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Johansson, F., Bini, L. M., Coiffard, P., Svanbäck, R., Wester, J. & Heino, J. (2019). Environmental variables drive differences in the beta diversity of dragonfly assemblages among urban stormwater ponds. Ecological Indicators, 106, Article ID 105529.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Environmental variables drive differences in the beta diversity of dragonfly assemblages among urban stormwater ponds
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2019 (English)In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 106, article id 105529Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Stormwater ponds are beneficial to urban landscapes because these man-made systems can reduce the negative effects of flooding in urban areas and restrain the distribution of pollutants. In addition, these systems are especially important to maintain the biodiversity of urban landscapes. Here, we sampled a set of 18 stormwater ponds in the city of Uppsala in Sweden to test the relationship between beta diversity of adult dragonflies and environmental factors (local and land use variables). We analysed the total beta diversity and its two components: replacement and richness difference. We recorded 31 species of Odonata, comprising 61% of the Odonata species in the province of Uppland in Sweden. By itself, this result indicates the importance of stormwater ponds in contributing to biodiversity in urban areas. The richness difference component of beta diversity was higher than the replacement component. Results from generalized dissimilarly models indicated that the richness difference component was mainly related with pond area and total vegetation cover (aquatic vegetation plus vegetation surrounding ponds). Focusing on different vegetation variables separately, models indicated that the beta diversity components were significantly correlated with percentage cover of floating algae scums, emergent aquatic macrophytes and tall shore vegetation. These results are consistent with what is known about the ecology of dragonflies, including the importance of aerial plant structures for perching, shelter from terrestrial and aquatic predators, and for providing oviposition sites. We also found that the stormwater ponds harboured a large part of the regional species pool. These systems are therefore important havens of biodiversity in urban landscapes. Our results also indicate that the management of different types of vegetation is key to maximize the potential of these systems in maintaining regional biodiversity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER, 2019
Keywords
Beta diversity, Compositional dissimilarity, Environmental gradients, Generalised dissimilarity modelling, Geographic distance, Odonata, Urban ecology
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-396429 (URN)10.1016/j.ecolind.2019.105529 (DOI)000490577900092 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-11-06 Created: 2019-11-06 Last updated: 2019-11-06Bibliographically approved
Golab, M. J., Johansson, F. & Sniegula, S. (2019). Let's mate here and now - seasonal constraints increase mating efficiency. Ecological Entomology, 44(5), 623-629
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Let's mate here and now - seasonal constraints increase mating efficiency
2019 (English)In: Ecological Entomology, ISSN 0307-6946, E-ISSN 1365-2311, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 623-629Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

1. Latitudinal climatic conditions shape the length of the mating season and could thus influence reproductive traits. Knowledge of how animals behave along latitudinal clines will increase understanding of the impact of climate on sexual selection and might help in the prediction of whether peripheral populations will spread or shrink in response to changes in climate. 2. This study investigated variation in the mating efficiency of a temperate insect, the emerald damselfly Lestes sponsa, under semi-natural field conditions along a latitudinal gradient covering three regions of the species' distribution: south, central and north. 3. A comparison was done of the proportion of copulating males, the proportion of males that formed tandems but did not copulate (unsuccessful males), and the proportion of males that did not attempt to form a tandem (passive males) in these three regions. 4. It was found that the proportion of copulations was significantly higher at northern latitudes than in the southern and central regions. Southern latitudes had a higher proportion of successful copulations compared with central latitudes. The northern region had a significantly lower frequency of passive males. The southern region had an intermediate proportion of passive males, and the central region had the highest proportion. The proportion of unsuccessful males did not differ between regions. The population density across sites did not affect these results. 5. The study shows that damselflies inhabiting northern populations mate more intensively than individuals from southern and central populations. This suggests that more restrictive environmental conditions during a brief mating season select for higher mating efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
Emerald damselfly, Lestes sponsa, reproductive season, seasonal constraints, thermal constraints
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-394187 (URN)10.1111/een.12739 (DOI)000483813200005 ()
Available from: 2019-10-09 Created: 2019-10-09 Last updated: 2019-10-09Bibliographically approved
Sniegula, S., Nsanzimana, J. d. & Johansson, F. (2019). Predation risk affects egg mortality and carry over effects in the larval stages in damselflies. Freshwater Biology, 64(4), 778-786
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predation risk affects egg mortality and carry over effects in the larval stages in damselflies
2019 (English)In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 64, no 4, p. 778-786Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The non-consumptive predator effect may incur physiological costs that affect growth and development and ultimately survival. While studies have shown that the effect can affect development and growth in organisms with complex life cycles, we have limited knowledge on the effect in the egg and early larval stage. Here, we used a laboratory experiment to examine how the presence of chemical cues, a non-consumptive predator effect, from an aquatic predator, perch, affected hatching success of larvae in three species of damselfly, Ischnura elegans, Coenagrion pulchellum, and Enallagma cyathigerum. In addition, we examined how exposure to predation risk in the early larval stages affected growth in the late larval stages of I. elegans. We found that the presence of chemical predator cues (1) increased egg mortality in all three species, (2) caused earlier hatching of eggs in one species, no change in a second species and a delay in egg hatching in a third species. We also found that predator cues have the potential to cause a carryover effect from early larval stages to late larval stages in terms of larval growth rate. The addition of non-consumptive predator cues in the form of fish water caused higher algal growth than in the control experimental containers, and we suggest that this algal growth has the potential to confound predator stress cues. Our results show that the non-consumptive predator effects affect survival and growth, and hence they have the potential to affect predator-prey dynamics in natural systems. Future studies on such effects in aquatic systems should consider confounding stressors, such as algae, fungi, oxygen, and nutrients levels, that might come with the addition of predation cues in water and thus add additional stress.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
carry-over effects, Coenagrionidae, fish smell, kairomone, predator-prey interaction
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380421 (URN)10.1111/fwb.13261 (DOI)000461212700013 ()
Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-04-02Bibliographically approved
Svanbäck, R. & Johansson, F. (2019). Predation selects for smaller eye size in a vertebrate: effects of environmental conditions and sex. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, 286(1897), Article ID 20182625.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predation selects for smaller eye size in a vertebrate: effects of environmental conditions and sex
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1897, article id 20182625Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased eye size in animals results in a larger retinal image and thus improves visual acuity. Thus, larger eyes should aid both in finding food as well as detecting predators. On the other hand, eyes are usually very conspicuous and several studies have suggested that eye size is associated with predation risk. However, experimental evidence is scant. In this study, we address how predation affects variation in eye size by performing two experiments using Eurasian perch juveniles as prey and either larger perch or pike as predators. First, we used large outdoor tanks to compare selection due to predators on relative eye size in open and artificial vegetated habitats. Second, we studied the effects of both predation risk and resource levels on phenotypic plasticity in relative eye size in indoor aquaria experiments. In the first experiment, we found that habitat altered selection due to predators, since predators selected for smaller eye size in a non-vegetated habitat, but not in a vegetated habitat. In the plasticity experiment, we found that fish predators induced smaller eye size in males, but not in females, while resource levels had no effect on eye size plasticity. Our experiments provide evidence that predation risk could be one of the driving factors behind variation in eye size within species.

Keywords
predation, natural selection, eye size, Perca fluviatilis, phenotypic plasticity, selection gradients
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383887 (URN)10.1098/rspb.2018.2625 (DOI)000465432500015 ()30963847 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-05-29 Created: 2019-05-29 Last updated: 2019-05-29Bibliographically approved
Jiang, B., Johansson, F., Stoks, R., Mauersberger, R. & Mikolajewski, D. J. (2019). Predator species related adaptive changes in larval growth and digestive physiology. Journal of insect physiology, 114, 23-29
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Predator species related adaptive changes in larval growth and digestive physiology
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2019 (English)In: Journal of insect physiology, ISSN 0022-1910, E-ISSN 1879-1611, Vol. 114, p. 23-29Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Prey species are often non-randomly distributed along predator gradients but according to how they trade off growth against predation risk. The foraging-mediated growth/predation risk trade-off is well established, with increased foraging accelerating growth but also increasing predator induced mortality. While adaptations in digestive physiology may partly modify the relationship between foraging and growth in response to predation risk, studies exploring the impact of digestive physiology on growth in prey subjected to predation risk are still scarce. Larvae of the dragonfly genus Leucorrhinia segregate at the species level between lakes either being dominated by predatory fish (fish-lakes) or predatory invertebrates (dragonfly-lakes). Predators of these two lake types differ dramatically in their hunting style like searching and pursuing mode causing different selection pressure on prey traits including foraging. In a laboratory experiment we estimated growth rate, digestive physiology (ingested food, growth efficiency, assimilation efficiency, conversion efficiency) and metabolic rate (oxygen consumption) in the presence and absence of predator cues. Whereas fish-lake and dragonfly-lake Leucorrhinia species did not differ in growth rate, they evolved different pathways of digestive physiology to achieve similar growth rate. Because fish-lake species expressed a higher metabolic rate than dragonfly-lake species, we assume energy to be differently allocated and used for metabolic demands between species of both predator environments. Further, growth rate, but not digestive physiology was plastic in response to the presence of predator cues. Our results highlight the impact of digestive physiology in shaping the foraging-mediated growth/predation risk trade-off, with digestive physiology contributing to species distribution patterns along predator gradients.

Keywords
Environmental gradient, Foraging-mediated growth/predation risk trade-off, Growth rate, Leucorrhinia, Predation, Phenotypic plasticity
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383516 (URN)10.1016/j.jinsphys.2019.01.006 (DOI)000466618800004 ()30716335 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-16 Created: 2019-05-16 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Sniegula, S., Golab, M. J. & Johansson, F. (2019). Size-mediated priority and temperature effects on intra-cohort competition and cannibalism in a damselfly. Journal of Animal Ecology, 88(4), 637-648
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Size-mediated priority and temperature effects on intra-cohort competition and cannibalism in a damselfly
2019 (English)In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 88, no 4, p. 637-648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A shift in the relative arrival of offspring, for example a shift in hatching time, can affect competition at the intraspecific level through size-mediated priority effects, where the larger individuals gain more resources. These priority effects are likely to be affected by climate warming and the rate of intraspecific predation, that is cannibalism. In a laboratory experiment, we examined size-mediated priority effects in larvae of the univoltine damselfly, Lestes sponsa, at two different temperatures (21 and 23 degrees C). We created three size groups of larvae by manipulating hatching time: early hatched with a large size (extra-advanced), intermediate hatched with an intermediate size (advanced) and late hatched with a small size (non-advanced). Thereafter, we reared the larvae from these groups in non-mixed and mixed groups of 12 larvae. We found strong priority and temperature effects. First, extra-advanced larvae most often had higher survival, growth and development rates than non-advanced larvae in mixed groups, compared to groups that consisted of only extra-advanced larvae. Second, temperature increased growth and development rates and cannibalism. However, the strength of priority effects did not differ between the two experimental temperatures, because there was no statistical interaction between temperature and treatments. That is, the mixed and non-mixed groups of non-advanced, advanced and extra-advanced larvae showed the same relative change in life-history traits across the two temperatures. Non-advanced and advanced larvae had similar or higher growth rate and mass in mixed groups compared to non-mixed groups, suggesting that predation from advanced larvae in the mixed group released resources for the non-advanced and advanced larvae that survived despite cannibalism risk. Thus, a thinning effect occurred due to cannibalism caused by priority effects. The results suggest that a shift in the relative arrival of offspring can cause temperature-dependent priority effects, mediated through cannibalism, growth and development, which may change the size distribution and abundance of emerging aquatic insects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
cannibalism, intraspecific competition, larval size, Lestes, life history, priority effects, temperature
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-385568 (URN)10.1111/1365-2656.12947 (DOI)000467994800013 ()30659605 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-06-19 Created: 2019-06-19 Last updated: 2019-06-19Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, B., Johansson, F. & Blicharska, M. (2019). Socio-economic impacts of marine conservation efforts in three Indonesian fishing communities. Marine Policy, 103, 59-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Socio-economic impacts of marine conservation efforts in three Indonesian fishing communities
2019 (English)In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 103, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Numerous conservation initiatives have been undertaken to protect large marine animals by legal protection and implementing marine protected areas (MPAs). Despite these efforts, many marine animals are still threatened, partly due to lack of compliance with conservation regulations. Meanwhile, research suggests that conservation efforts which also take socio-economic factors such as fishermen's livelihoods into account during planning and implementation are more likely to succeed. This study examined the compliance and socio-economic situation of local fishing communities at three sites in Indonesia (Nusa Penida, Tanjung Luar and Komodo National Park) where shark and manta ray conservation efforts have been implemented. 59 local residents were interviewed. The results showed that 49% of those residents had experienced a deterioration and 37% an improvement in their economic situation since conservation efforts in the form of species protection or MPAs were implemented in their area. The economic situation of the residents was associated with their access to alternative livelihoods, access to information on conservation rules, and relationship with conservation authorities. Particularly, interviewees with easier access to alternative income and a positive relationship with conservation authorities also experienced an increase in their economy. In addition, compliance with conservation efforts was positively related to improved economic situation, access to alternative livelihoods and information on conservation rules. These factors all differed among the three study sites, leading to different compliance levels between sites. The results of this study indicate the importance of considering socio-economic factors and of involving local communities when planning and implementing conservation efforts.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382377 (URN)10.1016/j.marpol.2019.02.007 (DOI)000463125700008 ()
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2019-04-25 Created: 2019-04-25 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Outomuro, D. & Johansson, F. (2019). Wing morphology and migration status, but not body size, habitat or Rapoport's rule predict range size in North-American dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae). Ecography, 42(2), 309-320
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wing morphology and migration status, but not body size, habitat or Rapoport's rule predict range size in North-American dragonflies (Odonata: Libellulidae)
2019 (English)In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 42, no 2, p. 309-320Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding why species range sizes vary is important for predicting the impact of environmental change on biodiversity. Here we use a multi-variable approach in a phylogenetic comparative context to understand how four morphological, two ecological, and two eco-geographical variables are associated with range size, latitudinal range and longitudinal range in 81 species of North-American libellulid dragonflies. Our results show that: 1) migratory species and species with a more expanded basal hindwing lobe have a larger range size; 2) opposite to Rapoport's rule, latitudinal range is negatively correlated with mid-range latitude; 3) longitudinal range is predicted by wing morphology and migration; 4) body size and larval habitat are not correlated with range size, latitudinal range or longitudinal range. These results suggest that dispersal-related traits, such as wing shape and migratory status, are important factors in predicting the range size of libellulid dragonflies. In addition, the reverse Rapoport's rule suggests that more northern-centred species might be more specialized than more southern-centred species. We suggest that the variables predicting range size are likely imposed by taxon-specific morphological, ecological, physiological and behavioural traits. Taxon-specific knowledge is thus necessary to understand the dynamics of range sizes and is important to implement successful restoration and conservation plans of threatened species.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
range size, Libellulidae, wing morphology
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377681 (URN)10.1111/ecog.03757 (DOI)000457469100008 ()
Funder
Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist Byggmästare
Available from: 2019-02-26 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
Zha, Y., Alexander, E., Johansson, F. & Svanbäck, R. (2018). Effects of predation stress and food ration on perch gut microbiota. Microbiome, 6, Article ID 28.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of predation stress and food ration on perch gut microbiota
2018 (English)In: Microbiome, ISSN 0026-2633, E-ISSN 2049-2618, Vol. 6, article id 28Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Gut microbiota provide functions of importance to influence hosts' food digestion, metabolism, and protection against pathogens. Factors that affect the composition and functions of gut microbial communities are well studied in humans and other animals; however, we have limited knowledge of how natural food web factors such as stress from predators and food resource rations could affect hosts' gut microbiota and how it interacts with host sex. In this study, we designed a two-factorial experiment exposing perch (Perca fluviatilis) to a predator (pike, Esox lucius), and different food ratios, to examine the compositional and functional changes of perch gut microbiota based on 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. We also investigated if those changes are host sex dependent.

Results: We showed that overall gut microbiota composition among individual perch significantly responded to food ration and predator presence. We found that species richness decreased with predator presence, and we identified 23 taxa from a diverse set of phyla that were over-represented when a predator was present. For example, Fusobacteria increased both at the lowest food ration and at predation stress conditions, suggesting that Fusobacteria are favored by stressful situations for the host. In concordance, both food ration and predation stress seemed to influence the metabolic repertoire of the gut microbiota, such as biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites, metabolism of cofactors, and vitamins. In addition, the identified interaction between food ration and sex emphasizes sex-specific responses to diet quantity in gut microbiota.

Conclusions: Collectively, our findings emphasize an alternative state in gut microbiota with responses to changes in natural food webs depending on host sex. The obtained knowledge from this study provided us with an important perspective on gut microbiota in a food web context.

National Category
Microbiology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341520 (URN)10.1186/s40168-018-0400-0 (DOI)000424692400001 ()29409543 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR-2011-05646, VR-2012-4592Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , ICA10-0015
Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-03-28Bibliographically approved
Sniegula, S., Golab, M. J., Drobniak, S. M. & Johansson, F. (2018). The genetic variance but not the genetic covariance of life-history traits changes towards the north in a time-constrained insect. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 31(6), 853-865
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The genetic variance but not the genetic covariance of life-history traits changes towards the north in a time-constrained insect
2018 (English)In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 31, no 6, p. 853-865Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seasonal time constraints are usually stronger at higher than lower latitudes and can exert strong selection on life-history traits and the correlations among these traits. To predict the response of life-history traits to environmental change along a latitudinal gradient, information must be obtained about genetic variance in traits and also genetic correlation between traits, that is the genetic variance-covariance matrix, G. Here, we estimated G for key life-history traits in an obligate univoltine damselfly that faces seasonal time constraints. We exposed populations to simulated native temperatures and photoperiods and common garden environmental conditions in a laboratory set-up. Despite differences in genetic variance in these traits between populations (lower variance at northern latitudes), there was no evidence for latitude-specific covariance of the life-history traits. At simulated native conditions, all populations showed strong genetic and phenotypic correlations between traits that shaped growth and development. The variance-covariance matrix changed considerably when populations were exposed to common garden conditions compared with the simulated natural conditions, showing the importance of environmentally induced changes in multivariate genetic structure. Our results highlight the importance of estimating variance-covariance matrixes in environments that mimic selection pressures and not only trait variances or mean trait values in common garden conditions for understanding the trait evolution across populations and environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
genetic correlation, <bold>G</bold>-matrix, latitude, life history, seasonal time constraint
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358080 (URN)10.1111/jeb.13269 (DOI)000434358800007 ()29569290 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2018-08-30Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2302-2603

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