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Norgren, Susanne
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Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Fowler, L., Janson, O., Engqvist, H., Norgren, S. & Öhman, C. (2019). Antibacterial investigation of titanium-copper alloys using luminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis in a direct contact test. Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, 97, 707-714
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibacterial investigation of titanium-copper alloys using luminescent Staphylococcus epidermidis in a direct contact test
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2019 (English)In: Materials science & engineering. C, biomimetic materials, sensors and systems, ISSN 0928-4931, E-ISSN 1873-0191, Vol. 97, p. 707-714Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti), used as oral implants, is often populated by various bacterial colonies in the oral cavity. These bacteria can cause Peri-implantitis, leading to loss of bone tissue and failure of implants. With the increased awareness of antibiotic resistance, research has been directed towards alternative solutions and recent findings have indicated titanium-copper (Ti-Cu) alloys as a promising antibacterial material. The aim of this study was to produce homogeneous Ti-Cu alloys, with various concentrations of copper, and to characterise their antibacterial properties through direct contact tests, using luminescent bacteria, in addition to traditional materials characterisation techniques. Samples of CP-Ti and four different Ti-Cu alloys (1, 2.5, 3 and 10 wt%Cu) were produced in an arc-furnace, heated treated and rapidly quenched. X-ray diffraction revealed that Ti2Cu, was present only in the 10 wt%Cu alloy, however, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated precipitates at the grain boundaries of the 3 wt%Cu alloy, which were confirmed to be of a copper rich phase by energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. EDS line scans confirmed that the alloys were homogenous. After 6 h, a trend between copper content and antibacterial rate could be observed, with the 10 wt%Cu alloy having the highest rate. SEM confirmed fewer bacteria on the 3 wt%Cu and especially the 10 wt%Cu samples. Although the 10 wt%Cu alloy gave the best antibacterial results, it is desired that the Cu concentration is below similar to 3 wt%Cu to maintain similar mechanical and corrosive performance as CP-Ti. Therefore, it is proposed that future work focuses on the 3 wt%Cu alloy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Keywords
Copper, Titanium, Antibacterial, S. epidermidis, Ti2Cu
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378615 (URN)10.1016/j.msec.2018.12.050 (DOI)000457952800069 ()30678959 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Jones, H. G., Norgren, S., Kritikos, M., Mingard, K. P. & Gee, M. G. (2017). Examination of wear damage to rock-mining hardmetal drill bits. International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, 66, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examination of wear damage to rock-mining hardmetal drill bits
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2017 (English)In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917, Vol. 66, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

WC/Co mining bits from a drill head used for drilling holes for roof support bolts in a mine were examined using a focused ion beam scanning electron microscope (FIB-SEM). This was combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to study the chemical interaction between the drill bit and the rock. It was found that at the surface of the buttons there was depletion of cobalt, change in chemistry of the remaining binder regions, and changes to the morphology of the WC grains. Tribochemistry calculations were done to understand the possible formation of silicides at the surface of the drill bits, and thus emphasise the importance of quartz content in rock on wear. The evidence of mechanical damage combined with chemical reactions is another step towards understanding the complete wear process in hardmetal mining tools.

Keywords
Rock drilling, Impact wear, Hardmetals, Tribochemistry, X-ray diffraction, FIBSEM
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339504 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2017.01.013 (DOI)000418222000001 ()
Available from: 2018-01-19 Created: 2018-01-19 Last updated: 2018-01-19Bibliographically approved
Odelros, S., Kaplan, B., Kritikos, M., Johansson, M. & Norgren, S. (2017). Experimental and theoretical study of the microscopic crater wear mechanism in titanium machining. Paper presented at 21st International Conference on Wear of Materials (WOM), MAR 26-30, 2017, Long Beach, CA. Wear, 376, 115-124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experimental and theoretical study of the microscopic crater wear mechanism in titanium machining
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2017 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 376, p. 115-124Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Continuous turning of Ti6AI4V with uncoated WC-Co cutting tool inserts mainly results in crater wear on the rake face of the tool. The crater is located close to the cutting edge and increases in size with increased time in cut. The flank wear remains minor until the point when the crater reaches a critical size so that the edge deforms plastically and edge breakage occurs. To understand the crater wear degradation mechanisms, this study focuses on examining the worn tool at different stages, using both experimental and theoretical techniques, as well as under static and dynamic conditions. A layer of adhered work-piece material is observed in the crater. The present study shows both experimental and theoretical evidence of carbon depletion of the WC in the crater and formation of W (bcc) at the interface during wet continuous longitudinal turning of Ti6AI4V. This has been demonstrated for the first time. In addition, indications of a carbon rich compound, possibly MC, where M=Ti, V and W, are also observed. These observations are verified by simulation of the diffusion process. Furthermore, diffusion simulations indicate that a liquid may form at the tool/chip interface in the crater zone during machining. Turning is a dynamic process, however, to study the chemical driving forces in this system under static conditions, a means of verification of which phases will form is needed. Therefore, a diffusion couple consisting of the same materials is prepared and analyzed. Similar results are obtained for the diffusion couple as for the worn tool, indicating that the chemical wear is an important degradation parameter. The diffusion couple results are also compared to a numerical simulation of the diffusion process.

Keywords
Ti6Al4V, Turning, Craterwear, Tungsten, X-ray Diffraction, Diffusion simulations
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329129 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2017.01.104 (DOI)000403904000016 ()
Conference
21st International Conference on Wear of Materials (WOM), MAR 26-30, 2017, Long Beach, CA
Available from: 2017-10-12 Created: 2017-10-12 Last updated: 2017-10-12Bibliographically approved
Toller, L., Liu, C., Holmström, E., Larsson, T. & Norgren, S. (2017). Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating. International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, 62, 225-229
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of Cemented Carbides with Alternative Binders after CVD Coating
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2017 (English)In: International journal of refractory metals & hard materials, ISSN 0958-0611, E-ISSN 2213-3917, Vol. 62, p. 225-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to health concerns surrounding the use of cobalt as a binder for tungsten carbide in cemented carbides there is a drive to find an alternative binder. Although there are many publications on cemented carbides with alternative binders very few consider the possibility to coat these materials. In this work four different binder compositions containing iron-nickel or iron-nickel-cobalt and a pure cobalt reference are investigated with respect to coating ability. It is shown that it is possible to coat these cemented carbides with alternative binders through the same chemical vapor deposition process that is commonly used for cobalt based inserts and get similar coating structure. It is further shown that it can be done without the formation of η-phase and with comparable scratch test adhesion.

Keywords
alternative binders, cemented carbide, CVD
National Category
Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310617 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2016.07.005 (DOI)000390503200019 ()
Available from: 2016-12-16 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
Toller, L., Jacobson, S. & Norgren, S. (2017). Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning. Wear, 376, 1822-1829
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life time of cemented carbide inserts with Ni-Fe binder in steel turning
2017 (English)In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 376, p. 1822-1829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Health concerns associated with cobalt powder are a strong motivator for conducting research on alternative binders for cemented carbides. It has previously been shown possible to make cemented carbides with alternative binders, which offer good hardness and toughness. However, it is not fully known if these cemented carbides can be successfully used as metal cutting tools. In this study we have tested turning inserts from cemented carbide with a nickel-iron binder and compared these with cobalt based reference inserts in dry face turning of steel in a pairwise comparison. To facilitate relevant comparisons, both the alternative binder and the reference cemented carbide are gradient sintered and coated in the same way as commercial turning grades. It is found that the life time in this dry face turning test is only approximately 15% shorter with the nickel-iron binder than with the cobalt reference, which motivates further studies with this alternative binder. Flaking of the coating and thus less coating adhesion was identified as one reason for the shorter life time.

Keywords
Cutting tools, Cemented carbide, Alternative binder, Face turning
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329133 (URN)10.1016/j.wear.2017.02.018 (DOI)000403902000097 ()
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2017-10-10 Created: 2017-10-10 Last updated: 2017-10-27Bibliographically approved
Toller, L. & Norgren, S. (2017). Mechanisms of plastic deformation in WC-Co and WC-Ni-Fe turning inserts. In: : . Paper presented at 19th Plansee Seminar 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms of plastic deformation in WC-Co and WC-Ni-Fe turning inserts
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This work is an inital study on microstructural features along the flank face of plastically deformed turning inserts. The turning inserts used are WC-NiFe hardmetals that have been used in face turning with noticeable plastic deformation and flaking of the coating at the cutting edge limiting the life time. It was found that the flank face could be split into five zones of different conditions during the turning test based on the outer appearance. These five zones also exhibited different signs of plastic deformation in their microstructure, seen in both focused ion beam cross sections and in a mechanically polished cross section, including what is believed to be cavity and lamellae formation from grain boundary sliding. The microscopic plastic deformation of the turning inserts in this work were compared with litterature on deformed WC-Co.

Keywords
hardmetal, turning, alternative binder, deformation mechanism, grain boundary sliding
National Category
Engineering and Technology Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Tribo Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332453 (URN)
Conference
19th Plansee Seminar 2017
Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2017-12-29Bibliographically approved
Stenlund, P., Omar, O., Brohede, U., Norgren, S., Norlindh, B., Johansson, A., . . . Palmquist, A. (2015). Bone response to a novel Ti–Ta–Nb–Zr alloy. Acta Biomaterialia, 20, 165-175
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone response to a novel Ti–Ta–Nb–Zr alloy
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2015 (English)In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 20, p. 165-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-286427 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-20 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Stenlund, P., Omar, O., Brohede, U., Norgren, S., Norlindh, B., Johansson, A., . . . Palmquist, A. (2015). Bone response to a novel Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr alloy. Acta Biomaterialia, 20, 165-175
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bone response to a novel Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr alloy
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2015 (English)In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 20, p. 165-175Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) is regarded as the state-of-the-art material for bone-anchored dental devices, whereas the mechanically stronger alloy (Ti-6Al-4V), made of titanium, aluminum (Al) and vanadium (V), is regarded as the material of choice for high-load applications. There is a call for the development of new alloys, not only to eliminate the potential toxic effect of Al and V but also to meet the challenges imposed on dental and maxillofacial reconstructive devices, for example. The present work evaluates a novel, dual-stage, acid-etched, Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr alloy implant, consisting of elements that create low toxicity, with the potential to promote osseointegration in vivo. The alloy implants (denoted Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr) were evaluated after 7 days and 28 days in a rat tibia model, with reference to commercially pure titanium grade 4 (denoted Ti). Analyses were performed with respect to removal torque, histomorphometry and gene expression. The Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr showed a significant increase in implant stability over time in contrast to the Ti. Further, the histological and gene expression analyses suggested faster healing around the Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr, as judged by the enhanced remodeling, and mineralization, of the early-formed woven bone and the multiple positive correlations between genes denoting inflammation, bone formation and remodeling. Based on the present experiments, it is concluded that the Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr alloy becomes osseointegrated to at least a similar degree to that of pure titanium implants. This alloy is therefore emerging as a novel implant material for clinical evaluation.

Keywords
Osseointegration, Removal torque, Gene expression, Titanium alloy, Tantalum (Ta)
National Category
Biomaterials Science Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-256981 (URN)10.1016/j.actbio.2015.03.038 (DOI)000355708200018 ()25848727 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-07-01 Created: 2015-06-29 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Weidow, J., Blomqvist, A., Salomonsson, J. & Norgren, S. (2015). Cemented carbides based on WC pre-alloyed with Cr or Ta. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS & HARD MATERIALS, 49, 36-41
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cemented carbides based on WC pre-alloyed with Cr or Ta
2015 (English)In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF REFRACTORY METALS & HARD MATERIALS, ISSN 0263-4368, Vol. 49, p. 36-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

WC powder pre-alloyed with Ta or Cr was used to produce WC-Co based cemented carbides and these were compared with materials produced from pure WC. Atom probe tomography analysis of the pre-alloyed as-sintered materials showed that a high, non-uniform, concentration of Ta or Cr remained in the WC lattice after sintering. The hexagonal (W,Ta)C partially decomposes during sintering leading to the formation of a fcc MC phase. Similarly, the (W,Cr)C partially decomposes, but no Cr-rich precipitates were observed in either of the Cr containing samples. The hardness of the crystallites of the doped materials was significantly lower than the undoped WC, as measured by nano-indentation. The Young's moduli of the doped crystals were significantly lower than the undoped WC in agreement with the lowering of the elastic constants, from ab initio calculations. The microhardness (HV) reflected what would be expected from the average WC grain size giving that the grain boundary surface area is more important for the material hardness than the hardness of the WC crystals themselves in the investigated grain size range.

Keywords
APT, EBSD, Grain size, Hardness, Coercivity
National Category
Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252724 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrmhm.2014.07.013 (DOI)000352667100006 ()
Available from: 2015-05-12 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2015-06-30Bibliographically approved
Toller, L., Larsson, T., Jacobson, S. & Norgren, S. (2015). CVD Coating Adhesion on Metal Cutting Insertswith Alternative Binders. In: : . Paper presented at Wear of Materials 2015, Toronto.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>CVD Coating Adhesion on Metal Cutting Insertswith Alternative Binders
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Keywords
metal cutting, alternative binder, CVD, scratch test, adhesion
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Materials Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-268291 (URN)
Conference
Wear of Materials 2015, Toronto
Available from: 2015-12-10 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2016-01-07
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