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Parachnowitsch, Amy L.ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9668-6593
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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Muola, A., Weber, D., Malm, L. E., Egan, P. A., Glinwood, R., Parachnowitsch, A. L. & Stenberg, J. A. (2017). Direct and Pollinator-Mediated Effects of Herbivory on Strawberry and the Potential for Improved Resistance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, Article ID 823.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct and Pollinator-Mediated Effects of Herbivory on Strawberry and the Potential for Improved Resistance
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2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 8, article id 823Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global decline in pollinators has partly been blamed on pesticides, leading some to propose pesticide-free farming as an option to improve pollination. However, herbivores are likely to be more prevalent in pesticide-free environments, requiring knowledge of their effects on pollinators, and alternative crop protection strategies to mitigate any potential pollination reduction. Strawberry leaf beetles (SLB) Galerucella spp. are important strawberry pests in Northern Europe and Russia. Given that SLB attack both leaf and flower tissue, we hypothesized pollinators would discriminate against SLB-damaged strawberry plants (Fragaria vesca, cultivar 'Rügen'), leading to lower pollination success and yield. In addition we screened the most common commercial cultivar 'Rugen' and wild Swedish F. vesca genotypes for SLB resistance to assess the potential for inverse breeding to restore high SLB resistance in cultivated strawberry. Behavioral observations in a controlled experiment revealed that the local pollinator fauna avoided strawberry flowers with SLB-damaged petals. Low pollination, in turn, resulted in smaller more deformed fruits. Furthermore, SLB-damaged flowers produced smaller fruits even when they were hand pollinated, showing herbivore damage also had direct effects on yield, independent of indirect effects on pollination. We found variable resistance in wild woodland strawberry to SLB and more resistant plant genotypes than the cultivar 'Rugen' were identified. Efficient integrated pest management strategies should be employed to mitigate both direct and indirect effects of herbivory for cultivated strawberry, including high intrinsic plant resistance.

Keyword
crop wild relative, diffuse interaction, ecosystem service, Galerucella tenella, Galerucella sagittariae, florivory, integrated pest management, integrated pest and pollinator management
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-325702 (URN)10.3389/fpls.2017.00823 (DOI)000401516700001 ()28572811 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 217-2014-541
Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Moritz, K. K., Bjorkman, C., Parachnowitsch, A. L. & Stenberg, J. A. (2017). Plant sex effects on insect herbivores and biological control in a Short Rotation Coppice willow. Biological control (Print), 115, 30-36.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plant sex effects on insect herbivores and biological control in a Short Rotation Coppice willow
2017 (English)In: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 115, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the wild, plant sex can affect plant-herbivore interactions and higher trophic levels, including natural enemies of the herbivores. However, the possibility of manipulating plant sex to improve biological control and reduce herbivory in domesticated dioecious crops remains unexplored. The dioecious bioenergy crop, Salix viminalis, is often planted in monoclonal, and thus monosexual, fields. We investigated whether using plant clones of either sex, or mixing plants of both sexes, reduced the performance and abundance of the herbivorous pest insect Phratora vulgatissima and its main natural enemy, Anthocoris nemorum, and whether predation was affected. The herbivore laid more eggs, and the predator survived longer, on female plants in the lab. However, these effects did not translate into differences in predation rates in laboratory experiments or differential insect abundances on plants of either sex or plantation sex composition in the field. Plant genotype did have a significant effect on insect abundances, but this was due to plant traits other than sex. The results indicate that manipulating plant sex will not lead to improved biological control or reduced insect herbivory in S. viminalis energy forestry, but suggest that a focus on plant genotypic differences offers promise for improving management practices.

Keyword
Integrated Pest Management, Dioecy, Biocontrol, Anthocoris nemorum, Phratora vulgatissima, Salix viminalis
National Category
Plant Biotechnology Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342198 (URN)10.1016/j.biocontrol.2017.09.006 (DOI)000415670600005 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2018-02-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Caruso, C. M. & Parachnowitsch, A. L. (2016). Do Plants Eavesdrop on Floral Scent Signals?. Trends in Plant Science, 21(1), 9-15.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do Plants Eavesdrop on Floral Scent Signals?
2016 (English)In: Trends in Plant Science, ISSN 1360-1385, E-ISSN 1878-4372, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 9-15Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plants emit a diverse array of volatile organic compounds that can function as cues to other plants. Plants can use volatiles emitted by neighbors to gain information about their environment, and respond by adjusting their phenotype. Less is known about whether the many different volatile signals that plants emit are all equally likely to function as cues to other plants. We review evidence for the function of floral volatile signals and conclude that plants are as likely to perceive and respond to floral volatiles as to other, better-studied volatiles. We propose that eavesdropping on floral volatile cues is particularly likely to be adaptive because plants can respond to these cues by adjusting traits that directly affect pollination and mating.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282182 (URN)10.1016/j.tplants.2015.09.001 (DOI)000369199200005 ()26476624 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-04 Created: 2016-04-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Moritz, K. K., Björkman, C., Parachnowitsch, A. L. & Stenberg, J. A. (2016). Female Salix viminalis are more severely infected by Melampsora spp. but neither sex experiences associational effects. Ecology and Evolution, 6(4), 1154-1162.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Female Salix viminalis are more severely infected by Melampsora spp. but neither sex experiences associational effects
2016 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1154-1162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Associational effects of plant genotype or species on plant biotic interactions are common, not least for disease spread, but associational effects of plant sex on interactions have largely been ignored. Sex in dioecious plants can affect biotic interactions with herbivores and pollinators; however, its effects on plant-pathogen interactions are understudied and associational effects are unknown. In a replicated field experiment, we assessed Melampsora spp. leaf rust infection in monosexual and mixed sex plots of dioecious Salix viminalis L. to determine whether plant sex has either direct or associational effects on infection severity. We found no differences in Melampsora spp. infection severity among sexual monocultures and mixtures in our field experiment. However, female plants were overall more severely infected. In addition, we surveyed previous studies of infection in S.viminalis clones and reevaluated the studies after we assigned sex to the clones. We found that females were generally more severely infected, as in our field study. Similarly, in a survey of studies on sex-biased infection in dioecious plants, we found more female-biased infections in plant-pathogen pairs. We conclude that there was no evidence for associational plant sex effects of neighboring conspecifics for either females or males on infection severity. Instead, plant sex effects on infection act at an individual plant level. Our findings also suggest that female plants may in general be more severely affected by fungal pathogens than males.

Keyword
Dioecy, genotypic effects, neighborhood effects, plant pathogens, sex-biases
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282322 (URN)10.1002/ece3.1923 (DOI)000371069800023 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Burdon, R. C. F., Raguso, R. A., Kessler, A. & Parachnowitsch, A. L. (2015). Spatiotemporal floral scent variation of Penstemon digitalis. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 41(7), 641-650.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatiotemporal floral scent variation of Penstemon digitalis
2015 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 641-650Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Variability in floral volatile emissions can occur temporally through floral development, during diel cycles, as well as spatially within a flower. These spatiotemporal patterns are hypothesized to provide additional information to floral visitors, but they are rarely measured, and their attendant hypotheses are even more rarely tested. In Penstemon digitalis, a plant whose floral scent has been shown to be under strong phenotypic selection for seed fitness, we investigated spatiotemporal variation in floral scent by using dynamic headspace collection, respectively solid-phase microextraction, and analyzed the volatile samples by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total volatile emission was greatest during flowering and peak pollinator activity hours, suggesting its importance in mediating ecological interactions. We also detected tissue and reward-specific compounds, consistent with the hypothesis that complexity in floral scent composition reflects several ecological functions. In particular, we found tissue-specific scents for the stigma, stamens, and staminode (a modified sterile stamen common to all Penstemons). Our findings emphasize the dynamic nature of floral scents and highlight a need for greater understanding of ecological and physiological mechanisms driving spatiotemporal patterns in scent production.

Keyword
Diel variation, Floral scent, Nectar scent, GC/MS, S-(+)-linalool, Pollen odor, Staminode
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264677 (URN)10.1007/s10886-015-0599-1 (DOI)000361465800006 ()26133675 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Parachnowitsch, A. & Manson, J. (2015). The chemical ecology of plant pollinator interactions: recent advances and future direction. Current Opinion in Insect Science, 8, 41-46.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The chemical ecology of plant pollinator interactions: recent advances and future direction
2015 (English)In: Current Opinion in Insect Science, Vol. 8, p. 41-46Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Floral chemistry mediates plant–pollinator interactions through floral scents and reward components. Although improved techniques have increased interest in studying floral volatiles and nectar chemistry, these two foci have generally been studied in isolation. The ecological functions of floral chemistry have been relatively well studied and focused on pollinator behaviour. While studies comparing chemistry between plant parts and across phylogenies are increasing, work on the evolution of floral chemistry and the importance of community context in mediating pollinator responses is lacking. Future research should concentrate on more holistic studies that include both signal and reward chemistry to understand the relative contribution of these complex and dynamic floral traits to the ecology and evolution of plants and their pollinators.

National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264081 (URN)10.1016/j.cois.2015.02.005 (DOI)000369017000009 ()
Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2016-03-08Bibliographically approved
Junker, R. R. & Parachnowitsch, A. L. (2015). Working Towards a Holistic View on Flower Traits-How Floral Scents Mediate Plant-Animal Interactions in Concert with Other Floral Characters. Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, 95(1), 43-67.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Working Towards a Holistic View on Flower Traits-How Floral Scents Mediate Plant-Animal Interactions in Concert with Other Floral Characters
2015 (English)In: Journal of the Indian Institute of Science, ISSN 0970-4140, Vol. 95, no 1, p. 43-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Flowers are complex structures, synchronously displaying both olfactory and visual signals/cues in the context of a particular floral morphology, that also vary in resource quantity and quality. Despite or possibly because of this complexity, many studies focus on a single or few traits rather than studying floral phenotypes in a more integrated fashion. However, each of these distinct trait classes (signals/cues, morphology and resources) mediates interactions with floral visitors, demanding a more holistic view of flowers. In our review, we integrate floral scents into the broader context of the whole-flower phenotype. We discuss the functions of scent bouquets, colouration, morphology and rewards in flower visitor interactions from an ecological and evolutionary perspective in isolation and taken together. Studies demonstrate that floral scent bouquets can act additively or synergistically with other modalities, and that their effects on flower visitors are context-dependent. We also present field study results showing that reward levels modulate dose-dependent responses to volatiles by honeybees. To motivate studies examining complex floral phenotypes, we outline statistical approaches suited to deal with the complex multivariate datasets generated by these studies. We conclude with a discussion on why flowers display multimodal traits and suggest future research efforts. Our aim is to foster a fresh view on integrated floral phenotypes and stimulate studies exploring the combined effects of olfactory, visual, morphological and nutritional traits on flower animal interactions.

Keyword
antagonists, behaviour, morphology, mutualism, pollination, rewards, volatile organic compounds
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-243671 (URN)000347672400005 ()
Available from: 2015-02-20 Created: 2015-02-11 Last updated: 2015-02-20Bibliographically approved
Parachnowitsch, A. L., Cook-Patton, S. C. & McArt, S. H. (2014). Neighbours matter: natural selection on plant size depends on the identity and diversity of the surrounding community. Evolutionary Ecology, 28(6), 1139-1153.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neighbours matter: natural selection on plant size depends on the identity and diversity of the surrounding community
2014 (English)In: Evolutionary Ecology, ISSN 0269-7653, E-ISSN 1573-8477, Vol. 28, no 6, p. 1139-1153Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plant diversity can affect ecological processes such as competition and herbivory, and these ecological processes can act as drivers of evolutionary change. However, surprisingly little is known about how ecological variation in plant diversity can alter selective regimes on members of the community. Here, we examine how plant diversity at two different scales (genotypic and species diversity) impacts natural selection on a focal plant species, the common evening primrose (Oenothera biennis). Because competition is frequently relaxed in both genotypically and species rich plant communities, we hypothesized that increasing diversity would weaken selection on competitive ability. Changes in plant diversity can also affect associated arthropod communities. Therefore, we hypothesized that diversity would alter selection on plant traits mediating these interactions, such as herbivory related traits. We grew 24 focal O. biennis genotypes within four different neighbourhoods: genotypic monocultures or polycultures of O. biennis, and species monocultures or polycultures of old-field species that commonly co-occur with O. biennis. We then measured genotypic selection on nine plant traits known to be ecologically important for competition and herbivory. Focal O. biennis plants were smaller, flowered for shorter periods of time, had lower fitness, and experienced greater attack from specialist predispersal seed predators when grown with conspecifics versus heterospecifics. While neither conspecific nor heterospecific diversity altered trait means, both types of diversity altered the strength of selection on focal O. biennis plants. Specifically, selection on plant biomass was stronger in conspecific monocultures versus polycultures, but weaker in heterospecific monocultures versus polycultures. We found no evidence of selection on plant traits that mediate insect interactions, despite differences in arthropod communities on plants surrounded by conspecifics versus heterospecifics. Our data demonstrate that plant genotypic and species diversity can act as agents of natural selection, potentially driving evolutionary changes in plant communities.

Keyword
Biodiversity, Biomass, Community driven selection, Genotypic selection, Natural selection, Oenothera biennis
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238421 (URN)10.1007/s10682-014-9727-6 (DOI)000344075200011 ()
Available from: 2014-12-17 Created: 2014-12-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Parachnowitsch, A. (2014). New Synthesis: The Evolutionary Ecology of Floral Volatiles. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 40(8), 859-859.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New Synthesis: The Evolutionary Ecology of Floral Volatiles
2014 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 859-859Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Ecology Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-235028 (URN)10.1007/s10886-014-0491-4 (DOI)000341863800001 ()
Available from: 2014-10-29 Created: 2014-10-28 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Parachnowitsch, A. L. (2013). Interpreting local adaptation studies. Ideas in Ecology and Evolution, 6(1), 37-39.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interpreting local adaptation studies
2013 (English)In: Ideas in Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 1918-3178, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 37-39Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keyword
adaptation, allopatric, natural selection, reciprocal transplants
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-213716 (URN)10.4033/iee.2013.6.8.c (DOI)
Available from: 2014-01-03 Created: 2014-01-03 Last updated: 2014-02-20Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9668-6593

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