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Němec, F., Morgan, D. D. D., Kopf, A. J., Gurnett, D. A., Pitoňák, D., Fowler, C. M., . . . Andersson, L. (2019). Characterizing Average Electron Densities in the Martian Dayside Upper Ionosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, 124(1), 76-93
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterizing Average Electron Densities in the Martian Dayside Upper Ionosphere
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, no 1, p. 76-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We use more than 10years of the Martian topside ionospheric data measured by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding radar sounder on board the Mars Express spacecraft to derive an empirical model of electron densities from the peak altitude up to 325km. Altogether, 16,044 electron density profiles obtained at spacecraft altitudes lower than 425km and at solar zenith angles lower than 80 degrees are included in the analysis. Each of the measured electron density profiles is accurately characterized by the peak electron density, peak altitude, and three additional parameters describing the profile shape above the peak: (i) steepness at high altitudes, (ii) main layer thickness, and (iii) transition altitude. The dependence of these parameters on relevant controlling factors (solar zenith angle, solar irradiance, crustal magnetic field magnitude, and Sun-Mars distance) is evaluated, allowing for a formulation of a simple empirical model. Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN Extreme Ultraviolet monitor data are used to show that the solar ionizing flux can be accurately approximated by the F10.7 index when taking into account the solar rotation. Electron densities predicted by the resulting empirical model are compared with electron densities locally evaluated based on the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding measurements, with the Langmuir Probe and Waves electron density measurements on board the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN spacecraft, and with electron densities obtained by radio occultation measurements. Although the electron densities measured by the Langmuir Probe and Waves instrument are systematically somewhat lower than the model electron densities, consistent with former findings, the model performs reasonably well.

Abstract [en]

Plain Language Summary

The ionosphere of Mars is the ionized part of its atmosphere, on the dayside ultimately controlled by the solar irradiation. Information about the electron density in there can be, among others, obtained by the radar sounding from a spacecraft orbiting the planet. Such measurements have been performed since 2005 by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding on board the Mars Express spacecraft, and they provide us with electron density profiles from the spacecraft altitude down to the altitude of the peak electron density. We use more than 10years of such measurements to develop an empirical model of typical ionospheric electron densities. The obtained results are compared with electron densities measured in situ by the Langmuir Probe and Waves instrument on board the MAVEN spacecraft available since 2014. A reasonable agreement between the model predictions and these independent observations is found. Finally, the analysis of solar radiation measured by Extreme Ultraviolet monitor on board the MAVEN spacecraft is used to show that, when the solar rotation is properly accounted for, the solar ionizing flux at Mars can be surprisingly well approximated by the solar radio flux measured at Earth.

Keywords
MARSIS, MAVEN LPW, Mars ionosphere
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378741 (URN)10.1029/2018JE005849 (DOI)000459245700005 ()
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Nemec, F., Andrews, D. J., Morgan, D. D., Kopf, A. J. & Gurnett, D. A. (2019). Oblique Reflections of Mars Express MARSIS Radar Signals From Ionospheric Density Structures: Raytracing Analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, 124(5), 1177-1187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oblique Reflections of Mars Express MARSIS Radar Signals From Ionospheric Density Structures: Raytracing Analysis
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Planets, ISSN 2169-9097, E-ISSN 2169-9100, Vol. 124, no 5, p. 1177-1187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) radar sounder on board the Mars Express spacecraft revealed oblique reflections coming systematically from apparently stable density structures in the Martian ionosphere. Although these were typically interpreted by assuming a straight line propagation of the sounding signal at the speed of light, the ionospheric plasma is clearly a dispersive medium. Consequently, the ray propagation paths may be significantly bent, and, moreover, the observed time delays need to be interpreted in terms of realistic group velocities of the signal propagation. We select a single particularly well-pronounced event with oblique reflections observable over a large range of signal frequencies, and we employ raytracing calculations to perform its detailed analysis. An isolated density structure responsible for the reflection of the sounding signal back to the spacecraft is assumed, and the relevant ionospheric signal propagation is properly evaluated. We show that initially oblique sounding signals get progressively more oblique during their propagation, imposing an upper threshold on the angular propagation distance between the spacecraft and the reflecting density structure, in line with the observations. Considering realistic propagation paths further allows us to explain the frequency dependence of the observed time delays and to accurately model the entire event. The obtained results are consistent with the spacecraft passing very close to a spatially limited density structure. We also show that the results obtained using realistic raytracing calculations are significantly different from the results obtained using additional simplifying assumptions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2019
Keywords
MARSIS, Mars Express, Martian ionosphere
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390047 (URN)10.1029/2018JE005891 (DOI)000471600600003 ()
Available from: 2019-08-05 Created: 2019-08-05 Last updated: 2019-08-05Bibliographically approved
Morooka, M., Wahlund, J.-E., Hadid, L. Z., Eriksson, A. I., Edberg, N. J. T., Vigren, E., . . . Perry, M. (2019). Saturn's Dusty Ionosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 124(3), 1679-1697
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Saturn's Dusty Ionosphere
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 124, no 3, p. 1679-1697Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measurements of electrons and ions in Saturn's ionosphere down to 1,500-km altitudes as well as the ring crossing region above the ionosphere obtained by the Langmuir probe onboard the Cassini spacecraft are presented. Five nearly identical deep ionosphere flybys during the Grand Finale orbits and the Final plunge orbit revealed a rapid increase in the plasma densities and discrepancies between the electrons and ions densities (N-e and N-i) near the closest approach. The small N-e/N-i ratio indicates the presence of a dusty plasma, a plasma which charge carrier is dominated by negatively charged heavy particles. Comparison of the Langmuir probe obtained density with the light ion density obtained by the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer confirmed the presence of heavy ions. An unexpected positive floating potential of the probe was also observed when N-e/N-i << 1. This suggests that Saturn's ionosphere near the density peak is in a dusty plasma state consisting of negatively and positively charged heavy cluster ions. The electron temperature (T-e) characteristics in the ionosphere are also investigated and unexpectedly high electron temperature value, up to 5000 K, has been observed below 2,500-km altitude in a region where electron-neutral collisions should be prominent. A well-defined relationship between T-e and N-e/N-i ratio was found, implying that the electron heating at low altitudes is related to the dusty plasma state of the ionosphere.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2019
Keywords
Saturn's ionosphere, dusty plasma, Langmuir probe, plasma density, electron temperature
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387566 (URN)10.1029/2018JA026154 (DOI)000466087900016 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191Swedish Research Council, 2.2.1-312/16Swedish National Space Board, Dnr 174/15 135/13 162/14
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Hadid, L. Z., Morooka, M. W., Wahlund, J.-E., Persoon, A. M., Andrews, D. J., Shebanits, O., . . . Eriksson, A. I. (2019). Saturn's Ionosphere: Electron Density Altitude Profiles and D-Ring Interaction From The Cassini Grand Finale. Geophysical Research Letters, 46(16), 9362-9369
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Saturn's Ionosphere: Electron Density Altitude Profiles and D-Ring Interaction From The Cassini Grand Finale
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2019 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 46, no 16, p. 9362-9369Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present the electron density (n(e)) altitude profiles of Saturn's ionosphere at near-equatorial latitudes from all 23 orbits of Cassini's Grand Finale. The data are collected by the Langmuir probe part of the Radio and Plasma Wave Science investigation. A high degree of variability in the electron density profiles is observed. However, organizing them by consecutive altitude ranges revealed clear differences between the southern and northern hemispheres. The n(e) profiles are shown to be more variable and connected to the D-ring below 5,000 km in the southern hemisphere compared to the northern hemisphere. This observed variability is explained to be a consequence of an electrodynamic interaction with the D-ring. Moreover, a density altitude profile is constructed for the northern hemisphere indicating the presence of three different ionospheric layers. Similar properties were observed during Cassini's final plunge, where the main ionospheric peak is crossed at similar to 1,550-km altitude. Plain Language Summary The Cassini Langmuir probe measured directly the uppermost layer of Saturn's atmosphere, the ionosphere, during its Grand Finale. The observations revealed a layered electron density altitude profile with evidence in the southern hemisphere of an electrodynamic type of interaction with the planet innermost D-ring. Moreover, the main peak of the ionosphere is observed for the first time in the final plunge around 1,550 km.

National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-396547 (URN)10.1029/2018GL078004 (DOI)000490966700007 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space BoardSwedish Research Council, 2016-05364Swedish National Space Board, Dnr 174/15Swedish National Space Board, Dnr 135/13Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191
Available from: 2019-11-07 Created: 2019-11-07 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
Edberg, N. J. T., Johansson, F., Eriksson, A., Andrews, D. J., Hajra, R., Henri, P., . . . Thiemann, E. (2019). Solar flares observed by Rosetta at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 630, Article ID A49.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solar flares observed by Rosetta at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
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2019 (English)In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 630, article id A49Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Context. The Rosetta spacecraft made continuous measurements of the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P) for more than two years. The plasma in the coma appeared very dynamic, and many factors control its variability. Aims. We wish to identify the effects of solar flares on the comet plasma and also their effect on the measurements by the Langmuir Probe Instrument (LAP). Methods. To identify the effects of flares, we proceeded from an existing flare catalog of Earth-directed solar flares, from which a new list was created that only included Rosetta-directed flares. We also used measurements of flares at Mars when at similar longitudes as Rosetta. The flare irradiance spectral model (FISM v.1) and its Mars equivalent (FISM-M) produce an extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) irradiance (10-120 nm) of the flares at 1 min resolution. LAP data and density measurements obtained with the Mutual Impedence Probe (MIP) from the time of arrival of the flares at Rosetta were examined to determine the flare effects. Results. From the vantage point of Earth, 1504 flares directed toward Rosetta occurred during the mission. In only 24 of these, that is, 1.6%, was the increase in EUV irradiance large enough to cause an observable effect in LAP data. Twenty-four Mars-directed flares were also observed in Rosetta data. The effect of the flares was to increase the photoelectron current by typically 1-5 nA. We find little evidence that the solar flares increase the plasma density, at least not above the background variability. Conclusions. Solar flares have a small effect on the photoelectron current of the LAP instrument, and they are not significant in comparison to other factors that control the plasma density in the coma. The photoelectron current can only be used for flare detection during periods of calm plasma conditions.

Keywords
plasmas, space vehicles: instruments, Sun: flares, comets: general
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395802 (URN)10.1051/0004-6361/201834834 (DOI)000486989400048 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 109/12Swedish National Space Board, 135/13Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-5526
Available from: 2019-10-25 Created: 2019-10-25 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Wahlund, J.-E., Morooka, M. W., Hadid, L. Z., Persoon, A. M., Farrell, W. M., Gurnett, D. A., . . . Vigren, E. (2018). In situ measurements of Saturn's ionosphere show that it is dynamic and interacts with the rings. Science, 359(6371), 66-68
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ measurements of Saturn's ionosphere show that it is dynamic and interacts with the rings
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2018 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 359, no 6371, p. 66-68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ionized upper layer of Saturn's atmosphere, its ionosphere, provides a closure of currents mediated by the magnetic field to other electrically charged regions (for example, rings) and hosts ion-molecule chemistry. In 2017, the Cassini spacecraft passed inside the planet's rings, allowing in situ measurements of the ionosphere. The Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument detected a cold, dense, and dynamic ionosphere at Saturn that interacts with the rings. Plasma densities reached up to 1000 cubic centimeters, and electron temperatures were below 1160 kelvin near closest approach. The density varied between orbits by up to two orders of magnitude. Saturn's A- and B-rings cast a shadow on the planet that reduced ionization in the upper atmosphere, causing a north-south asymmetry.

National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-341494 (URN)10.1126/science.aao4134 (DOI)000419324700067 ()29229651 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-02-21 Created: 2018-02-21 Last updated: 2018-02-21Bibliographically approved
Voshchepynets, A., Barabash, S., Ramstad, R., Holmstrom, M., Andrews, D. J., Nicolaou, G., . . . Gurnett, D. (2018). Ions Accelerated by Sounder-Plasma Interaction as Observed by Mars Express. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 123(11), 9802-9814
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ions Accelerated by Sounder-Plasma Interaction as Observed by Mars Express
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, no 11, p. 9802-9814Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The ion sensor of the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA-3) experiment detects accelerated ions during pulses of radio emissions from the powerful topside sounder: the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) onboard Mars Express. Accelerated ions (O-2(+), O+, and lighter ions) are observed in an energy range up to 800 eV when MARSIS transmits at a frequency close to the plasma frequency. Individual observations consist of almost monoenergetic ion beams aligned with the MARSIS antenna or lying in the plane perpendicular to the antenna. The observed ion beams are often accompanied by a small decrease in the electron flux observed by the electron sensor of Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms 3. Observations indicate that the voltage applied to the antenna causes charging of the spacecraft to several hundreds of volts by the electrons of the ambient plasma. Positively charged ions are accelerated when the spacecraft discharges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372834 (URN)10.1029/2018JA025889 (DOI)000453227400061 ()
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Andrews, D. J., Opgenoorth, H. J., Leyser, T. B., Buchert, S., Edberg, N. J. T., Morgan, D. D., . . . Withers, P. (2018). MARSIS Observations of Field-Aligned Irregularities and Ducted Radio Propagation in the Martian Ionosphere. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 123(8), 6251-6263
Open this publication in new window or tab >>MARSIS Observations of Field-Aligned Irregularities and Ducted Radio Propagation in the Martian Ionosphere
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, no 8, p. 6251-6263Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Knowledge of Mars's ionosphere has been significantly advanced in recent years by observations from Mars Express and lately Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN. A topic of particular interest are the interactions between the planet's ionospheric plasma and its highly structured crustal magnetic fields and how these lead to the redistribution of plasma and affect the propagation of radio waves in the system. In this paper, we elucidate a possible relationship between two anomalous radar signatures previously reported in observations from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding instrument on Mars Express. Relatively uncommon observations of localized, extreme increases in the ionospheric peak density in regions of radial (cusp-like) magnetic fields and spread echo radar signatures are shown to be coincident with ducting of the same radar pulses at higher altitudes on the same field lines. We suggest that these two observations are both caused by a high electric field (perpendicular to B) having distinctly different effects in two altitude regimes. At lower altitudes, where ions are demagnetized and electrons magnetized, and recombination dominantes, a high electric field causes irregularities, plasma turbulence, electron heating, slower recombination, and ultimately enhanced plasma densities. However, at higher altitudes, where both ions and electrons are magnetized and atomic oxygen ions cannot recombine directly, the high electric field instead causes frictional heating, a faster production of molecular ions by charge exchange, and so a density decrease. The latter enables ducting of radar pulses on closed field lines, in an analogous fashion to interhemispheric ducting in the Earth's ionosphere.

Keywords
Mars, ionosphere, irregularities, MARSIS, crustal fields, plasma
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368054 (URN)10.1029/2018JA025663 (DOI)000445731300011 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2014-5526Swedish National Space Board, 162/14
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Morooka, M. W., Wahlund, J.-E., Andrews, D. J., Persoon, A. M., Ye, S.-Y. -., Kurth, W. S., . . . Farrell, W. M. (2018). The Dusty Plasma Disk Around the Janus/Epimetheus Ring. Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, 123(6), 4668-4678
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Dusty Plasma Disk Around the Janus/Epimetheus Ring
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics, ISSN 2169-9380, E-ISSN 2169-9402, Vol. 123, no 6, p. 4668-4678Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on the electron, ion, and dust number densities and the electron temperatures obtained by the Radio and Plasma Wave Science instruments onboard Cassini during the Ring-Grazing orbits. The numerous ring passage observations show a consistent picture as follows: (1) Beyond 0.1 R-S above and below the equator the electron and ion densities are quasi-neutral with a distribution similar to the one obtained in the plasma disk. (2) A sharp ion density enhancement occurs at vertical bar Z vertical bar < 0.1 R-S, to more than 200 cm(-3) at the equator, while the electron density remains low only to values of 50cm(-3). The electron/ion density ratio is <= 0.1 at the equator. (3) Micrometer-sized dust has also been observed at the equator. However, the region of intense dust signals is significantly narrower (vertical bar Z vertical bar<0.02 R-S) than the enhanced ion density regions. (4) The electron temperature (T-e) generally decreases with decreasing Z with small T-e enhancements near the equator. We show that the dust size characteristics are different depending on the distance from the equator, and the large micrometer-sized grains are more perceptible in a narrow region near the equator where the power law slope of the dust size distribution becomes less steep. As a result, different scale heights are obtained for nanometer and micrometer grains. Throughout the ring, the dominant part of the negative charges is carried by the small nanometer-sized grains. The electron/ion density ratio is variable from orbit to orbit, suggesting changes in the dust charging over time scales of weeks. Plain Language Summary The Radio and Plasma Wave Science instrument onboard Cassini observed a dusty plasma during the Ring-Grazing orbits. Dusty plasma is composed of, in addition to the electrons and ions, charged dust grains, and those grains play an important role in the plasma dynamics. The observed electron, ion, and dust number densities and the electron temperatures showed the layered structure of the faint Janus/Epimetheus rings. The core of the dusty ring composed of micron-sized dust is surrounded by a dusty plasma consisting of the ions and the negatively charged nanometer grains and further surrounded by the pristine plasma. The electron/ion density ratio of the dusty plasma varies from orbit to orbit, implying that the dust charging characteristics of the dusty ring change over time scales of weeks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER GEOPHYSICAL UNION, 2018
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362176 (URN)10.1002/2017JA024917 (DOI)000439803100014 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, Dnr 174/15
Available from: 2018-10-04 Created: 2018-10-04 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
Edberg, N. J. T., Vigren, E., Snowden, D., Regoli, L. H., Shebanits, O., Wahlund, J.-E., . . . Cui, J. (2018). Titan's Variable Ionosphere During the T118 and T119 Cassini Flybys. Geophysical Research Letters, 45(17), 8721-8728
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Titan's Variable Ionosphere During the T118 and T119 Cassini Flybys
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2018 (English)In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, E-ISSN 1944-8007, Vol. 45, no 17, p. 8721-8728Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report on unusual dynamics in Titan's ionosphere as a significant difference in ionospheric electron density is observed between the T118 and T119 Cassini nightside flybys. Two distinct nightside electron density peaks were present during T118, at 1,150 and 1,200km, and the lowest density ever observed in Titan's ionosphere at altitudes 1,000-1,350km was during T118. These flybys were quite similar in geometry, Saturn local time, neutral density, extreme ultraviolet flux, and ambient magnetic field conditions. Despite this, the Radio and Plasma Waves/Langmuir Probe measured a density difference up to a factor of 6 between the passes. The overall difference was present and similar during both inbound and outbound legs. By ruling out other factors, we suggest that an exceptionally low rate of particle impact ionization in combination with dynamics in the ionosphere is the explanation for the observations. Plain Language Summary Using the Cassini satellite in orbit around Saturn, we make measurements during two close passes of the moon Titan. We observe how the electron density in the uppermost part of the moon's atmosphere-the ionosphere-changes drastically from one pass to the next. We also observe unexpectedly high peaks of electron density in a specific altitude range during the first pass. The findings are attributed to low influx of charged particles from Saturn's magnetosphere as well as to increased dynamics of the plasma in the ionosphere. The study emphasizes the complexity of the physical process at play at the moon and aims at gaining further understanding of this environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Geophysical Union (AGU), 2018
National Category
Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363432 (URN)10.1029/2018GL078436 (DOI)000445727500003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2013-4191Swedish National Space Board, 135/13
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-10-18Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7933-0322

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