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Norgren, Susanne
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Publications (10 of 24) Show all publications
Fowler, L., Janson, O., Engqvist, H., Norgren, S. & Öhman, C. (2019). Antibacterial investigation of titanium-copper alloys using luminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis in a direct contact test. Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, 97, 707-714
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibacterial investigation of titanium-copper alloys using luminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis in a direct contact test
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2019 (English)In: Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, ISSN 0928-4931, E-ISSN 1873-0191, Vol. 97, p. 707-714Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti), used as oral implants, is often populated by various bacterial colonies in the oral cavity. These bacteria can cause Peri-implantitis, leading to loss of bone tissue and failure of implants. With the increased awareness of antibiotic resistance, research has been directed towards alternative solutions and recent findings have indicated titanium-copper (Ti-Cu) alloys as a promising antibacterial material. The aim of this study was to produce homogeneous Ti-Cu alloys, with various concentrations of copper, and to characterise their antibacterial properties through direct contact tests, using luminescent bacteria, in addition to traditional materials characterisation techniques. Samples of CP-Ti and four different Ti-Cu alloys (1, 2.5, 3 and 10 wt%Cu) were produced in an arc-furnace, heated treated and rapidly quenched. X-ray diffraction revealed that Ti2Cu, was present only in the 10 wt%Cu alloy, however, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated precipitates at the grain boundaries of the 3 wt%Cu alloy, which were confirmed to be of a copper rich phase by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. EDS line scans confirmed that the alloys were homogenous. After 6 h, a trend between copper content and antibacterial rate could be observed, with the 10 wt%Cu alloy having the highest rate. SEM confirmed fewer bacteria on the 3 wt%Cu and especially the 10 wt%Cu samples. Although the 10 wt%Cu alloy gave the best antibacterial results, it is desired that the Cu concentration is below similar to 3 wt%Cu to maintain similar mechanical and corrosive performance as CP-Ti. Therefore, it is proposed that future work focuses on the 3 wt%Cu alloy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Keywords
Copper, Titanium, Antibacterial, S. epidermidis, Ti2Cu
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378615 (URN)10.1016/j.msec.2018.12.050 (DOI)000457952800069 ()30678959 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Haglöf, F., Kaplan, B., Norgren, S., Blomqvist, A. & Selleby, M. (2019). Experimental study of carbides in the Ti-Cr-C system. Journal of Materials Science, 54(19), 12358-12370
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental study of carbides in the Ti-Cr-C system
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 54, no 19, p. 12358-12370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Ti-Cr-C system has been studied by producing samples within the MC-M3C2-M7C3 (M=Ti, Cr) and MC-M3C2-graphite equilibria. The main purpose was to determine the solubility of Cr in MC; however, the solubility of Ti in M3C2 and M7C3 was also of interest, as well as the C content in MC. Heat treatments have been performed at 1673 and 1773 K for 300 h. Thereafter, the phase compositions have been measured with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and wavelength-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD), in combination with Rietveld refinement, has been used to determine the lattice parameter for MC. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to estimate the lattice parameter for MC as a function of composition, and the Rietveld refined lattice parameters for MC have then been recalculated to compositions in order to verify the EDS measurements. The results show that the EDS and XRD measurements give equal results. One conclusion is that, with the current conditions, 300 h is a sufficient heat treatment time in order to reach thermodynamic equilibrium. The other main conclusion is that the solubility of Cr in MC, in general, was overestimated by previous studies due to too short heat treatment times, but also that the solubility is very temperature dependent, especially for the MC-M3C2-graphite equilibrium. This clear temperature dependence was not taken into account in the existing thermodynamic description found in the literature.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390368 (URN)10.1007/s10853-019-03810-3 (DOI)000475764300007 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , ID14-0076Vinnova
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Meingast, A., Coronel, E., Blomqvist, A., Norgren, S., Wahnstrom, G. & Lattemann, M. (2018). High resolution STEM investigation of interface layers in cemented carbides. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS & HARD MATERIALS, 72, 135-140
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High resolution STEM investigation of interface layers in cemented carbides
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2018 (English)In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS & HARD MATERIALS, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 72, p. 135-140Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cemented carbides with sub-micron grain size have increased the need to restrict grain growth during sintering. Commonly used inhibitors like V, Ti, and Cr have been observed to form interface layers in the interfaces between WC grains and the Co binder. Atomistic modeling has predicted the composition and thickness of the interface layers. Earlier, the interface layers have been characterized qualitatively using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To get more information about the structure and composition of the interface layers in a Ti containing cemented carbide in this work, Z contrast imaging and spectroscopy using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) have been combined. Elemental maps revealing the structure of the interface layers will be presented.

Keywords
STEM, SEM, EDXS, WC, Co, Ti
National Category
Materials Chemistry Ceramics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387465 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2017.12.028 (DOI)000427209100021 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04342Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , RMA 15-0062
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Kaplan, B., Odelros, S., Kritikos, M., Bejjani, R. & Norgren, S. (2018). Study of tool wear and chemical interaction during machining of Ti6Al4V. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS & HARD MATERIALS, 72, 253-256
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of tool wear and chemical interaction during machining of Ti6Al4V
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2018 (English)In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS & HARD MATERIALS, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 72, p. 253-256Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study concerns an investigation of the wear on three uncoated cemented carbide grades, with differing binder content and grain size, during longitudinal turning of Ti6Al4V as a function of cutting speed. The creater wear at end of tool life is studied in detail using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. It is observed that decreasing binder content results in slower wear progression and longer tool life. The microstructure of the adhered layer is also dependent on the binder content, where a lower amount of binder results in an increase of dark precipitates in the adhered layer. X-ray diffraction confirms the presence of bcc-W as a chemical wear product at the interface. Diffraction peaks corresponding to cubic (Ti,V)C are also occasionally observed.

Keywords
Ti6Al4V, Turning, Crater wear, Tungsten, X-ray diffraction
National Category
Manufacturing, Surface and Joining Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387466 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2017.12.012 (DOI)000427209100036 ()
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Jones, H. G., Norgren, S., Kritikos, M., Mingard, K. P. & Gee, M. G. (2017). Examination of wear damage to rock-mining hardmetal drill bits. International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, 66, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examination of wear damage to rock-mining hardmetal drill bits
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2017 (English)In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917, Vol. 66, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

WC/Co mining bits from a drill head used for drilling holes for roof support bolts in a mine were examined using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). This was combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to study the chemical interaction between the drill bit and the rock. It was found that at the surface of the buttons there was depletion of cobalt, change in chemistry of the remaining binder regions, and changes to the morphology of the WC grains. Tribochemistry calculations were done to understand the possible formation of silicides at the surface of the drill bits, and thus emphasise the importance of quartz content in rock on wear. The evidence of mechanical damage combined with chemical reactions is another step towards understanding the complete wear process in hardmetal mining tools.

Keywords
Rock drilling, Impact wear, Hardmetals, Tribochemistry, X-ray diffraction, FIBSEM
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339504 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2017.01.013 (DOI)000418222000001 ()
Available from: 2018-01-19 Created: 2018-01-19 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Odelros, S., Kaplan, B., Kritikos, M., Johansson, M. & Norgren, S. (2017). Experimental and theoretical study of the microscopic crater wear mechanism in titanium machining. Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Wear of Materials (WOM), MAR 26-30, 2017, Long Beach, CA. Wear, 376, 115-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental and theoretical study of the microscopic crater wear mechanism in titanium machining
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2017 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 376, p. 115-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Continuous turning of Ti6AI4V with uncoated WC-Co cutting tool inserts mainly results in crater wear on the rake face of the tool. The crater is located close to the cutting edge and increases in size with increased time in cut. The flank wear remains minor until the point when the crater reaches a critical size so that the edge deforms plastically and edge breakage occurs. To understand the crater wear degradation mechanisms, this study focuses on examining the worn tool at different stages, using both experimental and theoretical techniques, as well as under static and dynamic conditions. A layer of adhered work-piece material is observed in the crater. The present study shows both experimental and theoretical evidence of carbon depletion of the WC in the crater and formation of W (bcc) at the interface during wet continuous longitudinal turning of Ti6AI4V. This has been demonstrated for the first time. In addition, indications of a carbon rich compound, possibly MC, where M=Ti, V and W, are also observed. These observations are verified by simulation of the diffusion process. Furthermore, diffusion simulations indicate that a liquid may form at the tool/chip interface in the crater zone during machining. Turning is a dynamic process, however, to study the chemical driving forces in this system under static conditions, a means of verification of which phases will form is needed. Therefore, a diffusion couple consisting of the same materials is prepared and analyzed. Similar results are obtained for the diffusion couple as for the worn tool, indicating that the chemical wear is an important degradation parameter. The diffusion couple results are also compared to a numerical simulation of the diffusion process.

Keywords
Ti6Al4V, Turning, Craterwear, Tungsten, X-ray Diffraction, Diffusion simulations
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329129 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2017.01.104 (DOI)000403904000016 ()
Conference
21st International Conference on Wear of Materials (WOM), MAR 26-30, 2017, Long Beach, CA
Available from: 2017-10-12 Created: 2017-10-12 Last updated: 2017-10-12Bibliographically approved
Toller, L., Liu, C., Holmström, E., Larsson, T. & Norgren, S. (2017). Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating. International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, 62, 225-229
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating
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2017 (English)In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917, Vol. 62, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to health concerns surrounding the use of cobalt as a binder for tungsten carbide in cemented carbides there is a drive to find an alternative binder. Although there are many publications on cemented carbides with alternative binders very few consider the possibility to coat these materials. In this work four different binder compositions containing iron-nickel or iron-nickel-cobalt and a pure cobalt reference are investigated with respect to coating ability. It is shown that it is possible to coat these cemented carbides with alternative binders through the same chemical vapor deposition process that is commonly used for cobalt based inserts and get similar coating structure. It is further shown that it can be done without the formation of η-phase and with comparable scratch test adhesion.

Keywords
alternative binders, cemented carbide, CVD
National Category
Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310617 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2016.07.005 (DOI)000390503200019 ()
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
Toller, L., Jacobson, S. & Norgren, S. (2017). Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning. Wear, 376, 1822-1829
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning
2017 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 376, p. 1822-1829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Health concerns associated with cobalt powder are a strong motivator for conducting research on alternative binders for cemented carbides. It has previously been shown possible to make cemented carbides with alternative binders, which offer good hardness and toughness. However, it is not fully known if these cemented carbides can be successfully used as metal cutting tools. In this study we have tested turning inserts from cemented carbide with a nickel-iron binder and compared these with cobalt based reference inserts in dry face turning of steel in a pairwise comparison. To facilitate relevant comparisons, both the alternative binder and the reference cemented carbide are gradient sintered and coated in the same way as commercial turning grades. It is found that the life time in this dry face turning test is only approximately 15% shorter with the nickel-iron binder than with the cobalt reference, which motivates further studies with this alternative binder. Flaking of the coating and thus less coating adhesion was identified as one reason for the shorter life time.

Keywords
Cutting tools, Cemented carbide, Alternative binder, Face turning
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329133 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2017.02.018 (DOI)000403902000097 ()
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-10-10 Last updated: 2017-10-27Bibliographically approved
Toller, L. & Norgren, S. (2017). Mechanisms of plastic deformation in WC-Co and WC-Ni-Fe turning inserts. In: : . Paper presented at 19th Plansee Seminar 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms of plastic deformation in WC-Co and WC-Ni-Fe turning inserts
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work is an inital study on microstructural features along the flank face of plastically deformed turning inserts. The turning inserts used are WC-NiFe hardmetals that have been used in face turning with noticeable plastic deformation and flaking of the coating at the cutting edge limiting the life time. It was found that the flank face could be split into five zones of different conditions during the turning test based on the outer appearance. These five zones also exhibited different signs of plastic deformation in their microstructure, seen in both focused ion beam cross sections and in a mechanically polished cross section, including what is believed to be cavity and lamellae formation from grain boundary sliding. The microscopic plastic deformation of the turning inserts in this work were compared with litterature on deformed WC-Co.

Keywords
hardmetal, turning, alternative binder, deformation mechanism, grain boundary sliding
National Category
Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332453 (URN)
Conference
19th Plansee Seminar 2017
Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2017-12-29Bibliographically approved
Stenlund, P., Omar, O., Brohede, U., Norgren, S., Norlindh, B., Johansson, A., . . . Palmquist, A. (2015). Bone response to a novel Ti–Ta–Nb–Zr alloy. Acta Biomaterialia, 20, 165-175
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone response to a novel Ti–Ta–Nb–Zr alloy
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2015 (English)In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 20, p. 165-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-286427 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-20 Last updated: 2017-11-30
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