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Di Baldassarre, G., Nohrstedt, D., Mård, J., Burchardt, S., Albin, C., Bondesson, S., . . . Parker, C. F. (2018). An Integrative Research Framework to Unravel the Interplay of Natural Hazards and Vulnerabilities. Earth's Future, 6(3), 305-310
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Integrative Research Framework to Unravel the Interplay of Natural Hazards and Vulnerabilities
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2018 (English)In: Earth's Future, ISSN 1384-5160, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 305-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change, globalization, urbanization, social isolation, and increased interconnectedness between physical, human, and technological systems pose major challenges to disaster risk reduction (DRR). Subsequently, economic losses caused by natural hazards are increasing in many regions of the world, despite scientific progress, persistent policy action, and international cooperation. We argue that these dramatic figures call for novel scientific approaches and new types of data collection to integrate the two main approaches that still dominate the science underpinning DRR: the hazard paradigm and the vulnerability paradigm. Building from these two approaches, here we propose a research framework that specifies the scope of enquiry, concepts, and general relations among phenomena. We then discuss the essential steps to advance systematic empirical research and evidence-based DRR policy action. Plain Language Summary The recent deadly earthquake in Iran-Iraq has been yet another reminder of the topicality of natural hazards, and it has come just after an unprecedented series of catastrophic events, including the extensive flooding in South Asia and the string of devastating hurricanes in the Americas. He we identify three main puzzles in the nexus of natural hazards and vulnerabilities, and demonstrate how novel approaches are needed to solve them with reference to a flood risk example. Specifically, we show how a new research framework can guide systematic data collections to advance the fundamental understanding of socionatural interactions, which is an essential step to improve the development of policies for disaster risk reduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Disaster risk reduction, Natural hazards, Vulnerability, Flood risk, Socio-hydrology
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350188 (URN)10.1002/2017EF000764 (DOI)000430171600002 ()
Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-06-18Bibliographically approved
Guldstrand, F., Galland, O., Hallot, E. & Burchardt, S. (2018). Experimental Constraints on Forecasting the Location of Volcanic Eruptions from Pre-eruptive Surface Deformation. Frontiers in earth science, 6, Article ID UNSP 7.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Constraints on Forecasting the Location of Volcanic Eruptions from Pre-eruptive Surface Deformation
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in earth science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Volcanic eruptions pose a threat to lives and property when volcano flanks and surroundings are densely populated. The local impact of an eruption depends firstly on its location, whether it occurs near a volcano summit, or down on the flanks. Then forecasting, with a defined accuracy, the location of a potential, imminent eruption would significantly improve the assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. Currently, the conventional volcano monitoring methods based on the analysis of surface deformation assesses whether a volcano may erupt but are not implemented to locate imminent eruptions in real time. Here we show how surface deformation induced by ascending eruptive feeders can be used to forecast the eruption location through a simple geometrical analysis. Our analysis builds on the results of 33 scaled laboratory experiments simulating the emplacement of viscous magma intrusions in a brittle, cohesive Coulomb crust under lithostatic stress conditions. The intrusion-induced surface deformation was systematically monitored at high spatial and temporal resolution. In all the experiments, surface deformation preceding the eruptions resulted in systematic uplift, regardless of the intrusion shape. The analysis of the surface deformation patterns leads to the definition of a vector between the center of the uplifted area and the point of maximum uplift, which systematically acted as a precursor to the eruption's location. The temporal evolution of this vector indicated the direction in which the subsequent eruption would occur and ultimately the location itself, irrespective of the feeder shapes. Our findings represent a new approach on how surface deformation on active volcanoes that are not in active rifts could be analysed and used prior to an eruption with a real potential to improve hazard mitigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018
Keywords
surface deformation, laboratory modeling, cone sheets, dykes, eruption forecasting
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352990 (URN)10.3389/feart.2018.00007 (DOI)000429858100001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Research Council of Norway, 240467
Available from: 2018-07-16 Created: 2018-07-16 Last updated: 2018-07-16Bibliographically approved
Mattson, T., Burchardt, S., Almqvist, B. & Ronchin, E. (2018). Syn-emplacement fracturing in the Sandfell laccolith, eastern Iceland. In: : . Paper presented at 33rd Nordic Geological Winter Meeting, 10-12 January 2018, Lyngby, Danmark. , Session 1.7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syn-emplacement fracturing in the Sandfell laccolith, eastern Iceland
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Felsic magma commonly pools within mushroom-shaped magma chambers, so-called laccoliths or cryptodomes at shallow crustal levels, which can cause collapse of the volcanic edifice. While deformation of magma in volcanic conduits is an important process for regulating eruptive behaviour (Pistone et al., 2016), the bulk of the deformation associated with laccolith emplacement is considered to occur in the host-rock (Pollard & Johnson, 1973), and the effects of magma deformation on the intrusion emplacement is largely unexplored. Here we describe the deformation associated with the emplacement of the 0.5 km3 rhyolitic Sandfell laccolith in eastern Iceland, which formed in a single intrusive event. By combining field measurements, 3D modelling, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and microstructural analysis, we quantify deformation that occurred in both the host-rock and the magma to investigate its effect on intrusion emplacement. Magmatic and magnetic fabric analyses reveal contact-parallel magma flow during the initial stages of intrusion emplacement. The magma flow fabric is overprinted by strain-localisation bands, which indicate that the magma subsequently became viscously stalled and was deformed by consecutively intruding magma. This change in magma rheology can be attributed to the interaction between the strain-localisation bands and the flow bands, which caused extensive fracture-rich layers in the magma and led to decompression degassing, crystallization, and rapid solidification of half of the magmatic body. Our observations indicate that syn-emplacement rheology change, and associated fracturing of intruding magma not only occur in volcanic conduits, but also play a major role in the emplacement of shallow viscous magma intrusions.

References:

Pistone, M., Cordonnier, B., Ulmer, P. & Caricchi, L. 2016: Rheological flow laws for multiphase magmas: An empirical approach. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 321, 158–170.

Pollard, D.D. & Johnson, A.M. 1973: Mechanics of growth of some laccolithic intrusions in the Henry mountains, Utah, II: Bending and failure of overburden layers and sill formation. Tectonophysics 18, 311–354.

National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339027 (URN)
Conference
33rd Nordic Geological Winter Meeting, 10-12 January 2018, Lyngby, Danmark
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-02-15Bibliographically approved
Mattson, T., Burchardt, S., Almqvist, B. S. G. & Ronchin, E. (2018). Syn-Emplacement Fracturing in the Sandfell Laccolith, Eastern Iceland: Implications for Rhyolite Intrusion Growth and Volcanic Hazards. Frontiers in earth science, 6, Article ID 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syn-Emplacement Fracturing in the Sandfell Laccolith, Eastern Iceland: Implications for Rhyolite Intrusion Growth and Volcanic Hazards
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in earth science, E-ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 6, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Felsic magma commonly pools within shallow mushroom-shaped magmatic intrusions, so-called laccoliths or cryptodomes, which can cause both explosive eruptions and collapse of the volcanic edifice. Deformation during laccolith emplacement is primarily considered to occur in the host rock. However, shallowly emplaced laccoliths (cryptodomes) show extensive internal deformation. While deformation of magma in volcanic conduits is an important process for regulating eruptive behavior, the effects of magma deformation on intrusion emplacement remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate the emplacement of the 0.57 km3 rhyolitic Sandfell laccolith, Iceland, which formed at a depth of 500 m in a single intrusive event. By combining field measurements, 3D modeling, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), microstructural analysis, and FEM modeling we examine deformation in the magma to constrain its influence on intrusion emplacement. Concentric flow bands and S-C fabrics reveal contact-parallel magma flow during the initial stages of laccolith inflation. The magma flow fabric is overprinted by strain-localization bands (SLBs) and more than one third of the volume of the Sandfell laccolith displays concentric intensely fractured layers. A dominantly oblate magmatic fabric in the fractured areas and conjugate geometry of SLBs, and fractures in the fracture layers demonstrate that the magma was deformed by intrusive stresses. This implies that a large volume of magma became viscously stalled and was unable to flow during intrusion. Fine-grained groundmass and vesicle-poor rock adjacent to the fracture layers point to that the interaction between the SLBs and the flow bands at sub-solidus state caused the brittle-failure and triggered decompression degassing and crystallization, which led to rapid viscosity increase in the magma. The extent of syn-emplacement fracturing in the Sandfell laccolith further shows that strain-induced degassing limited the amount of eruptible magma by essentially solidifying the rim of the magma body. Our observations indicate that syn-emplacement changes in rheology, and the associated fracturing of intruding magma not only occur in volcanic conduits, but also play a major role in the emplacement of viscous magma intrusions in the upper kilometer of the crust.

Keywords
laccolith, cryptodome, magma flow, intrusion emplacement, strain localization, magma degassing, volcanic hazards
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340868 (URN)10.3389/feart.2018.00005 (DOI)000429857800001 ()
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesSwedish Research Council, 2015-03931_VR
Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2018-07-17Bibliographically approved
Guldstrand, F., Burchardt, S., Hallot, E. & Galland, O. (2017). Dynamics of Surface Deformation Induced by Dikes and Cone Sheets in a Cohesive Coulomb Brittle Crust. Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, 122(10), 8511-8524
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamics of Surface Deformation Induced by Dikes and Cone Sheets in a Cohesive Coulomb Brittle Crust
2017 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, ISSN 2169-9313, E-ISSN 2169-9356, Vol. 122, no 10, p. 8511-8524Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The analysis of surface deformation associated with intruding magma has become an established method to study subsurface processes and intrusion architecture. Active subsurface magmatism induces deformation that is commonly modeled using static elastic models. To what extent, Coulomb failure of the crust affects surface deformation remains, so far, largely unexplored. In this contribution we present quantitative laboratory results of surface deformation induced by the emplacement of simulated dikes and cone sheets in a cohesive Coulomb material. The analysis of the experimental surface deformation shows that these intrusion types produce distinct and characteristic surface deformation signatures, which reflect the evolution of the intrusion at depth. Generally, dikes show a two-phase evolution while cone sheets develop gradually. In comparison, cone sheets induce larger uplifted areas and volumes than dikes relative to the depth of the injection source. Dike formation is, in turn, is likely accommodated, to a larger degree than cone sheets, by lateral opening of the host consistent with our current understanding of dike emplacement mechanics. Notably, only surface uplifts develop above the experimental dikes, consistent with a viscous indenter propagation mechanism, that is, a dike pushing ahead. The measured surface deformation patterns associated with dikes starkly contrast with established static, elastic models that predict local subsidence above the tip of a dike. This suggests that Coulomb failure of crustal rocks may considerably affect surface deformation induced by propagating igneous intrusions. This is especially relevant when a relatively high viscosity magma intrudes a weak host, such as unconsolidated sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2017
Keywords
dikes, cone sheets, laboratory models, surface deformation
National Category
Geophysics Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339725 (URN)10.1002/2017JB014346 (DOI)000418577900057 ()
Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2018-01-22Bibliographically approved
Burchardt, S., Troll, V. R., Schmeling, H., Koyi, H. & Blythe, L. (2016). Erupted frothy xenoliths may explain lack of country-rock fragments in plutons. Scientific Reports, 6, Article ID 34566.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Erupted frothy xenoliths may explain lack of country-rock fragments in plutons
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2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 34566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Magmatic stoping is discussed to be a main mechanism of magma emplacement. As a consequence of stoping, abundant country-rock fragments should occur within, and at the bottom of, magma reservoirs as "xenolith graveyards", or become assimilated. However, the common absence of sufficient amounts of both xenoliths and crustal contamination have led to intense controversy about the efficiency of stoping. Here, we present new evidence that may explain the absence of abundant country-rock fragments in plutons. We report on vesiculated crustal xenoliths in volcanic rocks that experienced devolatilisation during heating and partial melting when entrained in magma. We hypothesise that the consequential inflation and density decrease of the xenoliths allowed them to rise and become erupted instead of being preserved in the plutonic record. Our thermomechanical simulations of this process demonstrate that early-stage xenolith sinking can be followed by the rise of a heated, partially-molten xenolith towards the top of the reservoir. There, remnants may disintegrate and mix with resident magma or erupt. Shallow-crustal plutons emplaced into hydrous country rocks may therefore not necessarily contain evidence of the true amount of magmatic stoping during their emplacement. Further studies are needed to quantify the importance of frothy xenolith in removing stoped material.

National Category
Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308894 (URN)10.1038/srep34566 (DOI)000386722700001 ()27804996 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-12-01 Created: 2016-12-01 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Berg, S. E., Troll, V. R., Deegan, F. M., Burchardt, S., Krumbholz, M., Mancini, L., . . . Brun, F. (2016). Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by X-ray computed microtomography. Bulletin of Volcanology, 78(12), Article ID 85.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by X-ray computed microtomography
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2016 (English)In: Bulletin of Volcanology, ISSN 0258-8900, E-ISSN 1432-0819, Vol. 78, no 12, article id 85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the first week of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, abundant light-coloured pumiceous, high-silica volcanic bombs coated in dark basanite were found floating on the sea. The composition of the light-coloured frothy material ('xeno-pumice') is akin to that of sedimentary rocks from the region, but the textures resemble felsic magmatic pumice, leaving their exact mode of formation unclear. To help decipher their origin, we investigated representative El Hierro xeno-pumice samples using X-ray computed microtomography for their internal vesicle shapes, volumes, and bulk porosity, as well as for the spatial arrangement and size distributions of vesicles in three dimensions (3D). We find a wide range of vesicle morphologies, which are especially variable around small fragments of rock contained in the xeno-pumice samples. Notably, these rock fragments are almost exclusively of sedimentary origin, and we therefore interpret them as relicts an the original sedimentary ocean crust protolith(s). The irregular vesiculation textures observed probably resulted from pulsatory release of volatiles from multiple sources during xeno-pumice formation, most likely by successive release of pore water and mineral water during incremental heating and decompression of the sedimentary protoliths.

Keywords
El Hierro, Xeno-pumice, X-CT imaging, Vesicle morphologies, Vesicle size distribution, Heterogeneous vesiculation, Sedimentary ocean crust
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-272316 (URN)10.1007/s00445-016-1080-x (DOI)000394130700001 ()
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesSwedish Research Council
Note

The manuscript version of this article was used under the name "Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by synchrotron μ-CT" in the following thesis: Silicic Magma Genesis in Basalt-dominated Oceanic Settings: Examples from Iceland and the Canary Islands http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:893923

Available from: 2016-01-13 Created: 2016-01-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Andersson, M., Almqvist, B. S. G., Burchardt, S., Troll, V. R., Malehmir, A., Snowball, I. & Kubler, L. (2016). Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden. Scientific Reports, 6, Article ID 27635.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden
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2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 27635Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Magma transport through the Earth's crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alno carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alno cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics.

National Category
Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-299041 (URN)10.1038/srep27635 (DOI)000377683800001 ()27282420 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621_2009_4439
Available from: 2016-07-13 Created: 2016-07-13 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Budd, D. A., Troll, V., Dahren, B. & Burchardt, S. (2016). Persistent multitiered magma plumbing beneath Katla volcano, Iceland. Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, 17(3), 966-980
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistent multitiered magma plumbing beneath Katla volcano, Iceland
2016 (English)In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 966-980Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recent seismic unrest and a persistent Holocene eruption record at Katla volcano, Iceland indicate that a near-future eruption is possible. Previous petrological investigations suggest that Katla is supplied by a simple plumbing system that delivers magma directly from depth, while seismic and geodetic data also point toward the existence of upper-crustal magma storage. To characterize Katla's recent plumbing system, we established mineral-melt equilibrium crystallization pressures from four age-constrained Katla tephras spanning from 8 kyr BP to 1918. The results point to persistent shallow- (≤8 km depth) as well as deep-crustal (ca. 10 – 25 km depth) magma storage beneath Katla throughout the last 8 kyr. The presence of multiple magma storage regions implies that mafic magma from the deeper reservoir system may become gas-rich during ascent and storage in the shallow crust and erupt explosively. Alternatively, it might intersect evolved magma pockets in the shallow-level storage region, and so increase the potential for explosive mixed-magma ash eruptions.

Keywords
Katla volcano; mineral-melt equilibrium thermobarometry; persistent multi-tiered magma plumbing system
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-285922 (URN)10.1002/2015GC006118 (DOI)000375144700019 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Available from: 2016-04-27 Created: 2016-04-20 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Samrock, L. K., Jensen, M. J., Burchardt, S., Troll, V., Mattson, T. & Geiger, H. (2015). 3D modelling of the Tejeda Caldera cone-sheet swarm, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain. In: : . Paper presented at EGU General Assembly (pp. 958). , 17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3D modelling of the Tejeda Caldera cone-sheet swarm, Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Geology Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-270985 (URN)
Conference
EGU General Assembly
Available from: 2016-01-05 Created: 2016-01-05 Last updated: 2016-01-05
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3316-658X

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