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Cai, Gui-Hong
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Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Cai, G.-H., Janson, C., Theorell-Haglöw, J., Benedict, C., Elmståhl, S., Lind, L. & Lindberg, E. (2018). Both Weight at Age 20 and Weight Gain Have an Impact on Sleep Disturbances Later in Life: Results of the EpiHealth Study. Sleep, 41(1), Article ID zsx176.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Both Weight at Age 20 and Weight Gain Have an Impact on Sleep Disturbances Later in Life: Results of the EpiHealth Study
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2018 (English)In: Sleep, ISSN 0161-8105, E-ISSN 1550-9109, Vol. 41, no 1, article id zsx176Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Study Objectives: Obesity is often associated with impaired sleep, whereas the impact of body mass index (BMI) at younger age and previous weight gain on sleep problems remains unknown.

Methods: The present study utilized data from the Swedish EpiHealth cohort study. A total of 15 845 participants (45-75 years) filled out an internet-based questionnaire. BMI was calculated from both measured data at study time and self-reported data at age 20 from the questionnaire.

Results: Sleep-related symptoms were most common among obese individuals (BMI >30 kg/m(2)). An association between weight gain and sleep problems was found and those with a low BMI at age 20 were most vulnerable to weight gain when it came to risk of sleep problems. Among those who were underweight (BMI <18.5 kg/m(2)) at age 20, weight gain (kg/year) was associated with difficulties initiating sleep with an adjusted OR of 2.64 (95% CI: 1.51-4.62) after adjusting for age, sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, education, and civil status. The corresponding adjusted OR's among those who had been normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.99) and overweight (BMI 25-29.99 kg/m(2)) at age 20 were 1.89 (1.47-2.45) and 1.02 (0.48-2.13), respectively. Also difficulties maintaining sleep and snoring were most strongly related to weight gain among those who were underweight at age 20 with decreasing odds with increasing BMI at that age.

Conclusions: Sleep problems are related to weight gain and obesity. The impact of weight is most pronounced among those who had a low BMI when young.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, 2018
Keywords
epidemiology, insomnia, obesity, aging, weight gain, EpiHealth study, body mass index (BMI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), sleep problems, snoring
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342460 (URN)10.1093/sleep/zsx176 (DOI)000422879100012 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-02-26 Created: 2018-02-26 Last updated: 2018-02-26Bibliographically approved
Cai, G.-H., Theorell-Haglöw, J., Janson, C., Svartengren, M., Elmstahl, S., Lind, L. & Lindberg, E. (2018). Insomnia symptoms and sleep duration and their combined effects in relation to associations with obesity and central obesity. Sleep Medicine, 46, 81-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insomnia symptoms and sleep duration and their combined effects in relation to associations with obesity and central obesity
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2018 (English)In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 46, p. 81-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Previous studies have shown that both sleep duration and insomnia have an impact on obesity and central obesity. However, studies of the joint effects of these sleep disorders are still sparse. Methods: The present study utilized data from the Swedish EpiHealth cohort study. Participants (45 - 78 y) were asked to fill out an internet-based questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) and central obesity (calculated from waist circumference) were based on measured data. Results: A total of 18,823 participants (mean age = 60 ys) were included in this study. The reported prevalence of short (<6 h/night) and long (>9 h/night) sleep duration was 8% and 4% respectively, and insomnia symptoms was 19%. Of the study population, 16% were obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) and 40% had central obesity. There was a U-shaped association between sleep duration and obesity and central obesity, and significant associations between insomnia symptoms and obesity. When stratifying sleep duration by concurrent insomnia symptoms, there were associations (odds ratios, (95% confidence intervals)) between the combination of both short (1.48, (1.22-1.80)) and long sleep duration (1.77 (1.00 - 3.16)) with insomnia symptoms and obesity and central obesity (1.36 (1.16-1.61) and 2.44 (1.41-3.24) respectively). However, there was no significant association between insomnia symptoms and obesity or central obesity in participants with normal sleep duration. For central obesity there was an association with long sleep duration regardless of insomnia symptoms, while the association with short sleep duration was significant only if insomnia symptoms were present. Conclusions: Both short and long sleep duration, as well as insomnia symptoms, are associated with obesity and central obesity. There is an important joint effect of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms and there is no association between insomnia symptoms and obesity, as long as a normal sleeping time can be attained. This indicates that sleep duration rather than insomnia symptoms per se is of importance for the relationship between sleep and obesity.

Keywords
Insomnia symptoms, Sleep duration, Obesity, Waist circumference, Body mass index (BMI), EpiHealth study
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357266 (URN)10.1016/j.sleep.2018.03.009 (DOI)000432571600012 ()29773216 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-08-20 Created: 2018-08-20 Last updated: 2018-08-20Bibliographically approved
Cai, G.-H., Janson, C., Theorell-Haglöw, J., Benedict, C., Elmstahl, S., Lind, L. & Lindberg, E. (2017). Both weight at age 20 and weight gain have an impact on sleep disturbances later in life – results of the epihealth study. Paper presented at The 2017 joint congress of World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) and World Sleep Federation (WSF), October 7-11, 2017, Prague, Czech Republic.. Sleep Medicine, 40(Supplement 1), E195-E195
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Both weight at age 20 and weight gain have an impact on sleep disturbances later in life – results of the epihealth study
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2017 (English)In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, no Supplement 1, p. E195-E195Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369235 (URN)10.1016/j.sleep.2017.11.570 (DOI)000444558903082 ()
Conference
The 2017 joint congress of World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) and World Sleep Federation (WSF), October 7-11, 2017, Prague, Czech Republic.
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Norback, D., Hashim, J. H., Hashim, Z., Cai, G.-H., Sooria, V., Ismail, S. A. & Wieslander, G. (2017). Respiratory symptoms and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) among students in Penang, Malaysia in relation to signs of dampness at school and fungal DNA in school dust. Science of the Total Environment, 577, 148-154
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Respiratory symptoms and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) among students in Penang, Malaysia in relation to signs of dampness at school and fungal DNA in school dust
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2017 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 577, p. 148-154Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Few health studies exist on dampness and mould in schools in the tropics. We studied associations between fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), respiratory symptoms and airway infections among students and dampness and fungal DNA in schools in Malaysia. A total of 368 randomly selected students from 32 classrooms in 8 secondary schools in Penang, Malaysia, participated (58% participation rate). Information on current respiratory symptoms and the home environment was collected by a standardised questionnaire. FeNO was measured by NIOX MINO (50 ml/min). The classrooms were inspected and dust was collected by vacuuming on special filters and was analysed for five fungal DNA sequences by quantitative PCR. Linear mixed models and 3-level multiple logistic regression (school, classroom, student) were applied adjusting for demographic data and the home environment. Totally 10.3% reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 15.1% current wheeze, 12.4% current asthma, 37.3% daytime breathlessness, 10.2% nocturnal breathlessness, 38.9% airway infections and 15.5% had pollen or furry pet allergy. The geometric mean of FeNO was 19.9 ppb and 45% had elevated FeNO (>20 ppb). Boys had higher levels of FeNO. Chinese had less daytime breathlessness than Malay (OR = 030: p < 0.001). Indoor carbon dioxide levels were low (380-720 ppm). Dampness "was observed in 18% of the classrooms and was associated with respiratory infections (OR = 3.70; 95% CI 1.14-12.1) and FeNO (p = 0.04), Aspergillus versicolor DNA was detected in 67% of the classrooms. Higher numbers of Aspergillus versicolor DNA in classroom dust were associated with wheeze (p = 0.006), current asthma (p = 0.002), respiratory infections (p = 0.005) and elevated FeNO levels (p = 0.02). In conclusion, respiratory symptoms were common among the students and the high FeNO levels indicate ongoing airway inflammation. Building dampness and the mould Aspergillus versicolor in schools in Malaysia can be risk factors for impaired respiratory health among the students.

Keywords
Fungal DNA, Building dampness, School environment, Asthma, Mould, Children
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314401 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.10.148 (DOI)000390737400014 ()27802882 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2008-68Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association, 2013020Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 348-2013-6762
Available from: 2017-02-08 Created: 2017-02-02 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Norbäck, D., Hashim, J. H., Markowicz, P., Cai, G.-H., Hashim, Z., Ali, F. & Larsson, L. (2016). Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in junior high school students. Science of the Total Environment, 545, 95-103
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endotoxin, ergosterol, muramic acid and fungal DNA in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) in junior high school students
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2016 (English)In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 545, p. 95-103Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper studied associations between ocular symptoms, rhinitis, throat and dermal symptoms, headache and fatigue in students by ethnicity and in relation to exposure to chemical microbial markers and fungal DNA in vacuumed dust in schools in Malaysia. A total of 462 students from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated (96% response rate). Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of five types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (C10, C12, C14, C16 and C18 3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol and five sequences of fungal DNA. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 11.9% reported weekly ocular symptoms, 18.8% rhinitis, 15.6% throat and 11.1% dermal symptoms, 20.6% headache and 22.1% tiredness. Totally 21.1% reported pollen or furry pet allergy (atopy) and 22.0% parental asthma or allergy. Chinese students had less headache than Malay and Indian had less rhinitis and less tiredness than Malay. Parental asthma/allergy was a risk factor for ocular (odds ratio = 3.79) and rhinitis symptoms (OR = 3.48). Atopy was a risk factor for throat symptoms (OR = 2.66), headache (OR = 2.13) and tiredness (OR = 2.02). There were positive associations between amount of fine dust in the dust samples and ocular symptoms (p < 0.001) and rhinitis (p = 0.006). There were positive associations between C14 3-OH and rhinitis (p < 0.001) and between C18 3-OH and dermal symptoms (p = 0.007). There were negative (protective) associations between levels of total endotoxin (LPS) (p = 0.004) and levels of ergosterol (p = 0.03) and rhinitis and between C12 3-OH and throat symptoms (p = 0.004). In conclusion, the amount of fine dust in the classroom was associated with rhinitis and other SBS symptoms and improved cleaning of the schools is important. Endotoxin in the school dust seems to be mainly protective for rhinitis and throat symptoms but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. The ethnic differences in symptoms among the students deserve further attention.

Keywords
Endotoxin, Microbial markers
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-279551 (URN)10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.12.072 (DOI)000369493000011 ()26745297 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 2008-68Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association, 2013020Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 348-2013-6762
Available from: 2016-03-02 Created: 2016-03-02 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Norbäck, D., Cai, G.-H., Kreft, I., Lampa, E. & Wieslander, G. (2016). Fungal DNA in dust in Swedish day care centres: associations with respiratory symptoms, fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide (FeNO) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum among day care centre staff. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 89(2), 331-340
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fungal DNA in dust in Swedish day care centres: associations with respiratory symptoms, fractional exhaled nitrogen oxide (FeNO) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in serum among day care centre staff
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2016 (English)In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 331-340Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To study associations between fungal DNA in day care centres, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and inflammatory markers in day care centre staff. Totally, 62 staff (90 %) from five day care centres in Sweden participated. All were females. Settled dust was collected and analysed for five sequences of fungal DNA by quantitative PCR. Levels of FeNO (NIOX MINO 50 ml/min) and serum levels of eosinophilic cationic protein, myeloperoxidase (MPO) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in blood (HsCRP) were measured. Dynamic spirometry was performed, and dyspnoea was measured. Biomarkers and dyspnoea ratings were log-transformed, and associations were analysed by linear mixed models, adjusting for age, atopy, smoking, body mass index (BMI), ETS and dampness/mould at home. Geometric mean (GM) for FeNO was 15.3 ppb, 6 % were smokers, 14 % were obese, 31 % were overweight and 18 % had atopy. GM concentration was 2.16 x 10(5) cell equivalents (CE)/g for total fungal DNA, 2310 CE/g for Aspergillus/penicillium (Asp/Pen) DNA, 17 CE/g for Aspergillus versicolor DNA and 14 CE/g dust for Streptomyces DNA. FeNO was associated with total fungal DNA (p = 0.004), Asp/Pen DNA (p = 0.005) and Streptomyces DNA (p = 0.03). HsCRP was associated with total fungal DNA (p = 0.03) and BMI (p = 0.001). Dyspnoea was associated with Asp/Pen DNA (p = 0.04). Subjects with ETS at home had lower lung function (FEV1) (p = 0.03), and those with dampness/mould at home had lower MPO (p = 0.03). Fungal contamination in day care centres, measured as fungal DNA, can be a risk factor for airway inflammation, and CRP is associated with BMI.

Keywords
FeNO, CRP, Respiratory symptoms, Fungal DNA, Day care centre, Mould
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277992 (URN)10.1007/s00420-015-1076-4 (DOI)000368806500015 ()26183154 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council FormasSwedish Asthma and Allergy Association
Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Norbäck, D., Hashim, J. H., Cai, G.-H., Hashim, Z., Ali, F., Bloom, E. & Larsson, L. (2016). Rhinitis, Ocular, Throat and Dermal Symptoms, Headache and Tiredness among Students in Schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with Fungal DNA and Mycotoxins in Classroom Dust. PLoS ONE, 11(2), Article ID e0147996.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rhinitis, Ocular, Throat and Dermal Symptoms, Headache and Tiredness among Students in Schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia: Associations with Fungal DNA and Mycotoxins in Classroom Dust
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e0147996Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are few studies on rhinitis and sick building syndrome (SBS) among students in tropical countries. We studied associations between levels of five fungal DNA sequences, two mycotoxins (sterigmatocystin and verrucarol) and cat allergen (Fel d 1) levels in schools and rhinitis and other weekly SBS symptoms in the students. Fungal DNA was measured by quantitative PCR and cat allergen by ELISA. Pupils (N = 462) from eight randomly selected schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia participated (96%). Dust samples were collected by cotton swabs and Petri dishes exposed for one week. None of the schools had a mechanical ventilation system, but all classrooms had openable windows that were kept open during lectures and indoor CO2 levels were low (mean 492 ppm; range 380-690 ppm). Weekly nasal symptoms (rhinitis) (18.8%), ocular (11.6%), throat (11.1%), dermal symptoms, headache (20.6%) and tiredness (22.1%) were common. Total fungal DNA in swab samples was associated with rhinitis (p = 0.02), ocular symptoms (p = 0.009) and tiredness (p = 0.001). There were positive associations between Aspergillus versicolor DNA in Petri dish samples, ocular symptoms (p = 0.02) and tiredness (p = 0.001). The level of the mycotoxin verrucarol (produced by Stachybotrys chartarum) in swab samples was positively associated with tiredness (p = 0.04). Streptomyces DNA in swab samples (p = 0.03) and Petri dish samples (p = 0.03) were negatively associated with tiredness. In conclusion, total fungal contamination, measured as total fungal DNA) in the classrooms, Aspergillus versicolor and verrucarol can be risk factors for rhinitis and SBS symptoms among students in the tropical country Malaysia.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280894 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0147996 (DOI)000369548200050 ()26829324 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 244-2008-68Swedish Asthma and Allergy Association, 2013020-KSida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, 348-2004-5596Swedish Research Council, 348-2013-6762
Available from: 2016-03-16 Created: 2016-03-16 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Norbäck, D. & Cai, G. (2015). Dampness, indoor mould, fungal DNA and respiratory health - molecular methods in indoor epidemiology. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 45(5), 840-843
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dampness, indoor mould, fungal DNA and respiratory health - molecular methods in indoor epidemiology
2015 (English)In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 840-843Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-255013 (URN)10.1111/cea.12524 (DOI)000353048000002 ()25881855 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-12 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Bentayeb, M., Norbäck, D., Bednarek, M., Bernard, A., Cai, G., Cerrai, S., . . . Annesi-Maesano, I. (2015). Indoor air quality, ventilation and respiratory health in elderly residents Living in nursing homes in Europe. European Respiratory Journal, 45(5), 1228-1238
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indoor air quality, ventilation and respiratory health in elderly residents Living in nursing homes in Europe
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2015 (English)In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 1228-1238Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Few data exist on respiratory effects of indoor air quality and comfort parameters in the elderly. In the context of the GERIE study, we investigated for the first time the relationships of these factors to respiratory morbidity among elderly people permanently living in nursing homes in seven European countries. 600 elderly people from 50 nursing homes underwent a medical examination and completed a standardised questionnaire. Air quality and comfort parameters were objectively assessed in situ in the nursing home. Mean concentrations of air pollutants did not exceed the existing standards. Forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity ratio was highly significantly related to elevated levels of particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of <0.1 mu m (PM0.1) (adjusted OR 8.16, 95% CI 2.24-29.3) and nitrogen dioxide (aOR 3.74, 95% CI 1.06-13.1). Excess risks for usual breathlessness and cough were found with elevated PM10 (aOR 1.53 (95% CI 1.15-2.07) and aOR 1.73 (95% CI 1.17-10.3), respectively) and nitrogen dioxide (aOR 1.58 (95% CI 1.15-2.20) and aOR 1.56 (95% CI 1.03-2.41), respectively). Excess risks for wheeze in the past year were found with PM0.1 (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.15-7.02) and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and exhaled carbon monoxide with formaldehyde (aOR 3.49 (95% CI 1.17-10.3) and aOR 1.25 (95% CI 1.02-1.55), respectively). Breathlessness and cough were associated with higher carbon dioxide. Relative humidity was inversely related to wheeze in the past year and usual cough. Elderly subjects aged >= 80 years were at higher risk. Pollutant effects were more pronounced in the case of poor ventilation. Even at low levels, indoor air quality affected respiratory health in elderly people permanently living in nursing homes, with frailty increasing with age. The effects were modulated by ventilation.

National Category
Respiratory Medicine and Allergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-255269 (URN)10.1183/09031936.00082414 (DOI)000354145100008 ()25766977 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-22 Created: 2015-06-15 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Norbäck, D., Markowicz, P., Cai, G., Hashim, Z., Ali, F., Zheng, Y.-W., . . . Hashim, J. H. (2014). Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia-Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils. PLoS ONE, 9(2), e88303
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Fungal DNA and Allergens in Dust from Schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia-Associations with Asthma and Respiratory Infections in Pupils
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. e88303-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96%) from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH), muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm). No cat (Fel d1), dog (Can f 1) or horse allergens (Ecu cx) were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t), house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1) and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1) were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective) associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS) and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-220987 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0088303 (DOI)000331258100033 ()
Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-24 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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