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Scholtens, Sara
Publications (3 of 3) Show all publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ADHD Symptoms and Attachment Representations: Considering the Role of Conduct Problems, Cognitive Deficits and Narrative Responses in Non-Attachment-Related Story Stems
2014 (English)In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1033-1042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of the present study was to investigate ADHD symptoms in relation to attachment representations. We used both attachment- and non-attachment-related story stems, which allowed us to investigate whether problems with narrative production can explain the relation between ADHD symptoms and attachment representations. We also investigated the role of cognitive deficits and conduct problems in these relations. The sample consisted of 89 children (27 % girls) between 6 and 10 years old, with an oversampling of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms and conduct problems were rated by parents and teachers. Cognitive functioning was investigated using laboratory tests of inhibition, working memory and sustained attention. Attachment representations were coded as secure, organized insecure and disorganized categories. Narrative responses to non-attachment-related story stems were coded for incoherence and negative content. Results showed that children in the disorganized attachment category had significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms compared to those in the secure category. Both ADHD symptoms and disorganized attachment were related to incoherence and negative content. Attachment representations were not associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for negative content in response to non-attachment-related story stems. These results suggest that the associations between attachment security and ADHD are yet to be fully understood. Importantly, a propensity to envisage negative events seems to characterize children with high levels of ADHD symptoms.

ADHD symptoms, Attachment representations, Cognitive deficits, Narrative, Incoherence, Negative content
National Category
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230072 (URN)10.1007/s10802-014-9854-0 (DOI)000339331100013 ()24562639 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-09-03 Created: 2014-08-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ADHD symptoms, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence and future orientation: A longitudinal study
2013 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 54, no 3, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the investigation of the effect of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms on school careers there is a need to study the role of adolescent and childhood ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, and to incorporate measures that include the individual's perspective. Our aim was to gain an overview of the long-term development of school careers in relation to ADHD symptoms. We studied associations between ADHD symptoms and academic achievement at different time-points and future orientation at the end of high school, and assessed the role of self-perceptions of academic competence in these associations. Participants were 192 children (47% girls) with a range of ADHD symptoms taken from a community sample. Collecting data at three time points, in 6th, 11th and 12th grade we tested a structural equation model. Results showed that ADHD symptoms in 6th grade negatively affected academic achievement concurrently and longitudinally. ADHD symptoms in 11th grade negatively affected concurrent academic achievement and academic self-perception and future orientation in 12th grade. Academic achievement had a positive influence on academic self-perception and future orientation. Given the other factors, self-perception of academic competence did not contribute to outcomes. We concluded that early ADHD symptoms may cast long shadows on young people's academic progress. This happens mainly by way of stability in symptoms and relations to early low academic achievement.

ADHD symptoms in preadolescence and adolescence, academic achievement, self-perception of academic competence, future orientation
National Category
Social Sciences
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-202364 (URN)10.1111/sjop.12042 (DOI)000318441100004 ()
Available from: 2013-06-24 Created: 2013-06-24 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Symptoms of ADHD, ODD, and Cognitive Functioning on Social Acceptance and the Positive Illusory Bias in Children
2012 (English)In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 16, no 8, p. 685-696Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To examine the effects of symptoms of ADHD and ODD and cognitive functioning on social acceptance and positive bias in children. Method: The sample consisted of 86 children (49 girls) between 7 and 13 years old, recruited to reflect a wide range of ADHD symptoms. Parents and teachers reported on ADHD and ODD symptoms and social acceptance. Children reported on social acceptance and were given tasks measuring working memory, inhibition and reaction-time variability. A discrepancy score between child and adult reports of social acceptance was used as a measure of positive bias. Results: Inattention independently explained variance in social acceptance. The cognitive factors were related to social acceptance and the positive bias, but not beyond the ADHD and ODD symptoms. Conclusion: It is primarily disruptive behavior that contributes to external reports of children's social acceptance.

ADHD, ODD, cognitive functioning, social acceptance, positive bias
National Category
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-185181 (URN)10.1177/1087054711417398 (DOI)000309577300009 ()
Available from: 2012-11-22 Created: 2012-11-21 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved

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