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Parachnowitsch, Amy L.ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9668-6593
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Publications (10 of 22) Show all publications
Parachnowitsch, A. L., Manson, J. S. & Sletvold, N. (2019). Evolutionary ecology of nectar. Annals of Botany, 123(2), 247-261
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolutionary ecology of nectar
2019 (English)In: Annals of Botany, ISSN 0305-7364, E-ISSN 1095-8290, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 247-261Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Floral nectar is an important determinant of plant–pollinator interactions and an integral component of pollination syndromes, suggesting it is under pollinator-mediated selection. However, compared to floral display traits, we know little about the evolutionary ecology of nectar. Combining a literature review with a meta-analysis approach, we summarize the evidence for heritable variation in nectar traits and link this variation to pollinator response and plant fitness. We further review associations between nectar traits and floral signals and discuss them in the context of honest signalling and targets of selection.

Scope: Although nectar is strongly influenced by environmental factors, heritable variation in nectar production rate has been documented in several populations (mean h2 = 0.31). Almost nothing is known about heritability of other nectar traits, such as sugar and amino acid concentrations. Only a handful of studies have quantified selection on nectar traits, and few find statistically significant selection. Pollinator responses to nectar traits indicate they may drive selection, but studies tying pollinator preferences to plant fitness are lacking. So far, only one study conclusively identified pollinators as selective agents on a nectar trait, and the role of microbes, herbivores, nectar robbers and abiotic factors in nectar evolution is largely hypothetical. Finally, there is a trend for positive correlations among floral cues and nectar traits, indicating honest signalling of rewards.

Conclusions: Important progress can be made by studies that quantify current selection on nectar in natural populations, as well as experimental approaches that identify the target traits and selective agents involved. Signal–reward associations suggest that correlational selection may shape evolution of nectar traits, and studies exploring these more complex forms of natural selection are needed. Many questions about nectar evolution remain unanswered, making this a field ripe for future research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
Agents of selection, floral traits, heritability, honest signalling, meta-analysis, natural selection, nectar, signal–reward correlation
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372991 (URN)10.1093/aob/mcy132 (DOI)000462548600002 ()30032269 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-05-21Bibliographically approved
Burdon, R. C. F., Junker, R. R., Scofield, D. & Parachnowitsch, A. L. (2018). Bacteria colonising Penstemon digitalis show volatile and tissue-specific responses to a natural concentration range of the floral volatile linalool. Chemoecology, 28(1), 11-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bacteria colonising Penstemon digitalis show volatile and tissue-specific responses to a natural concentration range of the floral volatile linalool
2018 (English)In: Chemoecology, ISSN 0937-7409, E-ISSN 1423-0445, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 11-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350542 (URN)10.1007/s00049-018-0252-x (DOI)000426848500002 ()
Available from: 2018-03-01 Created: 2018-05-21 Last updated: 2018-05-22Bibliographically approved
Junker, R. R., Kuppler, J., Amo, L., Blande, J. D., Borges, R. M., van Dam, N. M., . . . Köllner, T. G. (2018). Covariation and phenotypic integration in chemical communication displays: biosynthetic constraints and eco-evolutionary implications. New Phytologist, 220(3), 739-749
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Covariation and phenotypic integration in chemical communication displays: biosynthetic constraints and eco-evolutionary implications
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2018 (English)In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 220, no 3, p. 739-749Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chemical communication is ubiquitous. The identification of conserved structural elements in visual and acoustic communication is well established, but comparable information on chemical communication displays (CCDs) is lacking. We assessed the phenotypic integration of CCDs in a meta-analysis to characterize patterns of covariation in CCDs and identified functional or biosynthetically constrained modules. Poorly integrated plant CCDs (i.e. low covariation between scent compounds) support the notion that plants often utilize one or few key compounds to repel antagonists or to attract pollinators and enemies of herbivores. Animal CCDs (mostly insect pheromones) were usually more integrated than those of plants (i.e. stronger covariation), suggesting that animals communicate via fixed proportions among compounds. Both plant and animal CCDs were composed of modules, which are groups of strongly covarying compounds. Biosynthetic similarity of compounds revealed biosynthetic constraints in the covariation patterns of plant CCDs. We provide a novel perspective on chemical communication and a basis for future investigations on structural properties of CCDs. This will facilitate identifying modules and biosynthetic constraints that may affect the outcome of selection and thus provide a predictive framework for evolutionary trajectories of CCDs in plants and animals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
biosynthetic constraints, chemical communication, correlation network analysis, floral scents, phenotypic integration, vegetative scents
National Category
Botany
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369046 (URN)10.1111/nph.14505 (DOI)000447417300011 ()28256726 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-12-12 Created: 2018-12-12 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Moritz, K. K., Parachnowitsch, A. L., Julkunen-Tiitto, R., Björkman, C., Ayres, M. P. & Stenberg, J. A. (2018). Roe deer prefer mixed-sex willow stands over monosexual stands but do not discriminate between male and female plants. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 146, 62-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Roe deer prefer mixed-sex willow stands over monosexual stands but do not discriminate between male and female plants
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2018 (English)In: Environmental and Experimental Botany, ISSN 0098-8472, E-ISSN 1873-7307, Vol. 146, p. 62-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Male and female plants of dioecious species often experience differential herbivory, possibly due to differences in defences such as secondary metabolite composition or nutritional quality. These plant sex effects on herbivory have been extensively studied for plant individuals, but not for stands/populations. For mobile herbivores, such as deer, stands may be a more relevant scale to study than individual plants. We predicted that male Salts viminalis plants should be subject to more extensive roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) browsing than female plants due to weaker defence in male plants. Furthermore, we expected that mixed-sex stands should experience more damage than monosexual stands due to positive effects of diet mixing on browsing by generalists. We tested for differences in roe deer browsing in plots that were either monosexual male or female, or a mix of male and female plants in a replicated field experiment. Roe deer browsing was estimated after one growth season with heavy herbivory. We also measured plant secondary metabolite concentrations and nitrogen content in leaves from all experimental clones to test the assumption that the sexes differed in defence or nutrients. Mixed-sex plots were more extensively browsed than monosexual plots. However, there was no difference in browsing between male and female plant individuals within mixed-sex plots or between monosexual plots. Plant secondary metabolite profiles differed between male and female plants, while nitrogen content did not. Our findings suggest that the diversified plant secondary metabolite contents of mixed-sex plots may have led to more extensive herbivory. Higher browsing of plant sex mixes may impact both natural and commercial S. viminalis stands with different sex ratios.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Dioecy, Detoxification limitation hypothesis, Plant secondary metabolites, Herbivory
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-345718 (URN)10.1016/j.envexpbot.2017.10.015 (DOI)000423890400008 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P36650-1
Available from: 2018-03-15 Created: 2018-03-15 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
Saunders, M. E., Duffy, M. A., Heard, S. B., Kosmala, M., Leather, S. R., McGlynn, T. P., . . . Parachnowitsch, A. L. (2017). Bringing ecology blogging into the scientific fold: measuring reach and impact of science community blogs. Royal Society Open Science, 4(10), Article ID 170957.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bringing ecology blogging into the scientific fold: measuring reach and impact of science community blogs
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2017 (English)In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, no 10, article id 170957Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The popularity of science blogging has increased in recent years, but the number of academic scientists who maintain regular blogs is limited. The role and impact of science communication blogs aimed at general audiences is often discussed, but the value of science community blogs aimed at the academic community has largely been overlooked. Here, we focus on our own experiences as bloggers to argue that science community blogs are valuable to the academic community. We use data fromour own blogs (n=7) to illustrate some of the factors influencing reach and impact of science community blogs. We then discuss the value of blogs as a standalone medium, where rapid communication of scholarly ideas, opinions and short observational notes can enhance scientific discourse, and discussion of personal experiences can provide indirect mentorship for junior researchers and scientists from underrepresented groups. Finally, we argue that science community blogs can be treated as a primary source and provide some key points to consider when citing blogs in peer-reviewed literature.

Keywords
communication, science community, blogging, impact
National Category
Ecology Information Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346580 (URN)10.1098/rsos.170957 (DOI)000413965600038 ()
Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2018-03-21Bibliographically approved
Muola, A., Weber, D., Malm, L. E., Egan, P. A., Glinwood, R., Parachnowitsch, A. L. & Stenberg, J. A. (2017). Direct and Pollinator-Mediated Effects of Herbivory on Strawberry and the Potential for Improved Resistance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 8, Article ID 823.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Direct and Pollinator-Mediated Effects of Herbivory on Strawberry and the Potential for Improved Resistance
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2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 8, article id 823Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The global decline in pollinators has partly been blamed on pesticides, leading some to propose pesticide-free farming as an option to improve pollination. However, herbivores are likely to be more prevalent in pesticide-free environments, requiring knowledge of their effects on pollinators, and alternative crop protection strategies to mitigate any potential pollination reduction. Strawberry leaf beetles (SLB) Galerucella spp. are important strawberry pests in Northern Europe and Russia. Given that SLB attack both leaf and flower tissue, we hypothesized pollinators would discriminate against SLB-damaged strawberry plants (Fragaria vesca, cultivar 'Rügen'), leading to lower pollination success and yield. In addition we screened the most common commercial cultivar 'Rugen' and wild Swedish F. vesca genotypes for SLB resistance to assess the potential for inverse breeding to restore high SLB resistance in cultivated strawberry. Behavioral observations in a controlled experiment revealed that the local pollinator fauna avoided strawberry flowers with SLB-damaged petals. Low pollination, in turn, resulted in smaller more deformed fruits. Furthermore, SLB-damaged flowers produced smaller fruits even when they were hand pollinated, showing herbivore damage also had direct effects on yield, independent of indirect effects on pollination. We found variable resistance in wild woodland strawberry to SLB and more resistant plant genotypes than the cultivar 'Rugen' were identified. Efficient integrated pest management strategies should be employed to mitigate both direct and indirect effects of herbivory for cultivated strawberry, including high intrinsic plant resistance.

Keywords
crop wild relative, diffuse interaction, ecosystem service, Galerucella tenella, Galerucella sagittariae, florivory, integrated pest management, integrated pest and pollinator management
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-325702 (URN)10.3389/fpls.2017.00823 (DOI)000401516700001 ()28572811 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas, 217-2014-541
Available from: 2017-06-27 Created: 2017-06-27 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Moritz, K. K., Bjorkman, C., Parachnowitsch, A. L. & Stenberg, J. A. (2017). Plant sex effects on insect herbivores and biological control in a Short Rotation Coppice willow. Biological control (Print), 115, 30-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plant sex effects on insect herbivores and biological control in a Short Rotation Coppice willow
2017 (English)In: Biological control (Print), ISSN 1049-9644, E-ISSN 1090-2112, Vol. 115, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the wild, plant sex can affect plant-herbivore interactions and higher trophic levels, including natural enemies of the herbivores. However, the possibility of manipulating plant sex to improve biological control and reduce herbivory in domesticated dioecious crops remains unexplored. The dioecious bioenergy crop, Salix viminalis, is often planted in monoclonal, and thus monosexual, fields. We investigated whether using plant clones of either sex, or mixing plants of both sexes, reduced the performance and abundance of the herbivorous pest insect Phratora vulgatissima and its main natural enemy, Anthocoris nemorum, and whether predation was affected. The herbivore laid more eggs, and the predator survived longer, on female plants in the lab. However, these effects did not translate into differences in predation rates in laboratory experiments or differential insect abundances on plants of either sex or plantation sex composition in the field. Plant genotype did have a significant effect on insect abundances, but this was due to plant traits other than sex. The results indicate that manipulating plant sex will not lead to improved biological control or reduced insect herbivory in S. viminalis energy forestry, but suggest that a focus on plant genotypic differences offers promise for improving management practices.

Keywords
Integrated Pest Management, Dioecy, Biocontrol, Anthocoris nemorum, Phratora vulgatissima, Salix viminalis
National Category
Plant Biotechnology Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-342198 (URN)10.1016/j.biocontrol.2017.09.006 (DOI)000415670600005 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2018-02-20 Created: 2018-02-20 Last updated: 2018-02-20Bibliographically approved
Caruso, C. M. & Parachnowitsch, A. L. (2016). Do Plants Eavesdrop on Floral Scent Signals?. Trends in Plant Science, 21(1), 9-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do Plants Eavesdrop on Floral Scent Signals?
2016 (English)In: Trends in Plant Science, ISSN 1360-1385, E-ISSN 1878-4372, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 9-15Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Plants emit a diverse array of volatile organic compounds that can function as cues to other plants. Plants can use volatiles emitted by neighbors to gain information about their environment, and respond by adjusting their phenotype. Less is known about whether the many different volatile signals that plants emit are all equally likely to function as cues to other plants. We review evidence for the function of floral volatile signals and conclude that plants are as likely to perceive and respond to floral volatiles as to other, better-studied volatiles. We propose that eavesdropping on floral volatile cues is particularly likely to be adaptive because plants can respond to these cues by adjusting traits that directly affect pollination and mating.

National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282182 (URN)10.1016/j.tplants.2015.09.001 (DOI)000369199200005 ()26476624 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-04-04 Created: 2016-04-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Moritz, K. K., Björkman, C., Parachnowitsch, A. L. & Stenberg, J. A. (2016). Female Salix viminalis are more severely infected by Melampsora spp. but neither sex experiences associational effects. Ecology and Evolution, 6(4), 1154-1162
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Female Salix viminalis are more severely infected by Melampsora spp. but neither sex experiences associational effects
2016 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 1154-1162Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Associational effects of plant genotype or species on plant biotic interactions are common, not least for disease spread, but associational effects of plant sex on interactions have largely been ignored. Sex in dioecious plants can affect biotic interactions with herbivores and pollinators; however, its effects on plant-pathogen interactions are understudied and associational effects are unknown. In a replicated field experiment, we assessed Melampsora spp. leaf rust infection in monosexual and mixed sex plots of dioecious Salix viminalis L. to determine whether plant sex has either direct or associational effects on infection severity. We found no differences in Melampsora spp. infection severity among sexual monocultures and mixtures in our field experiment. However, female plants were overall more severely infected. In addition, we surveyed previous studies of infection in S.viminalis clones and reevaluated the studies after we assigned sex to the clones. We found that females were generally more severely infected, as in our field study. Similarly, in a survey of studies on sex-biased infection in dioecious plants, we found more female-biased infections in plant-pathogen pairs. We conclude that there was no evidence for associational plant sex effects of neighboring conspecifics for either females or males on infection severity. Instead, plant sex effects on infection act at an individual plant level. Our findings also suggest that female plants may in general be more severely affected by fungal pathogens than males.

Keywords
Dioecy, genotypic effects, neighborhood effects, plant pathogens, sex-biases
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282322 (URN)10.1002/ece3.1923 (DOI)000371069800023 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Burdon, R. C. F., Raguso, R. A., Kessler, A. & Parachnowitsch, A. L. (2015). Spatiotemporal floral scent variation of Penstemon digitalis. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 41(7), 641-650
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatiotemporal floral scent variation of Penstemon digitalis
2015 (English)In: Journal of Chemical Ecology, ISSN 0098-0331, E-ISSN 1573-1561, Vol. 41, no 7, p. 641-650Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Variability in floral volatile emissions can occur temporally through floral development, during diel cycles, as well as spatially within a flower. These spatiotemporal patterns are hypothesized to provide additional information to floral visitors, but they are rarely measured, and their attendant hypotheses are even more rarely tested. In Penstemon digitalis, a plant whose floral scent has been shown to be under strong phenotypic selection for seed fitness, we investigated spatiotemporal variation in floral scent by using dynamic headspace collection, respectively solid-phase microextraction, and analyzed the volatile samples by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Total volatile emission was greatest during flowering and peak pollinator activity hours, suggesting its importance in mediating ecological interactions. We also detected tissue and reward-specific compounds, consistent with the hypothesis that complexity in floral scent composition reflects several ecological functions. In particular, we found tissue-specific scents for the stigma, stamens, and staminode (a modified sterile stamen common to all Penstemons). Our findings emphasize the dynamic nature of floral scents and highlight a need for greater understanding of ecological and physiological mechanisms driving spatiotemporal patterns in scent production.

Keywords
Diel variation, Floral scent, Nectar scent, GC/MS, S-(+)-linalool, Pollen odor, Staminode
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264677 (URN)10.1007/s10886-015-0599-1 (DOI)000361465800006 ()26133675 (PubMedID)
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-10-15 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9668-6593

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