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Adams, J. (2017). Birgitta and Bernard: Two Saints and Five Old Swedish Fragments in the Danish National Archives. European Journal of Scandinavian Studies, 47(2), 263-290
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Birgitta and Bernard: Two Saints and Five Old Swedish Fragments in the Danish National Archives
2017 (English)In: European Journal of Scandinavian Studies, ISSN 2191-9399, E-ISSN 2191-9402, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 263-290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Danish National Archives in Copenhagen houses several thousand manuscript fragments, the remains of numerous works that were cut up and used in the bindings of later books. The majority of these fragments are written in Latin, Middle Low German, or Danish, although a few in Old Swedish also survive. Five of these Old Swedish fragments are published and discussed in this article. They contain parts of two of St Birgitta’s Revelations (Liber Caelestis and Revelationes Extravagantes) and of St Bernard’s A Rule of Good Life (Ad sororem modus bene vivendi in christianam religionem). The Birgittine texts are from an early stage of the retranslation process when compared to other extant versions and include several unique wordings that demonstrate the specific use of the original manuscript in a monastic environment. The Bernard fragments are one of just two extant versions and may predate the version in Stockholm, Royal Library, A 9; as such, they are an important witness to the propagation of the saint’s writings in Sweden.

Keywords
Old Swedish, St Birgitta, St Bernard, manuscript fragments
National Category
Specific Languages Specific Literatures
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333807 (URN)10.1515/ejss-2017-0018 (DOI)000415644800001 ()
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
Adams, J. (2016). Idolaters, Warriors, and Lovers: Muslims in Medieval Swedish and Danish Texts. In: : . Paper presented at Public Lecture for the ARC Centre of Excellence for the Centre for the History of Emotions, The University of Sydney (19 May 2016).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Idolaters, Warriors, and Lovers: Muslims in Medieval Swedish and Danish Texts
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Between the Viking Age and the Middle Ages, there was a noticeable change in relations between Scandinavia and the Islamic world – the sources point to a shift from travel and trade to hostility and war. Muslims did not settle in the North until the eighteenth century, and during the Middle Ages there was little contact between Scandinavians and ‘real’ Muslims. So how did Danes and Swedes imagine and describe this Other? Is there anything unusual or unexpected about the portrayal of Muslims? How does this image compare to that of the other great religious opponent, the Jew? By investigating East Norse devotional texts, travel literature, saints’ lives, romances and accounts of Ottoman warfare, this paper aims to draw out some of the major themes in medieval Scandinavian descriptions of Muslims and Islam.

Keywords
Old Danish, Old Swedish
National Category
Specific Languages History of Religions History
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-294535 (URN)
Conference
Public Lecture for the ARC Centre of Excellence for the Centre for the History of Emotions, The University of Sydney (19 May 2016)
Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Adams, J. (2016). Images of Jews and Saracens in Old Danish and Old Swedish sermons and wall paintings: Sources for an investigation of the spread of images and ideas from “continental” Europe and the Mediterranean to medieval Denmark and Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at Jornadas Internacionales: La predicación en el mediterráneo medieval, Universitat Pompeu Fabra – Casa de Velázquez; Barcelona, February 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Images of Jews and Saracens in Old Danish and Old Swedish sermons and wall paintings: Sources for an investigation of the spread of images and ideas from “continental” Europe and the Mediterranean to medieval Denmark and Sweden
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Jews were not permitted to settle in Scandinavia until the modern era (Denmark 1622, Sweden 1718) and Muslims did not arrive in significant numbers until the late twentieth century. Yet despite the fact that there was no resident population, Muslims and, in particular, Jews can be found in many different literary genres (including sermons) and works of art (including wall-paintings, altar pieces and sculptures). These two non-Christian groups in medieval Scandinavia are thus an example of what Gloria Cigman with regard to England has called “absent-presence”, although in Denmark and Sweden they were not a memory or continuation from a pre-expulsion era but rather manifestations of the imagination that drew upon pre-existing classical and foreign traditions.

This paper surveys the extant vernacular sermon material from medieval Denmark and Sweden that mentions Muslims and Jews and attempts to categorise the different types and uses of the representations. As the extant corpus of sermon material from medieval Denmark and Sweden is rather small, I shall look briefly at the saints’ lives and legends that were often used to fashion exempla in sermons. The paper will also consider the rich treasury of wall paintings and how these pictures reinforced the ideas about Jews propagated in sermons. (There are no unequivocal images of Muslims, Saracens or Turks in medieval Danish and Swedish wall paintings.)

Finally, the paper will attempt to trace the Scandinavian imagery and influences back to ‘continental’ Europe and uncover what sorts of ideas about Muslims and Jews were useful enough to Scandinavians to survive the long journey north.

Keywords
medieval sermons, preaching, Jews, Muslims
National Category
Specific Languages History of Religions
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages; History of Religions
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277939 (URN)
Conference
Jornadas Internacionales: La predicación en el mediterráneo medieval, Universitat Pompeu Fabra – Casa de Velázquez; Barcelona, February 2016
Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Adams, J. (2016). Judar och muslimer i det medeltida Skandinavien och Baltikum. In: : . Paper presented at Medeltidsseminariet, Centrum för medeltidsstudier, Stockholm universitet, February 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Judar och muslimer i det medeltida Skandinavien och Baltikum
2016 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
Jews, Muslims, medieval Scandinavia
National Category
Specific Languages
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277958 (URN)
Conference
Medeltidsseminariet, Centrum för medeltidsstudier, Stockholm universitet, February 2016
Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Adams, J. (2016). Medieval Mass Media and Minorities. In: : . Paper presented at English and Cultural Studes WiPS, UWA Centre for Medieval & Early Modern Studies / PMRG.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Medieval Mass Media and Minorities
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The portrayal and (mis)use of the figure of the Jew and the Muslim in vernacular sermons and wall paintings from medieval Denmark and Sweden.

Keywords
East Norse, Old Danish, Old Swedish, Jews, Muslims, preaching, sermons
National Category
Languages and Literature
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-282940 (URN)
Conference
English and Cultural Studes WiPS, UWA Centre for Medieval & Early Modern Studies / PMRG
Available from: 2016-04-08 Created: 2016-04-08 Last updated: 2016-09-16
Adams, J. (2015). Birgitta and Bernard: Five Old Swedish Fragments in the Danish National Archives. In: : . Paper presented at East Norse Conference, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, November 2015.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Birgitta and Bernard: Five Old Swedish Fragments in the Danish National Archives
2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The Danish National Archives in Copenhagen houses several thousand manuscript fragments, the remains of numerous works that were cut up and used in the bindings of later books. The majority of these fragments are written in Latin, Middle Low German, or Danish, although a few in Old Swedish also survive. Five of these Old Swedish fragments are published and discussed in this article. They contain parts of two of St Birgitta’s Revelations (Liber Caelestis) and of St Bernard’s A Rule of Good Life (Ad sororem modus bene vivendi in christianam religionem), known in Old Swedish as Ett gudhelikt lifwærne. The Birgittine texts are from an early stage of the retranslation process when compared to other extant versions and include several unique wordings that demonstrate the specific use of the original manuscript in a monastic environment. The Bernard fragments are one of just two extant versions and appear to predate the version in Stockholm, Royal Library, A 9; as such, they are an important witness to the propagation of the saint’s writings in Sweden.

Keywords
St Birgitta, St Bernard, manuscript fragments, Old Swedish, Saaremaa, Ösel-Wiek
National Category
Specific Literatures Specific Languages
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-277941 (URN)
Conference
East Norse Conference, Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, November 2015
Available from: 2016-02-23 Created: 2016-02-23 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Adams, J. & Luetzelschwab, R. (2015). Editorial. Medieval Sermon Studies, 59(1), 1-1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial
2015 (English)In: Medieval Sermon Studies, ISSN 1366-0691, E-ISSN 1749-6276, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 1-1Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
National Category
Religious Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280183 (URN)10.1179/1366069115Z.00000000025 (DOI)000367031300001 ()
Available from: 2016-03-08 Created: 2016-03-08 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Adams, J. & Heß, C. (2015). Encounters and Fantasies: Muslims, Jews and Christians in the North. In: Jonathan Adams & Cordelia Heß (Ed.), Fear and Loathing in the North: Jews and Muslims in Medieval Scandinavia and the Baltic Region (pp. 3-28). Berlin: De Gruyter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Encounters and Fantasies: Muslims, Jews and Christians in the North
2015 (English)In: Fear and Loathing in the North: Jews and Muslims in Medieval Scandinavia and the Baltic Region / [ed] Jonathan Adams & Cordelia Heß, Berlin: De Gruyter , 2015, p. 3-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: De Gruyter, 2015
Keywords
Muslims, Jews, Middle Ages, medieval Scandinavia, medieval Baltic, antisemitism, Islamophobia
National Category
Humanities
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247575 (URN)978-3-11-034647-3 (ISBN)
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities (KVHAA)
Available from: 2015-03-22 Created: 2015-03-22 Last updated: 2016-05-11
Adams, J. & Heß, C. (Eds.). (2015). Fear and Loathing in the North: Jews and Muslims in Medieval Scandinavia and the Baltic Region. Berlin: De Gruyter
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fear and Loathing in the North: Jews and Muslims in Medieval Scandinavia and the Baltic Region
2015 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Due to the scarcity of sources regarding actual Jewish and Muslim communities and settlements, there has until now been little work on either the perception of or encounters with Muslims and Jews in medieval Scandinavia and the Baltic Region. The volume provides the reader with the possibility to appreciate and understand the complexity of Jewish-Christian-Muslim relations in the medieval North. The contributions cover topics such as cultural and economic exchange between Christians and members of other religions; evidence of actual Jews and Muslims in the Baltic Rim; images and stereotypes of the Other.

The volume thus presents a previously neglected field of research that will help nuance the overall picture of interreligious relations in medieval Europe.

Contents

Introduction

1. Jonathan Adams and Cordelia Heß: Encounters and Fantasies: Muslims, Jews and Christians in the North

I. Contact

2. Bjørn Bandlien: Trading with Muslims and the Sámi in Medieval Norway

3. Christian Etheridge: The Evidence for Islamic Scientific Works in Medieval Iceland

4. Kay Peter Jankrift: Fire-Worshipping Magicians of the North: Muslim Perceptions of Scandinavia and the Norsemen

5. Stefan Schröder: The Encounter with Islam Between Doctrinal Image and Life Writing: Ambrosius Zeebout’s Report of Joos van Ghistele’s Travels to the East 1481–1485

II. Settlement

6. Cordelia Heß: Jews and the Black Death in Fourteenth-Century Prussia: A Search for Traces

7. Michalina Duda: Jewish Physicians in the Teutonic Order’s Prussian State in the Late Middle Ages

8. Krzysztof Kwiatkowski: The Muslim People of Desht-i Qipchaq in Fifteenth-Century Prussia

9. Veronika Klimova: Karaite Settlement in Medieval Lithuania

III. Images and Stereotypes: Scandinavia

10. Yvonne Friedman: Christian Hatred of the Other: Theological Rhetoric vs. Political

Reality

11. Jonathan Adams: The Life of the Prophet Muḥammad in East Norse

12. Richard Cole: Kyn / Fólk / Þjóð / Ætt: Proto-Racial Thinking and its Application to Jews in Old Norse Literature

IV. Images and Stereotypes: Baltic Region

13. Sarit Cofman-Simhon: Missionary Theatre on the Baltic Frontier: Negotiating the Imagined Jew in the Riga Ludus Prophetarum

14. Elina Räsänen: Advocating, Converting, and Torturing: Images of Jews (and Muslimized Pagans) in the Kalanti Altarpiece

15. Shlomo Lotan: The Teutonic Knights and their Attitude about Muslims: Saracens in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem and in the Baltic Region

16. Jurgita Šiaučiūnaitė-Verbickienė: The Image of the Infidelis in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania: A Comparison of the Trends in the Creation of Anti-Jewish and Anti-Muslim Stereotypes

17. Madis Maasing: Infidel Turks and Schismatic Russians in Late Medieval Livonia

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Berlin: De Gruyter, 2015. p. 402
Keywords
Jews, Muslims, Middle Ages, medieval Scandinavia, medieval Baltic, antisemitism, Islamophobia
National Category
History and Archaeology Languages and Literature Philosophy, Ethics and Religion
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-247574 (URN)978-3-11-034647-3 (ISBN)
Funder
The Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities (KVHAA)
Available from: 2015-03-22 Created: 2015-03-22 Last updated: 2016-05-11
Adams, J. (2015). Fjerne spejle: Jøder og muslimer i østnordisk litteratur. Årsskrift for Det Unge Akademi, 10-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fjerne spejle: Jøder og muslimer i østnordisk litteratur
2015 (Danish)In: Årsskrift for Det Unge Akademi, p. 10-13Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [da]

De fleste studier om jøder, muslimer og kristne i middelalderens Europa fokuserer på de områder, hvor de levede sammen. Behandlingen af de ikke-kristne i de komplekse spændinger mellem kirken og de sekulære myndigheder danner kernen i disse studier, som fx sigter på at undersøge de spontane udbrud af antijødisk vold i dele af Central- og Vesteuropa eller virkeligheden bag den fredelige sameksistens, ”convivencia”, i Spanien. Følgerne af bl.a. korstogene, pesten, økonomisk nedtur samt politisk og social uro i disse områder regnes som de vigtigste faktorer i de skiftende forhold mellem de tre grupper naboer. Forholdene påvirkede også de skriftlige fremstillinger, da litteratur i middelalderen ligesom nu var et af de vigtigste midler, hvorved man udtrykte sin verdensopfattelse og skabte mening og struktur i det omkringliggende samfund. Disse tekster giver en et vigtigt indblik i, hvordan kristne europæere tænkte og hvad der optog dem.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
København: Det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab, 2015
Keywords
Old Danish, Old Swedish, Jews, Muslims, Gammeldansk, fornsvensk, jøder, muslimer
National Category
Specific Languages Specific Literatures History
Research subject
Scandinavian Languages
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-270829 (URN)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2016-01-04 Created: 2016-01-04 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3890-4630

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