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Akhter, Tansim
Publications (10 of 15) Show all publications
Gunnarsdóttir, J., Akhter, T., Högberg, U., Cnattingius, S. & Wikström, A.-K. (2019). Elevated diastolic blood pressure until mid-gestation is associated with preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age birth: a population-based register study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 19, 1-8, Article ID 186.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Elevated diastolic blood pressure until mid-gestation is associated with preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age birth: a population-based register study
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2019 (English)In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 19, p. 1-8, article id 186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Gestational hemodynamic adaptations, including lowered blood pressure (BP) until mid-gestation, might benefit placental function. We hypothesized that elevated BP from early to mid-gestation increases risks of preeclampsia and small-for-gestational-age birth (SGA), especially in women who also deliver preterm (< 37 weeks). Methods: In 64,490 healthy primiparous women, the change in systolic and diastolic BP from early to midgestation was categorized into lowered (≥ 0 mmHg decreased), and elevated (≥ 1 mmHg increase). Women with chronic hypertension, chronic renal disease, pre-gestational diabetes and systemic lupus erythematosus were excluded. Risks of preeclampsia and SGA birth were estimated by logistic regression, presented with adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Further, the effect of BP change in combination with stage 1 hypertension (systolic BP 130–139 mmHg or diastolic BP 80–89 mmHg) in early gestation was estimated. Results: Compared to women with lowered diastolic BP from early to mid-gestation, those with elevated diastolic BP had increased risks of preeclampsia (aOR: 1.8 [1.6–2.0]) and SGA birth (aOR: 1.3 [1.2–1.5]). The risk estimates were higher for preeclampsia and SGA when combined with preterm birth (aORs: 2.2 [1.8–2.8] and 2.3 [1.8–3.0], respectively). The highest rate of preeclampsia (9.9%) was seen in women with stage 1 hypertension in early gestation and a diastolic BP that was elevated until mid-gestation. This was three times the risk, compared to women with normal BP in early gestation and a diastolic BP that was decreased until mid-gestation. The association between elevated systolic BP from early to mid-gestation and preeclampsia was weak, and no significant association was found between changes in systolic BP and SGA births. Conclusion: Elevated diastolic BP from early to mid-gestation was associated with increased risks of preeclampsia and SGA, especially for women also delivering preterm. The results may imply that the diastolic BP starts to increase around mid-gestation in women later developing placental dysfunction disorders

Keywords
Blood pressure, Preeclampsia, Foetal growth restriction, Small-for-gestational-age
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-320672 (URN)10.1186/s12884-019-2319-2 (DOI)000469343400003 ()31138157 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014–3561Stockholm County Council, 20150118, SCThe Karolinska Institutet's Research Foundation
Available from: 2017-04-23 Created: 2017-04-23 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Akhter, T., Larsson, A., Larsson, M. & Naessén, T. (2019). Sub-clinical atherosclerosis in the common carotid artery in women with/without previous pre-eclampsia: A seven-year follow-up. Atherosclerosis, 290, 206-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sub-clinical atherosclerosis in the common carotid artery in women with/without previous pre-eclampsia: A seven-year follow-up
2019 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 290, p. 206-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and premature death. However, conventional common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) measurement does not reflect this. In contrast, measurement of the individual CCA intima and media thicknesses clearly indicates increased vascular risk both at diagnosis and about one year after pre-eclampsia. This study examined whether individual CCA wall layers, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and markers of endothelial dysfunction had normalized or remained unfavorable seven years after pre-eclampsia.

METHODS: The individual CCA intima and media thicknesses were measured using 22 MHz ultrasound. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors were recorded. A thick intima, thin media and high intima/media thickness ratio (I/M) are signs of sub-clinical atherosclerosis.

RESULTS: The median age of women with previous pre-eclampsia (cases = 23) or normal pregnancies (controls = 35) was 39/37 years. At follow-up (median about seven years), the intima remained thicker and the I/M was higher in cases than in controls [all p < 0.0001; p < 0.001 after adjustment for time to follow-up, body mass index (BMI), and mean arterial pressure (MAP)], whereas the CCA-IMT was illogically thinner. Further, BMI, MAP, hip circumference, abdominal height, serum endostatin and apolipoprotein B levels were higher in cases (all p < 0.05). Intima and I/M measurements were correlated with age, MAP, endostatin and apolipoprotein B, whereas no logical correlations were found for CCA-IMT.

CONCLUSIONS: The arteries in cases but not controls were still adversely affected after seven years. Measuring intima thickness and I/M appears preferable to measuring CCA-IMT for demonstrating vascular risk after pre-eclampsia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Cardiovascular disease, Common carotid artery intima, Follow-up, High-frequency ultrasound, Intima/media thickness ratio, Pre-eclampsia
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-388594 (URN)10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.05.024 (DOI)000494832600021 ()31200939 (PubMedID)
Funder
Erik, Karin och Gösta Selanders Foundation
Available from: 2019-07-02 Created: 2019-07-02 Last updated: 2019-11-28Bibliographically approved
Akhter, T., Wikström, G., Larsson, M., Bondesson, U., Hedeland, M. & Naessén, T. (2018). Dimethylarginines correlate to common carotid artery wall layer dimensions and cardiovascular risk factors in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. Paper presented at 86th Congress of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS), MAY 05-08, 2018, Lisbon, PORTUGAL. Atherosclerosis, 275, E69-E70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimethylarginines correlate to common carotid artery wall layer dimensions and cardiovascular risk factors in pregnant women with and without preeclampsia
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2018 (English)In: Atherosclerosis, ISSN 0021-9150, E-ISSN 1879-1484, Vol. 275, p. E69-E70Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2018
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367146 (URN)10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.06.192 (DOI)000442512600206 ()
Conference
86th Congress of the European-Atherosclerosis-Society (EAS), MAY 05-08, 2018, Lisbon, PORTUGAL
Available from: 2018-11-28 Created: 2018-11-28 Last updated: 2018-11-28Bibliographically approved
Akhter, T., Wikström, A.-K., Larsson, M., Larsson, A., Wikström, G. & Naessén, T. (2017). Association between angiogenic factors and signs of arterial aging in women with pre-eclampsia. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 50, 93-99
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between angiogenic factors and signs of arterial aging in women with pre-eclampsia
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2017 (English)In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0960-7692, E-ISSN 1469-0705, Vol. 50, p. 93-99Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: Pre-eclampsia (PE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. In PE there is a substantial increase in levels of the anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1) and decreased levels of the pro-angiogenic factor placental growth factor (PlGF). Elevated levels of sFlt1 are also found in individuals with CVD. The aims of this study were to assess sFlt1, PlGF and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio and their correlation with signs of arterial aging by measuring common carotid artery (CCA) intima and media thicknesses and their ratio (I/M ratio) in women with and without PE.

METHODS: Serum sFlt1 and PlGF levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and CCA intima and media thicknesses were estimated using high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasonography in 55 women at PE diagnosis and 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar gestational age, with reassessment one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and a high I/M ratio indicate a less healthy arterial wall.

RESULTS: During pregnancy, higher levels of sFlt1, lower levels of PlGF and thicker intima, thinner media and higher I/M ratios were found in women with PE vs. controls (all p < 0.0001). Further, sFlt1 and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio were positively correlated with intima thickness and I/M ratio (all p < 0.0001), but negatively correlated with media thickness (p = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively). About one year postpartum, levels of sFlt1 and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio had decreased in both groups, but compared with controls women in the PE group still had higher levels (p = 0.001 and 0.02, respectively). Further, sFlt1 levels and the sFlt1/PlGF ratio were still positively correlated with intima thickness and I/M ratio.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher sFlt1 levels and sFlt1/PlGF ratios in women with PE were positively associated with signs of arterial aging during pregnancy. About one year postpartum sFlt1 levels and the sFlt1/PlGF ratios were still higher in the PE group, and also associated with the degree of arterial aging.

National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-296005 (URN)10.1002/uog.15981 (DOI)000404985500012 ()27256927 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-12 Created: 2016-06-12 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
Akhter, T., Wikström, A.-K., Larsson, M., Larsson, A., Wikström, G. & Naessén, T. (2017). Serum Pentraxin 3 is associated with signs of arterial alteration in women with preeclampsia.. International Journal of Cardiology, 241, 417-422
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serum Pentraxin 3 is associated with signs of arterial alteration in women with preeclampsia.
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN 0167-5273, E-ISSN 1874-1754, Vol. 241, p. 417-422Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia (PE) in pregnancy is a state of exaggerated inflammation and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. Levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a novel inflammation marker, are increased during PE and in individuals with CVD. The primary aim of this study was to assess whether serum PTX3 in women with PE is associated with adverse arterial effects; a thicker intima and higher intima/media (I/M) ratio in the common carotid artery (CCA).

METHODS: Serum PTX3 levels were measured using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits, and individual CCA intima and media thicknesses were estimated by 22MHz non-invasive ultrasound in 55 women at PE diagnosis and 64 women with normal pregnancies at a similar gestational age, and about one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and high I/M ratio indicate a less healthy artery wall.

RESULTS: During pregnancy serum PTX3 correlated positively with intima thickness and I/M ratio but negatively with media thickness (all p<0.0001), indicating adverse arterial effects. About one year postpartum, PTX3 levels had decreased in both groups and there remained no significant group difference or significant correlation with CCA wall layers.

CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of serum PTX3 in women with PE were significantly associated with signs of adverse arterial effects during pregnancy, but not one year postpartum, supporting the rapid dynamics of PTX3.

Keywords
Cardiovascular disease, Common carotid artery intima/media ratio, High-frequency ultrasound, PTX3, Preeclampsia
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319727 (URN)10.1016/j.ijcard.2017.03.076 (DOI)000405455200072 ()28377191 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-3561Swedish Heart Lung Foundation
Available from: 2017-04-07 Created: 2017-04-07 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
Bergman, L., Åkerud, H., Wikström, A. K., Larsson, M., Naessén, T. & Akhter, T. (2016). Cerebral Biomarkers in Women With Preeclampsia Are Still Elevated 1 Year Postpartum. American Journal of Hypertension, 29(12), 1374-1379
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cerebral Biomarkers in Women With Preeclampsia Are Still Elevated 1 Year Postpartum
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2016 (English)In: American Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0895-7061, E-ISSN 1941-7225, Vol. 29, no 12, p. 1374-1379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND There is evidence of cerebral involvement among women with preeclampsia. Levels of the cerebral biomarkers neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and S100B are elevated during pregnancy in women developing preeclampsia. It is although not known if these biomarkers return to normal range postpartum. The aim with this study was to compare levels of S100B and NSE during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum in women who have had preeclampsia to women with normal pregnancies. METHODS This study was a longitudinal study of cases (n = 53) with preeclampsia and controls (n = 58) consisted of normal pregnant women in matched gestational weeks. Plasma samples were collected at inclusion during pregnancy and 1 year postpartum. Plasma samples were analyzed for levels of S100B and NSE by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kits. RESULTS Levels of NSE and S100B in women with preeclampsia were higher during pregnancy than in women with normal pregnancies. One year postpartum, women who have had preeclampsia still had a higher median level of both NSE (5.07 vs. 4.28 mu g/l, P < 0.05) and S100B (0.07 vs. 0.06 mu g/l, P < 0.05) compared to women with previous normal pregnancies. High levels of NSE and S100B postpartum remained associated with previous preeclampsia after adjustment for confounding factors. Levels of NSE correlated to S100B during pregnancy and postpartum. CONCLUSIONS Levels of NSE and S100B are still elevated 1 year postpartum in women who have had preeclampsia in contrast to women with previous normal pregnancies. We hypothesize that there might be a persistent cerebral involvement among women with preeclampsia even 1 year postpartum.

Keywords
blood pressure, hypertension, Neurological dysfunction, NSE, preeclampsia, S100B
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316434 (URN)10.1093/ajh/hpw097 (DOI)000392732700009 ()27653032 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Society of MedicineSwedish Research Council, 2014-3561 D0277901
Available from: 2017-03-01 Created: 2017-03-01 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Bergman, L., Akhter, T., Wikström, A.-K., Wikström, J., Naessén, T. & Åkerud, H. (2014). Plasma Levels of S100B in Preeclampsia and Association With Possible Central Nervous System Effects. American Journal of Hypertension, 27(8), 1105-1111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plasma Levels of S100B in Preeclampsia and Association With Possible Central Nervous System Effects
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2014 (English)In: American Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 0895-7061, E-ISSN 1941-7225, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1105-1111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND:

S100B is supposed to be a peripheral biomarker of central nervous system (CNS) injury. The purpose of this study was to compare levels of S100B in women with preeclampsia with levels in healthy pregnant control subjects and furthermore to analyze levels of S100B in relation to possible CNS effects.

METHODS:

A cross-sectional case-control study in antenatal care centers in Uppsala, Sweden, was performed. Fifty-three women with preeclampsia and 58 healthy pregnant women were recruited at similar gestational length; women with preeclampsia were recruited at time of diagnosis, and control subjects were recruited during their routine visit to an antenatal clinic. Plasma samples were collected, and levels of S100B were analyzed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Information about demographic and clinical characteristics, including symptoms related to CNS affection, was collected from the medical records. The main outcome measures were plasma levels of S100B and possible CNS effects.

RESULTS:

Levels of S100B were significantly higher among women with preeclampsia than among control subjects (0.12 µg/L vs. 0.07 µg/L; P < 0.001). In preeclampsia, there was a significant association between high levels of S100B and visual disturbances (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

S100B is increased among women with preeclampsia, and high levels of S100B associate with visual disturbances, which might reflect CNS affection in women with preeclampsia.

National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-221882 (URN)10.1093/ajh/hpu020 (DOI)000342237900022 ()24610883 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-04-07 Created: 2014-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Akhter, T., Larsson, M., Wikström, A.-K. & Naessén, T. (2014). Thicknesses of individual layers of artery wall indicate increased cardiovascular risk in severe pre-eclampsia. Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, 43(6), 675-680
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thicknesses of individual layers of artery wall indicate increased cardiovascular risk in severe pre-eclampsia
2014 (English)In: Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0960-7692, E-ISSN 1469-0705, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 675-680Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: Pre-eclampsia, especially severe pre-eclampsia, is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. However, ultrasound assessments of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) do not convincingly demonstrate this. The aim of this study was to assess whether the individual thickness of the CCA intima and media layers and calculation of intima/media ratio (I/M) indicate an increased cardiovascular risk in women with previous severe pre-eclampsia.

METHODS: The thicknesses of the CCA intima and media layers were obtained by non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound (22 MHz) in 42 women with previous severe pre-eclampsia and 44 women with previous normal pregnancies. A thick intima, thin media and high I/M are signs of a less healthy artery wall.

RESULTS: Women with previous severe pre-eclampsia had a thicker CCA intima and a higher I/M than women with previous normal pregnancies, also after adjustment for mean arterial pressure, body mass index and CCA-IMT (all p < 0.0001). CCA-IMT did not differ significantly between the groups. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, intima thickness and I/M clearly discriminated between women with and without previous pre-eclampsia (c value about 0.95), whereas CCA-IMT did not (c = 0.52).

CONCLUSIONS: Estimation of the individual CCA intima and media layers using high-frequency ultrasound and calculation of the I/M clearly demonstrated the well known increased cardiovascular risk in women with pre-eclampsia, whereas CCA-IMT did not. This method appears preferable to measuring CCA-IMT for imaging arterial effects and the increased cardiovascular risk in women with previous severe pre-eclampsia.

National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-214565 (URN)10.1002/uog.13289 (DOI)000338986100014 ()24375803 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-01-08 Created: 2014-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Akhter, T., Larsson, A., Larsson, M., Wikström, A.-K. & Naessén, T. (2013). Artery Wall Layer Dimensions during Normal Pregnancy: A longitudinal study using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound. American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 304(2), H229-H234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Artery Wall Layer Dimensions during Normal Pregnancy: A longitudinal study using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
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2013 (English)In: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology, ISSN 0363-6135, E-ISSN 1522-1539, Vol. 304, no 2, p. H229-H234Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The vascular effects of normal pregnancy were investigated by estimating the intima and media thicknesses of the common carotid artery separately using 22MHz ultrasound (Collagenoson, Meudt, Germany) in 57 healthy women with normal pregnancies and pregnancy outcomes, in all three trimesters and at one year postpartum. A thick intima, thin media and high intima/media (I/M) ratio are signs of a less healthy artery wall. The mean artery wall layer dimensions remained fairly constant during pregnancy but the intima thickness and I/M thickness ratio appeared to improve (decrease) postpartum (p<0.001 for both). The cardiovascular risk parameters age, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure in the first trimester were associated with higher I/M ratios, especially in the second trimester, whereas higher serum estradiol levels were significantly associated with a lower I/M ratio. Changes from the first to second trimesters in I/M ratio, taking into account differential changes in intima and media thickness, were significantly (p<0.05-0.001) associated with all risk parameters tested except age, which was associated with increased intima thickness (p=0.02). Associations with third trimester values and changes from first to third trimesters were similar but less apparent. Thus, fairly constant mean artery wall layer dimensions during pregnancy appeared to improve postpartum. However, higher age, BMI or blood pressure, and lower serum estradiol levels in the first trimester appeared to negatively affect the artery wall, strongly suggesting that pregnancy has negative vascular effects in some women. A less likely explanation involves possible adaptation to physiological changes during and after pregnancy.

National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-184996 (URN)10.1152/ajpheart.00670.2012 (DOI)000313587300006 ()23125216 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-11-16 Created: 2012-11-16 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Akhter, T. (2013). Carotid Artery Wall Layer Dimensions during and after Pre-eclampsia: An investigation using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carotid Artery Wall Layer Dimensions during and after Pre-eclampsia: An investigation using non-invasive high-frequency ultrasound
2013 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) later in life. The ‘gold standard’ for estimating cardiovascular risk - ultrasound assessment of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT) - does not convincingly demonstrate this increased risk. The aim of this thesis was to examine whether high-frequency (22 MHz) ultrasound assessment of the individual CCA intima and media layers and calculation of the intima/media (I/M) ratio - can indicate the increased cardiovascular risk after pre-eclampsia. After validation of the method in premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who have a recognized increased risk of CVD, women during and after normal and preeclamptic pregnancies were investigated.

Assessment of the individual artery wall layers reliably demonstrated the increased cardiovascular risk in premenopausal women with SLE, while CCA-IMT did not. The artery wall layer dimensions in women with SLE were comparable to those of postmenopausal women without SLE and were 30 years older.

Among the women with normal pregnancies negative changes to the artery wall later on in the pregnancy were seen in those with lower serum estradiol, older age, higher body mass index or higher blood pressure early in the pregnancy. About one year postpartum, both the mean intima thickness and the I/M ratio had improved, compared to values during pregnancy. These findings support the theory that normal pregnancy is a stress on the vascular system.

Women who developed pre-eclampsia (mean age 31 years) had thicker intima layers, thinner media layers and higher I/M ratios, both at diagnosis and one year postpartum, than women with normal pregnancies, indicating increased cardiovascular risk.

Women with a history of severe pre-eclampsia (mean age 44 years; mean 11 years since the last delivery) had thicker intima layers and higher I/M ratios than women with a history of normal pregnancies, indicating long-standing negative vascular effects.

Assessment of individual CCA wall layers, but not of CCA-IMT, provided clear evidence of the well-known increased cardiovascular risk in women with SLE or pre-eclampsia. The method has the potential to become an important tool in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in these women through early diagnosis and intervention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2013. p. 66
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 890
Keywords
Systemic lupus erythematosus, normal pregnancy, pre-eclampsia, high-frequency ultrasound, common carotid artery, intima/media ratio, cardiovascular disease.
National Category
Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine
Research subject
Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-197200 (URN)978-91-554-8641-9 (ISBN)
Public defence
2013-05-23, Sal IX, Universitetshuset, S:t Olofsgatan 10B, Box 256, 751 05 Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2013-05-02 Created: 2013-03-18 Last updated: 2013-08-30Bibliographically approved
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