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Publications (10 of 46) Show all publications
Rhodes, E., Burchardt, S., Parker, C. F., Barker, A. & Dahrén, B. (2019). What is the role of Wiki during volcanic eruptions?. In: : . Paper presented at Wikimania 2019, August 14-18 2019, Stockholm, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is the role of Wiki during volcanic eruptions?
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A team of scientists from the Centre of Natural Hazards and Disaster Science (www.cnds.se) and Uppsala University are planning a study on the role of Wikipedia during volcanic eruptions.

Pageview statistics show a spike of up to 200 000 views (e.g. Anak Krakatau eruption and associated tsunami in December 2018) at the onset of a volcanic event. In acknowledgement of this, the team want to explore the role of Wikipedia as a disaster response resource during such events, when accurate and readily accessible information can save lives. The poster will outline our current approach to this project, propose suitable methods and illustrate the work in progress.

Keywords
wikipedia, disaster response, hazard mitigation, social volcanoology
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Sociology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392171 (URN)
Conference
Wikimania 2019, August 14-18 2019, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2019-08-30 Created: 2019-08-30 Last updated: 2019-08-30Bibliographically approved
Di Baldassarre, G., Nohrstedt, D., Mård, J., Burchardt, S., Albin, C., Bondesson, S., . . . Parker, C. F. (2018). An Integrative Research Framework to Unravel the Interplay of Natural Hazards and Vulnerabilities. Earth's Future, 6(3), 305-310
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Integrative Research Framework to Unravel the Interplay of Natural Hazards and Vulnerabilities
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2018 (English)In: Earth's Future, ISSN 1384-5160, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 305-310Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Climate change, globalization, urbanization, social isolation, and increased interconnectedness between physical, human, and technological systems pose major challenges to disaster risk reduction (DRR). Subsequently, economic losses caused by natural hazards are increasing in many regions of the world, despite scientific progress, persistent policy action, and international cooperation. We argue that these dramatic figures call for novel scientific approaches and new types of data collection to integrate the two main approaches that still dominate the science underpinning DRR: the hazard paradigm and the vulnerability paradigm. Building from these two approaches, here we propose a research framework that specifies the scope of enquiry, concepts, and general relations among phenomena. We then discuss the essential steps to advance systematic empirical research and evidence-based DRR policy action. Plain Language Summary The recent deadly earthquake in Iran-Iraq has been yet another reminder of the topicality of natural hazards, and it has come just after an unprecedented series of catastrophic events, including the extensive flooding in South Asia and the string of devastating hurricanes in the Americas. He we identify three main puzzles in the nexus of natural hazards and vulnerabilities, and demonstrate how novel approaches are needed to solve them with reference to a flood risk example. Specifically, we show how a new research framework can guide systematic data collections to advance the fundamental understanding of socionatural interactions, which is an essential step to improve the development of policies for disaster risk reduction.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2018
Keywords
Disaster risk reduction, Natural hazards, Vulnerability, Flood risk, Socio-hydrology
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350188 (URN)10.1002/2017EF000764 (DOI)000430171600002 ()
Available from: 2018-05-07 Created: 2018-05-07 Last updated: 2018-06-18Bibliographically approved
Berg, S., Troll, V. R., Harris, C., Deegan, F., Riishuus, M. S., Burchardt, S. & Krumbholz, M. (2018). Exceptionally high whole-rock delta O-18 values in intra-caldera rhyolites from Northeast Iceland. Mineralogical magazine, 82(5), 1147-1168
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exceptionally high whole-rock delta O-18 values in intra-caldera rhyolites from Northeast Iceland
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2018 (English)In: Mineralogical magazine, ISSN 0026-461X, E-ISSN 1471-8022, Vol. 82, no 5, p. 1147-1168Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Icelandic crust is characterized by low delta O-18 values that originate from pervasive high-temperature hydrothermal alteration by O-18-depleted meteoric waters. Igneous rocks in Iceland with delta O-18 values significantly higher than unaltered oceanic crust (similar to 5.7 parts per thousand) are therefore rare. Here we report on rhyolitic intra-caldera samples from a cluster of Neogene central volcanoes in Borgarfjorour Eystri, Northeast Iceland, that show whole-rock delta O-18 values between +2.9 and +17.6 parts per thousand (n = 6), placing them among the highest delta O-18 values thus far recorded for Iceland. Extra-caldera rhyolite samples from the region, in turn, show delta O-18 whole-rock values between +3.7 and +7.8 parts per thousand (n = 6), consistent with the range of previously reported Icelandic rhyolites. Feldspar in the intra-caldera samples (n = 4) show delta O-18 values between +4.9 and +18.7 parts per thousand, whereas pyroxene (n = 4) shows overall low delta O-18 values of +4.0 to +4.2 parts per thousand, consistent with regional rhyolite values. In combination with the evidence from mineralogy and rock H2O contents, the high whole-rock delta O-18 values of the intra-caldera rhyolites appear to be the result of pervasive isotopic exchange during subsolidus hydrothermal alteration with O-18-enriched water. This alteration conceivably occurred in a near-surface hot spring environment at the distal end of an intra-caldera hydrothermal system. and was probably fed by waters that had already undergone significant isotope exchange with the country rock. Alternatively, O-18-enriched alteration fluids may have been produced during evaporation and boiling of standing water in former caldera lakes, which then interacted with the intra-caldera rock suites. Irrespective of the exact exchange processes involved, a previously unrecognized and highly localized delta O-18-enriched rock composition exists on Iceland and thus probably within the Icelandic crust too.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MINERALOGICAL SOC, 2018
Keywords
Northeast Iceland, high(18)O values, hydrothermal alteration, intra-caldera lakes
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372902 (URN)10.1180/mgm.2018.114 (DOI)000452016700011 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Available from: 2019-01-11 Created: 2019-01-11 Last updated: 2019-01-11Bibliographically approved
Guldstrand, F., Galland, O., Hallot, E. & Burchardt, S. (2018). Experimental Constraints on Forecasting the Location of Volcanic Eruptions from Pre-eruptive Surface Deformation. Frontiers in Earth Science, 6, Article ID UNSP 7.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental Constraints on Forecasting the Location of Volcanic Eruptions from Pre-eruptive Surface Deformation
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 6, article id UNSP 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Volcanic eruptions pose a threat to lives and property when volcano flanks and surroundings are densely populated. The local impact of an eruption depends firstly on its location, whether it occurs near a volcano summit, or down on the flanks. Then forecasting, with a defined accuracy, the location of a potential, imminent eruption would significantly improve the assessment and mitigation of volcanic hazards. Currently, the conventional volcano monitoring methods based on the analysis of surface deformation assesses whether a volcano may erupt but are not implemented to locate imminent eruptions in real time. Here we show how surface deformation induced by ascending eruptive feeders can be used to forecast the eruption location through a simple geometrical analysis. Our analysis builds on the results of 33 scaled laboratory experiments simulating the emplacement of viscous magma intrusions in a brittle, cohesive Coulomb crust under lithostatic stress conditions. The intrusion-induced surface deformation was systematically monitored at high spatial and temporal resolution. In all the experiments, surface deformation preceding the eruptions resulted in systematic uplift, regardless of the intrusion shape. The analysis of the surface deformation patterns leads to the definition of a vector between the center of the uplifted area and the point of maximum uplift, which systematically acted as a precursor to the eruption's location. The temporal evolution of this vector indicated the direction in which the subsequent eruption would occur and ultimately the location itself, irrespective of the feeder shapes. Our findings represent a new approach on how surface deformation on active volcanoes that are not in active rifts could be analysed and used prior to an eruption with a real potential to improve hazard mitigation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018
Keywords
surface deformation, laboratory modeling, cone sheets, dykes, eruption forecasting
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352990 (URN)10.3389/feart.2018.00007 (DOI)000429858100001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilThe Research Council of Norway, 240467
Available from: 2018-07-16 Created: 2018-07-16 Last updated: 2019-06-05Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, T., Burchardt, S., Almqvist, B., Galland, O., Ronchin, E. & Palma, J. O. (2018). Magma Deformation During Laccolith Emplacement: Examples From Iceland And Argentina. In: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs: . Paper presented at Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, 4-7 November, Indianapolis, USA 2018. , 50, Article ID 18-11.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magma Deformation During Laccolith Emplacement: Examples From Iceland And Argentina
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2018 (English)In: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, 2018, Vol. 50, article id 18-11Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Felsic magma commonly pools within shallow mushroom-shaped magmatic intrusions, so-called laccoliths or cryptodomes, which can cause both explosive eruptions and collapse of the volcanic edifice. Deformation during laccolith emplacement is primarily considered to occur in the host rock. However, shallowly emplaced laccoliths show extensive internal, magmatic deformation. While deformation of magma in volcanic conduits is an important process for regulating eruptive behavior, the effects of magma deformation on intrusion emplacement remain largely unexplored. By combining field mapping, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and microstructural analysis, we studied the emplacement of two laccoliths emplaced within the upper kilometer of the crust in a single intrusive event. The rhyolitic Sandfell laccolith, Iceland, which intruded at a depth of 500 m and the dacitic Cerro Bayo laccolith, Argentina. The initial growth stage of the two laccoliths is characterized by contact parallel flow indicators that formed during inflation of the laccolith. The second growth stage encompass brecciation and fracturing in the rim of the intrusion. Fractures in the Sandfell laccolith occur in layers and individual fractures are parallel to strain-localization bands in coherent rhyolite. A dominantly oblate magmatic fabric in the fractured areas, S-C fabrics in flow bands and conjugate geometry of strain-localization bands and the fractures demonstrate that the magma was sheared and compacted by the continuous intrusion of magma into the bodies. This further implies that the rims of the magma bodies essentially solidified during the intrusive event. In the third stage of growth, the stalled rim of the laccolith is breached, which promotes vertical growth of the magma body facilitated by larger steeply-dipping faults and shear zones. Our observations indicate that syn-emplacement changes in magma rheology play a major role in the emplacement of viscous magma intrusions in the upper kilometer of the crust.

National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-373615 (URN)10.1130/abs/2018AM-323736 (DOI)
Conference
Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, 4-7 November, Indianapolis, USA 2018
Available from: 2019-01-16 Created: 2019-01-16 Last updated: 2019-09-25Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, T., Burchardt, S., Almqvist, B. & Ronchin, E. (2018). Syn-emplacement fracturing in the Sandfell laccolith, eastern Iceland. In: : . Paper presented at 33rd Nordic Geological Winter Meeting, 10-12 January 2018, Lyngby, Danmark. , Session 1.7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syn-emplacement fracturing in the Sandfell laccolith, eastern Iceland
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Felsic magma commonly pools within mushroom-shaped magma chambers, so-called laccoliths or cryptodomes at shallow crustal levels, which can cause collapse of the volcanic edifice. While deformation of magma in volcanic conduits is an important process for regulating eruptive behaviour (Pistone et al., 2016), the bulk of the deformation associated with laccolith emplacement is considered to occur in the host-rock (Pollard & Johnson, 1973), and the effects of magma deformation on the intrusion emplacement is largely unexplored. Here we describe the deformation associated with the emplacement of the 0.5 km3 rhyolitic Sandfell laccolith in eastern Iceland, which formed in a single intrusive event. By combining field measurements, 3D modelling, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, and microstructural analysis, we quantify deformation that occurred in both the host-rock and the magma to investigate its effect on intrusion emplacement. Magmatic and magnetic fabric analyses reveal contact-parallel magma flow during the initial stages of intrusion emplacement. The magma flow fabric is overprinted by strain-localisation bands, which indicate that the magma subsequently became viscously stalled and was deformed by consecutively intruding magma. This change in magma rheology can be attributed to the interaction between the strain-localisation bands and the flow bands, which caused extensive fracture-rich layers in the magma and led to decompression degassing, crystallization, and rapid solidification of half of the magmatic body. Our observations indicate that syn-emplacement rheology change, and associated fracturing of intruding magma not only occur in volcanic conduits, but also play a major role in the emplacement of shallow viscous magma intrusions.

References:

Pistone, M., Cordonnier, B., Ulmer, P. & Caricchi, L. 2016: Rheological flow laws for multiphase magmas: An empirical approach. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 321, 158–170.

Pollard, D.D. & Johnson, A.M. 1973: Mechanics of growth of some laccolithic intrusions in the Henry mountains, Utah, II: Bending and failure of overburden layers and sill formation. Tectonophysics 18, 311–354.

National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339027 (URN)
Conference
33rd Nordic Geological Winter Meeting, 10-12 January 2018, Lyngby, Danmark
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2018-10-18
Mattsson, T., Burchardt, S., Almqvist, B. S. G. & Ronchin, E. (2018). Syn-Emplacement Fracturing in the Sandfell Laccolith, Eastern Iceland: Implications for Rhyolite Intrusion Growth and Volcanic Hazards. Frontiers in Earth Science, 6, Article ID 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syn-Emplacement Fracturing in the Sandfell Laccolith, Eastern Iceland: Implications for Rhyolite Intrusion Growth and Volcanic Hazards
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 6, article id 5Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Felsic magma commonly pools within shallow mushroom-shaped magmatic intrusions, so-called laccoliths or cryptodomes, which can cause both explosive eruptions and collapse of the volcanic edifice. Deformation during laccolith emplacement is primarily considered to occur in the host rock. However, shallowly emplaced laccoliths (cryptodomes) show extensive internal deformation. While deformation of magma in volcanic conduits is an important process for regulating eruptive behavior, the effects of magma deformation on intrusion emplacement remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate the emplacement of the 0.57 km3 rhyolitic Sandfell laccolith, Iceland, which formed at a depth of 500 m in a single intrusive event. By combining field measurements, 3D modeling, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), microstructural analysis, and FEM modeling we examine deformation in the magma to constrain its influence on intrusion emplacement. Concentric flow bands and S-C fabrics reveal contact-parallel magma flow during the initial stages of laccolith inflation. The magma flow fabric is overprinted by strain-localization bands (SLBs) and more than one third of the volume of the Sandfell laccolith displays concentric intensely fractured layers. A dominantly oblate magmatic fabric in the fractured areas and conjugate geometry of SLBs, and fractures in the fracture layers demonstrate that the magma was deformed by intrusive stresses. This implies that a large volume of magma became viscously stalled and was unable to flow during intrusion. Fine-grained groundmass and vesicle-poor rock adjacent to the fracture layers point to that the interaction between the SLBs and the flow bands at sub-solidus state caused the brittle-failure and triggered decompression degassing and crystallization, which led to rapid viscosity increase in the magma. The extent of syn-emplacement fracturing in the Sandfell laccolith further shows that strain-induced degassing limited the amount of eruptible magma by essentially solidifying the rim of the magma body. Our observations indicate that syn-emplacement changes in rheology, and the associated fracturing of intruding magma not only occur in volcanic conduits, but also play a major role in the emplacement of viscous magma intrusions in the upper kilometer of the crust.

Keywords
laccolith, cryptodome, magma flow, intrusion emplacement, strain localization, magma degassing, volcanic hazards
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340868 (URN)10.3389/feart.2018.00005 (DOI)000429857800001 ()
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesSwedish Research Council, 2015-03931_VR
Available from: 2018-02-05 Created: 2018-02-05 Last updated: 2019-06-05Bibliographically approved
Guldstrand, F., Burchardt, S., Hallot, E. & Galland, O. (2017). Dynamics of Surface Deformation Induced by Dikes and Cone Sheets in a Cohesive Coulomb Brittle Crust. Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, 122(10), 8511-8524
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamics of Surface Deformation Induced by Dikes and Cone Sheets in a Cohesive Coulomb Brittle Crust
2017 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, ISSN 2169-9313, E-ISSN 2169-9356, Vol. 122, no 10, p. 8511-8524Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The analysis of surface deformation associated with intruding magma has become an established method to study subsurface processes and intrusion architecture. Active subsurface magmatism induces deformation that is commonly modeled using static elastic models. To what extent, Coulomb failure of the crust affects surface deformation remains, so far, largely unexplored. In this contribution we present quantitative laboratory results of surface deformation induced by the emplacement of simulated dikes and cone sheets in a cohesive Coulomb material. The analysis of the experimental surface deformation shows that these intrusion types produce distinct and characteristic surface deformation signatures, which reflect the evolution of the intrusion at depth. Generally, dikes show a two-phase evolution while cone sheets develop gradually. In comparison, cone sheets induce larger uplifted areas and volumes than dikes relative to the depth of the injection source. Dike formation is, in turn, is likely accommodated, to a larger degree than cone sheets, by lateral opening of the host consistent with our current understanding of dike emplacement mechanics. Notably, only surface uplifts develop above the experimental dikes, consistent with a viscous indenter propagation mechanism, that is, a dike pushing ahead. The measured surface deformation patterns associated with dikes starkly contrast with established static, elastic models that predict local subsidence above the tip of a dike. This suggests that Coulomb failure of crustal rocks may considerably affect surface deformation induced by propagating igneous intrusions. This is especially relevant when a relatively high viscosity magma intrudes a weak host, such as unconsolidated sedimentary and volcaniclastic rocks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2017
Keywords
dikes, cone sheets, laboratory models, surface deformation
National Category
Geophysics Geochemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339725 (URN)10.1002/2017JB014346 (DOI)000418577900057 ()
Available from: 2018-01-22 Created: 2018-01-22 Last updated: 2018-01-22Bibliographically approved
Burchardt, S., Troll, V. R., Schmeling, H., Koyi, H. & Blythe, L. (2016). Erupted frothy xenoliths may explain lack of country-rock fragments in plutons. Scientific Reports, 6, Article ID 34566.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Erupted frothy xenoliths may explain lack of country-rock fragments in plutons
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2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 34566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Magmatic stoping is discussed to be a main mechanism of magma emplacement. As a consequence of stoping, abundant country-rock fragments should occur within, and at the bottom of, magma reservoirs as "xenolith graveyards", or become assimilated. However, the common absence of sufficient amounts of both xenoliths and crustal contamination have led to intense controversy about the efficiency of stoping. Here, we present new evidence that may explain the absence of abundant country-rock fragments in plutons. We report on vesiculated crustal xenoliths in volcanic rocks that experienced devolatilisation during heating and partial melting when entrained in magma. We hypothesise that the consequential inflation and density decrease of the xenoliths allowed them to rise and become erupted instead of being preserved in the plutonic record. Our thermomechanical simulations of this process demonstrate that early-stage xenolith sinking can be followed by the rise of a heated, partially-molten xenolith towards the top of the reservoir. There, remnants may disintegrate and mix with resident magma or erupt. Shallow-crustal plutons emplaced into hydrous country rocks may therefore not necessarily contain evidence of the true amount of magmatic stoping during their emplacement. Further studies are needed to quantify the importance of frothy xenolith in removing stoped material.

National Category
Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-308894 (URN)10.1038/srep34566 (DOI)000386722700001 ()27804996 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-12-01 Created: 2016-12-01 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Berg, S. E., Troll, V. R., Deegan, F. M., Burchardt, S., Krumbholz, M., Mancini, L., . . . Brun, F. (2016). Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by X-ray computed microtomography. Bulletin of Volcanology, 78(12), Article ID 85.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by X-ray computed microtomography
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2016 (English)In: Bulletin of Volcanology, ISSN 0258-8900, E-ISSN 1432-0819, Vol. 78, no 12, article id 85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the first week of the 2011 El Hierro submarine eruption, abundant light-coloured pumiceous, high-silica volcanic bombs coated in dark basanite were found floating on the sea. The composition of the light-coloured frothy material ('xeno-pumice') is akin to that of sedimentary rocks from the region, but the textures resemble felsic magmatic pumice, leaving their exact mode of formation unclear. To help decipher their origin, we investigated representative El Hierro xeno-pumice samples using X-ray computed microtomography for their internal vesicle shapes, volumes, and bulk porosity, as well as for the spatial arrangement and size distributions of vesicles in three dimensions (3D). We find a wide range of vesicle morphologies, which are especially variable around small fragments of rock contained in the xeno-pumice samples. Notably, these rock fragments are almost exclusively of sedimentary origin, and we therefore interpret them as relicts an the original sedimentary ocean crust protolith(s). The irregular vesiculation textures observed probably resulted from pulsatory release of volatiles from multiple sources during xeno-pumice formation, most likely by successive release of pore water and mineral water during incremental heating and decompression of the sedimentary protoliths.

Keywords
El Hierro, Xeno-pumice, X-CT imaging, Vesicle morphologies, Vesicle size distribution, Heterogeneous vesiculation, Sedimentary ocean crust
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-272316 (URN)10.1007/s00445-016-1080-x (DOI)000394130700001 ()
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesSwedish Research Council
Note

The manuscript version of this article was used under the name "Heterogeneous vesiculation of 2011 El Hierro xeno-pumice revealed by synchrotron μ-CT" in the following thesis: Silicic Magma Genesis in Basalt-dominated Oceanic Settings: Examples from Iceland and the Canary Islands http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:893923

Available from: 2016-01-13 Created: 2016-01-13 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3316-658X

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