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Hayward, Alexander
Publications (4 of 4) Show all publications
Erezyilmaz, D. F., Hayward, A., Huang, Y., Paps, J., Acs, Z., Delgado, J. A., . . . Kathirithamby, J. (2014). Expression of the Pupal Determinant broad during Metamorphic and Neotenic Development of the Strepsipteran Xenos vesparum Rossi. PLoS ONE, 9(4), e93614
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expression of the Pupal Determinant broad during Metamorphic and Neotenic Development of the Strepsipteran Xenos vesparum Rossi
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2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 4, p. e93614-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Derived members of the endoparasitic order Strepsiptera have acquired an extreme form of sexual dimorphism whereby males undergo metamorphosis and exist as free-living adults while females remain larviform, reaching sexual maturity within their hosts. Expression of the transcription factor, broad (br) has been shown to be required for pupal development in insects in which both sexes progress through metamorphosis. A surge of br expression appears in the last larval instar, as the epidermis begins pupal development. Here we ask if br is also up-regulated in the last larval instar of male Xenos vesparum Rossi (Stylopidae), and whether such expression is lost in neotenic larviform females. We clone three isoforms of br from X. vesparum (Xv'br), and show that they share greatest similarity to the Z1, Z3 and Z4 isoforms of other insect species. By monitoring Xv'br expression throughout development, we detect elevated levels of total br expression and the Xv'Z1, Xv'Z3, and Xv'Z4 isoforms in the last larval instar of males, but not females. By focusing on Xv'br expression in individual samples, we show that the levels of Xv'BTB and Xv'Z3 in the last larval instar of males are bimodal, with some males expressing 3X greater levels of Xv'br than fourth instar femlaes. Taken together, these data suggest that neoteny (and endoparasitism) in females of Strepsiptera Stylopidia could be linked to the suppression of pupal determination. Our work identifies a difference in metamorphic gene expression that is associated with neoteny, and thus provides insights into the relationship between metamorphic and neotenic development.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-224735 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0093614 (DOI)000334159800039 ()
Available from: 2014-05-21 Created: 2014-05-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Hayward, A., Grabherr, M. & Jern, P. (2013). Broad-scale phylogenomics provides insights into retrovirus–host evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(50), 20146-20151
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Broad-scale phylogenomics provides insights into retrovirus–host evolution
2013 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, no 50, p. 20146-20151Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Genomic data provide an excellent resource to improve understanding of retrovirus evolution and the complex relationships among viruses and their hosts. In conjunction with broad-scale in silico screening of vertebrate genomes, this resource offers an opportunity to complement data on the evolution and frequency of past retroviral spread and so evaluate future risks and limitations for horizontal transmission between different host species. Here, we develop a methodology for extracting phylogenetic signal from large endogenous retrovirus (ERV) datasets by collapsing information to facilitate broad-scale phylogenomics across a wide sample of hosts. Starting with nearly 90,000 ERVs from 60 vertebrate host genomes, we construct phylogenetic hypotheses and draw inferences regarding the designation, host distribution, origin, and transmission of the Gammaretrovirus genus and associated class I ERVs. Our results uncover remarkable depths in retroviral sequence diversity, supported within a phylogenetic context. This finding suggests that current infectious exogenous retrovirus diversity may be underestimated, adding credence to the possibility that many additional exogenous retroviruses may remain to be discovered in vertebrate taxa. We demonstrate a history of frequent horizontal interorder transmissions from a rodent reservoir and suggest that rats may have acted as important overlooked facilitators of gammaretrovirus spread across diverse mammalian hosts. Together, these results demonstrate the promise of the methodology used here to analyze large ERV datasets and improve understanding of retroviral evolution and diversity for utilization in wider applications.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Bioinformatics and Systems Biology
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Evolutionary Genetics; Biology with specialization in Evolutionary Organismal Biology; Biology with specialization in Microbiology; Bioinformatics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-211542 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1315419110 (DOI)000328061700050 ()
Available from: 2013-11-26 Created: 2013-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Hayward, A., Ghazal, A., Andersson, G., Andersson, L. & Jern, P. (2013). ZBED Evolution: Repeated Utilization of DNA Transposons as Regulators of Diverse Host Functions. PLoS ONE, 8(3), e59940
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ZBED Evolution: Repeated Utilization of DNA Transposons as Regulators of Diverse Host Functions
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 3, p. e59940-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ZBED genes originate from domesticated hAT DNA transposons and encode regulatory proteins of diverse function in vertebrates. Here we reveal the evolutionary relationship between ZBED genes and demonstrate that they are derived from at least two independent domestication events in jawed vertebrate ancestors. We show that ZBEDs form two monophyletic clades, one of which has expanded through several independent duplications in host lineages. Subsequent diversification of ZBED genes has facilitated regulation of multiple diverse fundamental functions. In contrast to known examples of transposable element exaptation, our results demonstrate a novel unprecedented capacity for the repeated utilization of a family of transposable element-derived protein domains sequestered as regulators during the evolution of diverse host gene functions in vertebrates. Specifically, ZBEDs have contributed to vertebrate regulatory innovation through the donation of modular DNA and protein interacting domains. We identify that C7ORF29, ZBED2, 3, 4, and ZBEDX form a monophyletic group together with ZBED6, that is distinct from ZBED1 genes. Furthermore, we show that ZBED5 is related to Buster DNA transposons and is phylogenetically separate from other ZBEDs. Our results offer new insights into the evolution of regulatory pathways, and suggest that DNA transposons have contributed to regulatory complexity during genome evolution in vertebrates.

National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-197585 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0059940 (DOI)000316549400098 ()1932-6203 (Electronic) 1932-6203 (Linking) (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-03-28 Created: 2013-03-28 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Groenen, M. A., Archibald, A. L., Uenishi, H., Tuggle, C. K., Takeuchi, Y., Rothschild, M. F., . . . Schook, L. B. (2012). Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution. Nature, 491(7424), 393-398
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analyses of pig genomes provide insight into porcine demography and evolution
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2012 (English)In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 491, no 7424, p. 393-398Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars approximately 1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes involved in RNA processing and regulation. Genes associated with immune response and olfaction exhibit fast evolution. Pigs have the largest repertoire of functional olfactory receptor genes, reflecting the importance of smell in this scavenging animal. The pig genome sequence provides an important resource for further improvements of this important livestock species, and our identification of many putative disease-causing variants extends the potential of the pig as a biomedical model.

National Category
Genetics Evolutionary Biology Animal and Dairy Science
Research subject
Biology with specialization in Evolutionary Genetics; Biology with specialization in Evolutionary Functional Genomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-185085 (URN)10.1038/nature11622 (DOI)000311031600036 ()
Available from: 2012-11-20 Created: 2012-11-20 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
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