing anxiety disorders, sleep duration, smoking, and age were considered as potential confounders in the statistical analyses. CAR reactivity, measured as area under the curve (AUC) increase and above baseline, was positively associated with baseline startle magnitude [Cohen's d = 0.27; F (1, 105) = 4.99; p = 0.028, and Cohen's d = 0.30; F (1, 105) = 6.25; p = 0.014, respectively] as well as PPI at 86 dB [Cohen's d = 0.29; F (1, 105) = 5.93; p = 0.017; and Cohen's d = 0.34; F (1, 105) = 8.38; p = 0.005, respectively]. The observed positive correlation between startle magnitude in pregnant women and greater increase in cortisol during the awakening response may be interpreted as heightened neurophysiological reactivity, likely associated with dysregulation of the stress system.

Keywords
AUC, CAR, Cortisol, Pregnancy, Sensorimotor gating, Startle response
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Neurosciences Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381815 (URN)10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.03.008 (DOI)000474678300001 ()30927623 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 521-2013-2339Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, MMW2011.0115The Swedish Medical Association, SLS-250581Swedish Society of Medicine, SLS-331991Swedish Research Council, 2015-00495EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, INCA 600398
Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Axfors, C., Hellgren, C., Volgsten, H., Skoog Svanberg, A., Ekselius, L., Wikström, A.-K., . . . Sundström-Poromaa, I. (2019). Neuroticism is associated with higher antenatal care utilization in obstetric low-risk women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 98(4), 470-478
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroticism is associated with higher antenatal care utilization in obstetric low-risk women
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2019 (English)In: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 98, no 4, p. 470-478Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Elevated neuroticism is associated with higher health care utilization in the general population. This study aimed to investigate the association between neuroticism and the use of publicly financed antenatal care in obstetric low‐risk women, taking predisposing and need factors for health care utilization into consideration.

Material and methods

Participants comprised 1052 obstetric low‐risk women (no chronic diseases or adverse pregnancy conditions) included in several obstetrics/gynecology studies in Uppsala, Sweden. Neuroticism was self‐rated on the Swedish universities Scales of Personality. Medical records of their first subsequent pregnancy were scanned for antenatal care use. Associations between antenatal care use and neuroticism were analyzed with logistic regression (binary outcomes) or negative binomial regression (count outcomes) comparing the 75th and 25th neuroticism percentiles. Depending on the Akaike information criterion the exposure was modeled as either linear or with restricted cubic splines. Analyses were adjusted for predisposing (sociodemographic and parity) and need factors (body mass index and psychiatric morbidity).

Results

After adjustment, women with higher neuroticism had more fetal ultrasounds (incidence rate ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02‐1.16), more emergency visits to an obstetrician/gynecologist (incidence rate ratio = 1.22, 95% CI 1.03‐1.45) and were more likely to visit a fear‐of‐childbirth clinic (odds ratio = 2.71, 95% CI 1.71‐4.29). Moreover, they more often consulted midwives in specialized antenatal care facilities (significant J‐shaped association).

Conclusions

Neuroticism was associated with higher utilization of publicly financed antenatal care in obstetric low‐risk women, even after adjusting for predisposing and need factors. Future studies should address the benefits of interventions as a complement to routine antenatal care programs to reduce subclinical anxiety.

Keywords
antenatal care, health care utilization, neuroticism, personality, pregnancy, prenatal care
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364260 (URN)10.1111/aogs.13506 (DOI)000460954800008 ()30457176 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2007-1955Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, MMW2011.0115The Swedish Medical Association, SLS-250581Swedish Research Council, 521-2010-3293Swedish Research Council, K2008-54X-20642-01-3Swedish Society of MedicineStiftelsen Söderström - Königska sjukhemmetTore Nilsons Stiftelse för medicinsk forskning
Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2019-04-15Bibliographically approved
Skalkidou, A., Sundström Poromaa, I., Iliadis, S. I., Huizink, A. C., Hellgren, C., Freyhult, E. & Comasco, E. (2019). Stress-related genetic polymorphisms in association with peripartum depression symptoms and stress hormones: A longitudinal population-based study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 103, 296-305
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stress-related genetic polymorphisms in association with peripartum depression symptoms and stress hormones: A longitudinal population-based study
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2019 (English)In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 103, p. 296-305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Individual differences in the response of the stress system to hormonal changes during pregnancy and the postpartum period render some women susceptible to developing depression. The present study sought to investigate peripartum depression and stress hormones in relation to stress-related genotypes. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale was used to assess peripartum depressive symptoms in a sample of 1629 women, followed from pregnancy week seventeen to six months postpartum. Genotypes of ninety-four haplotype-tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in sixteen genes of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis pathway were analyzed and data on psychosocial and demographic factors was collected. In sub-studies, salivary cortisol awakening response in gestational week 35-39, salivary evening cortisol levels in gestational week 36 and postpartum week 6, and blood cortisol and cortisone levels in gestational week 35-39 were analyzed. SNP-set kernel association tests were performed at the gene-level, considering psychosocial and demographic factors, followed by post-hoc analyses of SNPs of significant genes. Statistically significant findings at the 0.05 p-level included SNPs in the hydroxysteroid 11-beta dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1) gene in relation to self-rated depression scores in postpartum week six among all participants, and serpin family A member 6 (SERPINA6) gene at the same time-point among women with de novo onset of postpartum depression. SNPs in these genes also associated with stress hormone levels during pregnancy. The present study adds knowledge to the neurobiological basis of peripartum depression by systematically assessing SNPs in stress-regulatory genes and stress-hormone levels in a population-based sample of women.

Keywords
Cortisol, Gene, Hormones, Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, Perinatal depression, Postpartum depression, Single nucleotide polymorphism, Stress
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381817 (URN)10.1016/j.psyneuen.2019.02.002 (DOI)000465367000038 ()30776573 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 521-2013-2339Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, MMW2011.0115The Swedish Medical Association, SLS-250581Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2011-0627Swedish Society of Medicine, SLS-331991Swedish Research Council, 2015-00495EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, INCA 600398
Note

De 2 första författarna delar förstaförfattarskapet.

Available from: 2019-04-15 Created: 2019-04-15 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Edvinsson, Å., Hellgren, C., Kallak, T. K., Åkerud, H., Skalkidou, A., Stener-Victorin, E., . . . Sundström Poromaa, I. (2019). The effect of antenatal depression and antidepressant treatment on placental tissue: a protein-validated gene expression study.. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19, Article ID 479.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of antenatal depression and antidepressant treatment on placental tissue: a protein-validated gene expression study.
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2019 (English)In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 19, article id 479Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression affects 10-20% of pregnant women. Around 2-4% of European pregnant women use antidepressant treatment, most commonly selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Poor pregnancy outcomes, such as preterm birth and low birth weight, have been described in women with antenatal depression and in pregnant women on SSRI treatment. However, the effects of antenatal depression and antidepressant treatment on the placenta are largely unknown. The aim of this work was to compare placental gene and protein expression in healthy women, women with untreated antenatal depression and women on antidepressant treatment during pregnancy.

METHODS: Placental samples from 47 controls, 25 depressed and 45 SSRI-treated women were analysed by means of qPCR using custom-designed TaqMan low-density arrays (TLDAs) for 44 genes previously known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression, and expressed in the placenta. Moreover, placental protein expression was determined by means of immunohistochemistry in 37 healthy controls, 13 women with untreated depression and 21 women on antidepressant treatment. Statistical comparisons between groups were performed by one-way ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test.

RESULTS: Nominally significant findings were noted for HTR1A and NPY2R, where women with untreated depression displayed higher gene expression than healthy controls (p < 0.05), whereas women on antidepressant treatment had similar expression as healthy controls. The protein expression analyses revealed higher expression of HTR1A in placentas from women on antidepressant treatment, than in placentas from healthy controls (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: The differentially expressed HTR1A, both at the gene and the protein level that was revealed in this study, suggests the involvement of HTR1A in the effect of antenatal depression on biological mechanisms in the placenta. More research is needed to elucidate the role of depression and antidepressant treatment on the placenta, and, further, the effect on the fetus.

Keywords
Antenatal depression, Antidepressant treatment, Immunohistochemistry, Placental gene expression, Placental protein expression, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, TaqMan low-density array
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-404635 (URN)10.1186/s12884-019-2586-y (DOI)000511434300009 ()31805950 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR:521-2013-2339
Available from: 2020-02-25 Created: 2020-02-25 Last updated: 2020-03-11Bibliographically approved
Edvinsson, Å., Olivier, J., Hellgren, C., Kallak, T. K., Åkerud, H., Skalkidou, A., . . . Sundström Poromaa, I. (2018). Antenatal Depression and Placental Function: A Protein Validated Gene Expression Study. Paper presented at Meeting of the International-Federation-of-Placenta-Associations (IFPA), SEP 21-24, 2018, Tokyo, JAPAN. Placenta, 69, E62-E62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antenatal Depression and Placental Function: A Protein Validated Gene Expression Study
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2018 (English)In: Placenta, ISSN 0143-4004, E-ISSN 1532-3102, Vol. 69, p. E62-E62Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
W B SAUNDERS CO LTD, 2018
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367143 (URN)000444236500217 ()
Conference
Meeting of the International-Federation-of-Placenta-Associations (IFPA), SEP 21-24, 2018, Tokyo, JAPAN
Available from: 2018-11-29 Created: 2018-11-29 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
Bhandage, A., Jin, Z., Korol, S. V., Tafreshiha, A., Gohel, P., Hellgren, C., . . . Birnir, B. (2018). Expression of calcium release-activated and voltage-gated calcium channels genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is altered in pregnancy and in type 1 diabetes. PLoS ONE, 13(12), Article ID e0208981.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expression of calcium release-activated and voltage-gated calcium channels genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells is altered in pregnancy and in type 1 diabetes
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0208981Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Calcium (Ca2+) is an important ion in physiology and is found both outside and inside cells. The intracellular concentration of Ca2+ is tightly regulated as it is an intracellular signal molecule and can affect a variety of cellular processes. In immune cells Ca2+ has been shown to regulate e.g. gene transcription, cytokine secretion, proliferation and migration. Ca2+ can enter the cytoplasm either from intracellular stores or from outside the cells when Ca2+ permeable ion channels in the plasma membrane open. The Ca2+ release-activated (CRAC) channel is the most prominent Ca2+ ion channel in the plasma membrane. It is formed by ORAI1-3 and the channel is opened by the endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ sensor proteins stromal interaction molecules (STIM) 1 and 2. Another group of Ca-2(+) channels in the plasma membrane are the voltage-gated Ca2+ (Ca-V) channels. We examined if a change in immunological tolerance is accompanied by altered ORAI, STIM and Ca-V gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in pregnant women and in type 1 diabetic individuals. Our results show that in pregnancy and type 1 diabetes ORAI1-3 are up-regulated whereas STIM1 and 2 are down-regulated in pregnancy but only STIM2 in type 1 diabetes. Expression of L-, P/Q-, R- and T-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels was detected in the PBMCs where the Ca(V)2.3 gene was up-regulated in pregnancy and type 1 diabetes whereas the Ca(V)2.1 and Ca(V)3.2 genes were up-regulated only in pregnancy and the Ca(V)1.3 gene in type 1 diabetes. The results are consistent with that expression of ORAI, STIM and Ca-V genes correlate with a shift in immunological status of the individual in health, as during pregnancy, and in the autoimmune disease type 1 diabetes. Whether the changes are in general protective or in type 1 diabetes include some pathogenic components remains to be clarified.

National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372929 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0208981 (DOI)000453247500057 ()30543678 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilEXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in SwedenSwedish Diabetes AssociationSwedish Child Diabetes FoundationErnfors Foundation
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Hellgren, C., Comasco, E., Skalkidou, A. & Sundström Poromaa, I. (2017). Allopregnanolone levels and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the allopregnanolone synthesis pathway. Hormones and Behavior, 94, 106-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Allopregnanolone levels and depressive symptoms during pregnancy in relation to single nucleotide polymorphisms in the allopregnanolone synthesis pathway
2017 (English)In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 94, p. 106-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Allopregnanolone, a neurosteroid whose levels rise throughout gestation, putatively stabilizes antenatal mood. The present study aimed to investigate associations of plasma allopregnanolone to antenatal depressive symptoms, as well as to genetic and obstetric factors. Allopregnanolone plasma levels from 284 pregnant women were measured around gestational week 18. Haplotype tag single nucleotide polymorphisms in the aldo-keto reductase family 1, members C2 and C4 (AKR1C2, AKR1C4), and steroid 5 alpha-reductase 1 and 2 (SRD5A1, and SRD5A2) genes were genotyped in a larger sample of pregnant women (n=1351). The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) was administered via web-questionnaires in gestational weeks 17 and 32. Demographic and obstetric data was retrieved from web-questionnaires and medical records. There was no association between allopregnanolone levels and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, no associations between allopregnanolone level and synthesis pathway genotypes were found after accounting for multiple comparisons. However, exploratory analyses suggested that the women who were homozygous for the minor allele of the AKR1C2 polymorphism rs1937863 had nominally lower allopregnanolone levels and lower depression scores in gestational week 17, but also the highest increase in depression scores between week 17 and 32. Additionally, higher body mass index was associated with lower allopregnanolone levels. The results do not support second trimester plasma allopregnanolone as a mood stabilizing factor. However, we speculate that AKR1C2 variation may alter the susceptibility to depressive symptoms through effects on central allopregnanolone synthesis. Another implication of this study is that the relationship between neuroactive steroids and obesity in pregnancy deserves to be investigated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330915 (URN)10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.06.008 (DOI)000411168400012 ()28666923 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-10-06 Created: 2017-10-06 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Bhandage, A. K., Jin, Z., Hellgren, C., Korol, S. V., Nowak, K., Williamsson, L., . . . Birnir, B. (2017). AMPA, NMDA and kainate glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) where the expression of GluK4 is altered by pregnancy and GluN2D by depression in pregnant women. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 305, 51-58
Open this publication in new window or tab >>AMPA, NMDA and kainate glutamate receptor subunits are expressed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) where the expression of GluK4 is altered by pregnancy and GluN2D by depression in pregnant women
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Neuroimmunology, ISSN 0165-5728, E-ISSN 1872-8421, Vol. 305, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The amino acid glutamate opens cation permeable ion channels, the iGlu receptors. These ion channels are abundantly expressed in the mammalian brain where glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter. The neurotransmitters and their receptors are being increasingly detected in the cells of immune system. Here we examined the expression of the 18 known subunits of the iGlu receptors families; alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), kainate, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and delta in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We compared the expression of the subunits between four groups: men, non-pregnant women, healthy pregnant women and depressed pregnant women.

Out of 18 subunits of the iGlu receptors, mRNAs for 11 subunits were detected in PBMCs from men and nonpregnant women; AMPA: GluA3, GluA4, kainate: GluK2, GluK4, GluK5, NMDA: GluN1, GluN2C, GluN2D, GluN3A, GluN3B, and delta: GluD1. In the healthy and the depressed pregnant women, in addition, the delta GluD2 subunit was identified. The mRNAs for GluK4, GluK5, GluN2C and GluN2D were expressed at a higher level than other subunits. Gender, pregnancy or depression during pregnancy altered the expression of GluA3, GluK4, GluN2D, GluN3B and GluD1 iGlu subunit mRNAs. The greatest changes recorded were the lower GluA3 and GluK4 mRNA levels in pregnant women and the higher GluN2D mRNA level in healthy but not in depressed pregnant women as compared to non-pregnant individuals. Using subunit specific antibodies, the GluK4, GluK5, GluNl, GluN2C and GluN2D subunit proteins were identified in the PBMCs. The results show expression of specific iGlu receptor subunit in the PBMCs and support the idea of physiology-driven changes of iGlu receptors subtypes in the immune cells.

Keywords
Glutamate, iGluR subunits, Immune cells, Pregnancy, Depression, Physiology-driven changes
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282410 (URN)10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.01.013 (DOI)000397694200009 ()28284346 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 521-2012-1789
Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Iliadis, S. I., Comasco, E., Hellgren, C., Kollia, N., Sundström Poromaa, I. & Skalkidou, A. (2017). Associations between a polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene, neuroticism and postpartum depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 207, 141-147
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between a polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene, neuroticism and postpartum depression
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 207, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: This study examined the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the hydroxysteroid (11-beta) dehydrogenase 1 gene and neuroticism, as well as the possible mediatory role of neuroticism in the association between the polymorphism and postpartum depressive symptoms.

METHODS: 769 women received questionnaires containing the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) at six weeks postpartum and demographic data at pregnancy week 17 and 32 and at six weeks postpartum, as well as the Swedish universities Scales of Personality at pregnancy week 32.

RESULTS: Linear regression models showed an association between the GG genotype and depressive symptoms. When neuroticism was introduced in the model, it was associated with EPDS score, whereas the association between the GG genotype and EPDS became borderline significant. A path analysis showed that neuroticism had a mediatory role in the association between the polymorphism and EPDS score.

LIMITATIONS: The use of the EPDS, which is a self-reporting instrument.

CONCLUSIONS: Neuroticism was associated with the polymorphism and had a mediatory role in the association between the polymorphism and postpartum depression. This finding elucidates the genetic background of neuroticism and postpartum depression.

Keywords
Depression, Endophenotype, Neuroticism, Polymorphism, Postpartum
National Category
Psychiatry Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-309058 (URN)10.1016/j.jad.2016.09.030 (DOI)000389088600021 ()27721188 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-02 Created: 2016-12-02 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4329-6721

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