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Bai, Y., Jiang, B., Wang, M., Li, H., Alatalo, J. M. & Huang, S. (2016). New ecological redline policy (ERP) to secure ecosystem services in China. Land use policy, 55, 348-351
Open this publication in new window or tab >>New ecological redline policy (ERP) to secure ecosystem services in China
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2016 (English)In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 55, p. 348-351Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

China is facing huge environmental problems, with its current rapid rate of urbanization and industrialization causing biodiversity loss, ecosystem degradation, and land resources degradation on a major scale. To overcome management conflicts and secure ecosystem services, China has proposed a new 'ecological redline policy' (ERP) using ecosystem services as a way to meet its targets. By giving environmental policy redline status, China is demonstrating strong commitment in its efforts to tackle environmental degradation and secure ecosystem services for the future. This is already having impact, as the Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection and the National Development and Reform Commission are prepared to work together to implement the new environmental policy.

Keywords
Environmental policy, Ecosystem services, Beneficiary, Ecological hotspot, Management gaps
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298827 (URN)10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.09.002 (DOI)000376803100033 ()
Available from: 2016-07-11 Created: 2016-07-11 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Little, C. J., Jagerbrand, A. K., Molau, U. & Alatalo, J. M. (2015). Community and species-specific responses to simulated global change in two subarctic-alpine plant communities. Ecosphere, 6(11), Article ID 227.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community and species-specific responses to simulated global change in two subarctic-alpine plant communities
2015 (English)In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Long-term observational studies have detected greening and shrub encroachment in the subarctic attributed to current climate change, while global change simulations have showed that community composition and productivity may shift drastically in arctic, subarctic, and alpine tundra plant communities in the future. However, responses to global change can be highly species-and context-dependent. We examined community-level and species-specific responses to a six-year factorial temperature and nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) amendment experiment in two alpine plant communities in northern Sweden: a species-poor dwarf shrub heath, and a more species-rich meadow. We hypothesized that abundance responses to global change would be variable within commonly defined vascular plant functional groups (e.g., forbs, evergreen shrubs, deciduous shrubs) and that new species would appear in experimental plots over time due to the ameliorated growing conditions. We found that within most functional groups, species were highly individualistic with respect to the global change simulation, particularly within the forbs, whereas within the shrubs, responses were neutral to negative and widely variable in magnitude. In the heath community the response of the graminoid functional group was driven almost entirely by the grass Calamagrostis lapponica, which increased in abundance by an order of magnitude in the combined temperature and nutrient treatment. Furthermore, community context was important for species' responses to the simulations. Abundance of the pan-arctic species Carex bigelowii and Vaccinium vitis-idaea responded primarily to the temperature treatment in the meadow community whereas the nutrient treatment had stronger effects in the heath community. Over six growing seasons, more new species appeared in the experimental plots than in control plots in the meadow community, whereas in the heath community only one new species appeared. Our results from two closely situated but different plant communities show that functional groups do not predict individual species responses to simulated global change, and that these responses depend to a large extent on pre-existing physical conditions as well as biotic interactions such as competition and facilitation. It may be difficult to apply general trends of global change responses to specific local communities.

Keywords
Calamagrostis lapponica, Carex bigelowii, global change, heath, Latnjajaure, Sweden, meadow, nutrient addition, plant community composition, subalpine tundra, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, warming
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-275486 (URN)10.1890/ES14-00427.1 (DOI)000367310600018 ()
Available from: 2016-02-04 Created: 2016-02-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Jagerbrand, A. K. & Alatalo, J. M. (2015). Effects of human trampling on abundance and diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine heath vegetation, Northern Sweden. SpringerPlus, 4, Article ID 95.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of human trampling on abundance and diversity of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens in alpine heath vegetation, Northern Sweden
2015 (English)In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 4, article id 95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated the effects of human trampling on cover, diversity and species richness in an alpine heath ecosystem in northern Sweden. We tested the hypothesis that proximity to trails decreases plant cover, diversity and species richness of the canopy and the understory. We found a significant decrease in plant cover with proximity to the trail for the understory, but not for the canopy level, and significant decreases in the abundance of deciduous shrubs in the canopy layer and lichens in the understory. Proximity also had a significant negative impact on species richness of lichens. However, there were no significant changes in species richness, diversity or evenness of distribution in the canopy or understory with proximity to the trail. While not significant, liverworts, acrocarpous and pleurocarpous bryophytes tended to have contrasting abundance patterns with differing proximity to the trail, indicating that trampling may cause shifts in dominance hierarchies of different groups of bryophytes. Due to the decrease in understory cover, the abundance of litter, rock and soil increased with proximity to the trail. These results demonstrate that low-frequency human trampling in alpine heaths over long periods can have major negative impacts on lichen abundance and species richness. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that trampling can decrease species richness of lichens. It emphasises the importance of including species-level data on non-vascular plants when conducting studies in alpine or tundra ecosystems, since they often make up the majority of species and play a significant role in ecosystem functioning and response in many of these extreme environments.

Keywords
Cover, Disturbance, Tundra, Richness, Evenness, Trail, Hiking
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261326 (URN)10.1186/s40064-015-0876-z (DOI)000359158600002 ()25774335 (PubMedID)
Funder
Carl Tryggers foundation
Available from: 2015-09-02 Created: 2015-09-01 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Alatalo, J. M., Little, C. J., Jagerbrand, A. K. & Molau, U. (2015). Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change. Scientific Reports, 5, Article ID 10197.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vascular plant abundance and diversity in an alpine heath under observed and simulated global change
2015 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 10197Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Global change is predicted to cause shifts in species distributions and biodiversity in arctic tundra. We applied factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to a nutrient and species poor alpine/arctic heath community for seven years. Vascular plant abundance in control plots increased by 31%. There were also notable changes in cover in the nutrient and combined nutrient and warming treatments, with deciduous and evergreen shrubs declining, grasses overgrowing these plots. Sedge abundance initially increased significantly with nutrient amendment and then declined, going below initial values in the combined nutrient and warming treatment. Nutrient addition resulted in a change in dominance hierarchy from deciduous shrubs to grasses. We found significant declines in vascular plant diversity and evenness in the warming treatment and a decline in diversity in the combined warming and nutrient addition treatment, while nutrient addition caused a decline in species richness. The results give some experimental support that species poor plant communities with low diversity may be more vulnerable to loss of species diversity than communities with higher initial diversity. The projected increase in nutrient deposition and warming may therefore have negative impacts on ecosystem processes, functioning and services due to loss of species diversity in an already impoverished environment.

National Category
Ecology Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-255076 (URN)10.1038/srep10197 (DOI)000354114100001 ()25950370 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-06-18 Created: 2015-06-12 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Alatalo, J. M., Jaegerbrand, A. K. & Molau, U. (2014). Climate change and climatic events: community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra. Alpine Botany, 124(2), 81-91
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate change and climatic events: community-, functional- and species-level responses of bryophytes and lichens to constant, stepwise, and pulse experimental warming in an alpine tundra
2014 (English)In: Alpine Botany, ISSN 1664-2201, E-ISSN 1664-221X, Vol. 124, no 2, p. 81-91Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We experimentally imposed three different kinds of warming scenarios over 3 years on an alpine meadow community to identify the differential effects of climate warming and extreme climatic events on the abundance and biomass of bryophytes and lichens. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open top chambers (an average temperature increase of 1.87 A degrees C), (b) a yearly stepwise increase of warming (average temperature increases of 1.0; 1.87 and 3.54 A degrees C, consecutively), and (c) a pulse warming, i.e., a single first year pulse event of warming (average temperature increase of 3.54 A degrees C only during the first year). To our knowledge, this is the first climate change study that attempts to distinguish between the effects of constant, stepwise and pulse warming on bryophyte and lichen communities. We hypothesised that pulse warming would have a significant short-term effect compared to the other warming treatments, and that stepwise warming would have a significant mid-term effect compared to the other warming treatments. Acrocarpous bryophytes as a group increased in abundance and biomass to the short-term effect of pulse warming. We found no significant effects of mid-term (third-year) stepwise warming. However, one pleurocarpous bryophyte species, Tomentypnum nitens, generally increased in abundance during the warm year 1997 but decreased in control plots and in response to the stepwise warming treatment. Three years of experimental warming (all treatments as a group) did have a significant impact at the community level, yet changes in abundance did not translate into significant changes in the dominance hierarchies at the functional level (for acrocarpous bryophytes, pleurocarpous bryophytes, Sphagnum or lichens), or in significant changes in other bryophyte or lichen species. The results suggest that bryophytes and lichens, both at the functional group and species level, to a large extent are resistant to the different climate change warming simulations that were applied.

Keywords
Bryophytes, Climate change, Extreme climatic event, Lichens, Resilience, Warming
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-236545 (URN)10.1007/s00035-014-0133-z (DOI)000343084400002 ()
Available from: 2014-11-26 Created: 2014-11-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Alatalo, J. M., Little, C. J., Jagerbrand, A. K. & Molau, U. (2014). Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change. PeerJ, 2, e406
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dominance hierarchies, diversity and species richness of vascular plants in an alpine meadow: contrasting short and medium term responses to simulated global change
2014 (English)In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 2, p. e406-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We studied the impact of simulated global change on a high alpine meadow plant community. Specifically, we examined whether short-term (5 years) responses are good predictors for medium-term (7 years) changes in the system by applying a factorial warming and nutrient manipulation to 20 plots in Latnjajaure, subarctic Sweden. Seven years of experimental warming and nutrient enhancement caused dramatic shifts in dominance hierarchies in response to the nutrient and the combined warming and nutrient enhancement treatments. Dominance hierarchies in the meadow moved from a community being dominated by cushion plants, deciduous, and evergreen shrubs to a community being dominated by grasses, sedges, and forbs. Short-termresponses were shown to be inconsistent in their ability to predict medium-term responses for most functional groups, however, grasses showed a consistent and very substantial increase in response to nutrient addition over the seven years. The non-linear responses over time point out the importance of longer-term studies with repeated measurements to be able to better predict future changes. Forecasted changes to temperature and nutrient availability have implications for trophic interactions, and may ultimately influence the access to and palatability of the forage for grazers. Depending on what anthropogenic change will be most pronounced in the future (increase in nutrient deposits, warming, or a combination of them both), different shifts in community dominance hierarchies may occur. Generally, this study supports the productivity-diversity relationship found across arctic habitats, with community diversity peaking in mid-productivity systems and degrading as nutrient availability increases further. This is likely due the increasing competition in plant-plant interactions and the shifting dominance structure with grasses taking over the experimental plots, suggesting that global change could have high costs to biodiversity in the Arctic.

Keywords
Alpine tundra, Climate change, Plant community diversity, Meadow, Functional groups, Nutrient addition, Species richness, Warming, Global change, Arctic
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-244603 (URN)10.7717/peerj.406 (DOI)000347608100010 ()24883260 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-03-06 Created: 2015-02-18 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Alatalo, J. M. & Little, C. J. (2014). Simulated global change: contrasting short and medium term growth and reproductive responses of a common alpine/Arctic cushion plant to experimental warming and nutrient enhancement. SpringerPlus, 3, Article ID 157.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulated global change: contrasting short and medium term growth and reproductive responses of a common alpine/Arctic cushion plant to experimental warming and nutrient enhancement
2014 (English)In: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 3, article id 157Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cushion plants are important components of alpine and Arctic plant communities around the world. They fulfill important roles as facilitators, nurse plants and foundation species across trophic levels for vascular plants, arthropods and soil microorganisms, the importance of these functions increasing with the relative severity of the environment. Here we report results from one of the few experimental studies simulating global change impacts on cushion plants; a factorial experiment with warming and nutrient enhancement that was applied to an alpine population of the common nurse plant, Silene acaulis, in sub-arctic Sweden. Experimental perturbations had significant short-term impacts on both stem elongation and leaf length. S. acaulis responded quickly by increasing stem elongation and (to a lesser extent) leaf length in the warming, nutrient, and the combined warming and nutrient enhancements. Cover and biomass also initially increased in response to the perturbations. However, after the initial positive short-term responses, S. acaulis cover declined in the manipulations, with the nutrient and combined warming and nutrient treatments having largest negative impact. No clear patterns were found for fruit production. Our results show that S. acaulis living in harsh environments has potential to react quickly when experiencing years with favorable conditions, and is more responsive to nutrient enhancement than to warming in terms of vegetative growth. While these conditions have an initial positive impact, populations experiencing longer-term increased nutrient levels will likely be negatively affected.

Keywords
Alpine, Biomass, Climate change, Cover, Fruit production, Meadow, Silene acaulis, Tundra
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-310523 (URN)10.1186/2193-1801-3-157 (DOI)000358960900001 ()24790813 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-12-19 Created: 2016-12-16 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Alatalo, J. M. & Ostapenko, O. V. (2014). The Swedish system: The image cracking when taking a closer look. Geoforum, 53, 82-83
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Swedish system: The image cracking when taking a closer look
2014 (English)In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 53, p. 82-83Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sweden has a high international profile regarding social issues and projects an image as one of the best countries in the world in terms of social indicators. Here we argue for a revised view as the reality is that Swedish system is very segregated, particularly in terms of (1) relative lack of women in positions of high influence, (2) it is the worst country in the EU28 regarding long-term unemployment for people born outside the country, and (3) it has a education system that after a number of reforms is involved in a "race towards the bottom" to profit from students. At the same time Sweden undervalues foreign academic qualifications and getting work largely depends on "who you know", not "what you know".

Keywords
Education system, Gender, Qualifications, Segregation, Unemployment, Recruitment
National Category
Social and Economic Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-228355 (URN)10.1016/j.geoforum.2014.02.010 (DOI)000336116500009 ()
Available from: 2014-07-14 Created: 2014-07-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Jagerbrand, A. K., Alatalo, J. M. & Kudo, G. (2014). Variation in responses to temperature treatments ex situ of the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. originating from eight altitude sites in Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Bryology, 36(3), 209-216
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variation in responses to temperature treatments ex situ of the moss Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt. originating from eight altitude sites in Hokkaido, Japan
2014 (English)In: Journal of Bryology, ISSN 0373-6687, E-ISSN 1743-2820, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 209-216Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal acclimatisations are important for the survival and growth of individuals and populations but seldom studied for different populations of bryophytes. The aims of this study were to (I) investigate if responses to temperature treatments were independent of the site sampled or if the intra- and inter-population variation in responses were larger than the responses to the temperature treatments (control, press, and pulse), and to (II) examine if experimental responses varied, depending on the sampled sites. We collected samples of the circumpolar bryophyte species, Pleurozium schreberi (Willd. ex Brid.) Mitt., originating from eight altitude sites on Mt. Oakan in Hokkaido, Japan, and exposed them to three different temperature treatments ex situ for four weeks. Thermal acclimatisation was estimated by measuring responses in growth length increase, biomass increase, number of branches, and the maximum quantum yield of PS II (Fv/Fm). We found that responses to temperature treatments were dependent on the site sampled, and that differences were most pronounced in the length increase. Results also shows that the responses to experimental treatments may differ between sites. Our results therefore raise important concerns regarding the general validity of both ex situ and in situ experiments when performed on a single or a limited number of sites.

Keywords
Alpine, Biomass, Environmental stress, Fv/Fm, Moss, Stress
National Category
Evolutionary Biology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-241539 (URN)10.1179/1743282014Y.0000000095 (DOI)000346159600005 ()
Available from: 2015-01-13 Created: 2015-01-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Jägerbrand, A. K., Kudo, G., Alatalo, J. M. & Molau, U. (2012). Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types. Polar Science, 6(2), 200-208
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of neighboring vascular plants on the abundance of bryophytes in different vegetation types
2012 (English)In: Polar Science, ISSN 1873-9652, E-ISSN 1876-4428, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 200-208Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to the climate change, vegetation of tundra ecosystems is predicted to shift toward shrub and tree dominance, and this change may influence bryophytes. To estimate how changes in growing environment and the dominance of vascular plants influence bryophyte abundance, we compared the relationship of occurrence of bryophytes among other plant types in a five-year experiment of warming (T), fertilization (F) and T + F in two vegetation types, heath and meadow, in a subarctic–alpine ecosystem. We compared individual leaf area among shrub species to confirm that deciduous shrubs might cause severe shading effect. Effects of neighboring functional types on the performance of Hylocomium splendens was also analyzed.

Results show that F and T + F treatments significantly influenced bryophyte abundance negatively. Under natural conditions, bryophytes in the heath site were negatively related to the abundance of shrubs and lichens and the relationship between lichens and bryophytes strengthened after the experimental period. After five years of experimental treatments in the meadow, a positive abundance relationship emerged between bryophytes and deciduous shrubs, evergreen shrubs and forbs. This relationship was not found in the heath site. Our study therefore shows that the abundance relationships between bryophytes and plants in two vegetation types within the same area can be different. Deciduous shrubs had larger leaf area than evergreen shrubs but did not show any shading effect on H. splendens.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Bryophytes, alpine, sub arctic, Fertilization, Moss, Shrub, Arctic, Chlorophyll a/b, OTC, Warming effect, mossor, alpin, arktis
National Category
Ecology
Research subject
Biology (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hgo:diva-1750 (URN)10.1016/j.polar.2012.02.002 (DOI)000315303800005 ()
Available from: 2013-01-16 Created: 2013-01-16 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5084-850X

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