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Hodson, L., Rosqvist, F. & Parry, S. A. (2020). The influence of dietary fatty acids on liver fat content and metabolism. Paper presented at Winter Meeting of the Nutrition-Society / Conference on Optimal Diet and Lifestyle Strategies for the Management of Cardio-Metabolic Risk / Symposium 2 on Impact of Dietary Fatty Acids on Key Metabolic Tissues (Fat Depots and Muscle), DEC 04-05, 2018, Royal Soc Med, London, ENGLAND. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 79(1), 30-41, Article ID PII S0029665119000569.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of dietary fatty acids on liver fat content and metabolism
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, ISSN 0029-6651, E-ISSN 1475-2719, Vol. 79, no 1, p. 30-41, article id PII S0029665119000569Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease encompasses a spectrum of conditions from hepatic steatosis through to cirrhosis; obesity is a known risk factor. The liver plays a major role in regulating fatty acid metabolism and perturbations in intrahepatic processes have potential to impact on metabolic health. It remains unclear why intra-hepatocellular fat starts to accumulate, but it likely involves an imbalance between fatty acid delivery to the liver, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation within the liver and TAG export from the liver. As man spends the majority of the day in a postprandial rather than postabsorptive state, dietary fatty acid intake should be taken into consideration when investigating why intra-hepatic fat starts to accumulate. This review will discuss the impact of the quantity and quality of dietary fatty acids on liver fat accumulation and metabolism, along with some of the potential mechanisms involved. Studies investigating the role of dietary fat in liver fat accumulation, although surprisingly limited, have clearly demonstrated that it is total energy intake, rather than fat intake per se, that is a key mediator of liver fat content; hyperenergetic diets increase liver fat whilst hypoenergetic diets decrease liver fat content irrespective of total fat content. Moreover, there is now, albeit limited evidence emerging to suggest the composition of dietary fat may also play a role in liver fat accumulation, with diets enriched in saturated fat appearing to increase liver fat content to a greater extent when compared with diets enriched in unsaturated fats.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2020
Keywords
Liver fat, Dietary, SFA, PUFA
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-406451 (URN)10.1017/S0029665119000569 (DOI)000509729300005 ()30942685 (PubMedID)
Conference
Winter Meeting of the Nutrition-Society / Conference on Optimal Diet and Lifestyle Strategies for the Management of Cardio-Metabolic Risk / Symposium 2 on Impact of Dietary Fatty Acids on Key Metabolic Tissues (Fat Depots and Muscle), DEC 04-05, 2018, Royal Soc Med, London, ENGLAND
Available from: 2020-03-10 Created: 2020-03-10 Last updated: 2020-03-10Bibliographically approved
Ulven, S. M., Holven, K. B., Rundblad, A., Myhrstad, M. C. W., Leder, L., Dahlman, I., . . . Kolehmainen, M. (2019). An Isocaloric Nordic Diet Modulates RELA and TNFRSF1A Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome-A SYSDIET Sub-Study. Nutrients, 11(12), Article ID 2932.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Isocaloric Nordic Diet Modulates RELA and TNFRSF1A Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Individuals with Metabolic Syndrome-A SYSDIET Sub-Study
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2019 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 12, article id 2932Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and reduced inflammation. To explore this at the molecular level, we investigated the effect of a Nordic diet (ND) on changes in the gene expression profiles of inflammatory and lipid-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of individuals with MetS. We hypothesized that the intake of an ND compared to a control diet (CD) would alter the expression of inflammatory genes and genes involved in lipid metabolism. The individuals with MetS underwent an 18/24-week randomized intervention to compare a ND with a CD. Eighty-eight participants (66% women) were included in this sub-study of the larger SYSDIET study. Fasting PBMCs were collected before and after the intervention and changes in gene expression levels were measured using TaqMan Array Micro Fluidic Cards. Forty-eight pre-determined inflammatory and lipid related gene transcripts were analyzed. The expression level of the gene tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily member 1A (TNFRSF1A) was down-regulated (p = 0.004), whereas the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kappa B) subunit, RELA proto-oncogene, was up-regulated (p = 0.016) in the ND group compared to the CD group. In conclusion, intake of an ND in individuals with the MetS may affect immune function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
metabolic syndrome, randomized controlled dietary intervention, gene expression, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, inflammation
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-406064 (URN)10.3390/nu11122932 (DOI)000506917800094 ()31816875 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Heart Lung FoundationNordForsk, 070014Academy of FinlandSwedish Diabetes Association
Available from: 2020-03-04 Created: 2020-03-04 Last updated: 2020-03-04Bibliographically approved
Johansson, H.-E., Edholm, D., Kullberg, J., Rosqvist, F., Rudling, M., Straniero, S., . . . Risérus, U. (2019). Energy restriction in obese women suggest linear reduction of hepatic fat content and time-dependent metabolic improvements. Nutrition & Diabetes, 9(1), Article ID 34.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy restriction in obese women suggest linear reduction of hepatic fat content and time-dependent metabolic improvements
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2019 (English)In: Nutrition & Diabetes, ISSN 2044-4052, E-ISSN 2044-4052, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Energy restriction reduces liver fat, improves hepatic insulin resistance and lipid metabolism. However, temporal data in which these metabolic improvements occur and their interplay is incomplete. By performing repeated MRI scans and blood analysis at day 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 the temporal changes in liver fat and related metabolic factors were assessed at five times during a low-calorie diet (LCD, 800-1100 kcal/day) in ten obese non-diabetic women (BMI 41.7 ± 2.6 kg/m2) whereof 6 had NAFLD. Mean weight loss was 7.4 ± 1.2 kg (0.7 kg/day) and liver fat decreased by 51 ± 16%, resulting in only three subjects having NAFLD at day 28. Marked alteration of insulin, NEFA, ALT and 3-hydroxybuturate was evident 3 days after commencing LCD, whereas liver fat showed a moderate but a linear reduction across the 28 days. Other circulating-liver fat markers (e.g. triglycerides, adiponectin, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 index, fibroblast growth factor 21) demonstrated modest and variable changes. Marked elevations of NEFA, 3-hydroxybuturate and ALT concentrations occurred until day 14, likely reflecting increased tissue lipolysis, fat oxidation and upregulated hepatic fatty acid oxidation. In summary, these results suggest linear reduction in liver fat, time-specific changes in metabolic markers and insulin resistance in response to energy restriction.

National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-397554 (URN)10.1038/s41387-019-0100-2 (DOI)000497994200004 ()31685793 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-11-21 Created: 2019-11-21 Last updated: 2019-12-18Bibliographically approved
Rosqvist, F., McNeil, C. A., Pramfalk, C., Parry, S. A., Low, W. S., Cornfield, T., . . . Hodson, L. (2019). Fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis is not reliably assessed using circulating fatty acid markers. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 109(2), 260-268
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fasting hepatic de novo lipogenesis is not reliably assessed using circulating fatty acid markers
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2019 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 260-268Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Observational studies often infer hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) by measuring circulating fatty acid (FA) markers; however, it remains to be elucidated whether these markers accurately reflect hepatic DNL. Objectives: We investigated associations between fasting hepatic DNL and proposed FA markers of DNL in subjects consuming their habitual diet. Methods: Fasting hepatic DNL was assessed using (H2O)-H-2(deuterated water) in 149 nondiabetic men and women and measuring the synthesis of very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) palmitate. FA markers of blood lipid fractions were determined by gas chromatography. Results: Neither the lipogenic index (16: 0/18: 2n-6) nor the SCD index (16: 1n-7/16: 0) in VLDL-TG was associated with isotopically assessed DNL (r = 0.13, P = 0.1 and r = -0.08, P = 0.35, respectively). The relative abundances (mol%) of 14: 0, 16: 0, and 18: 0 in VLDL-TG were weakly (r <= 0.35) associated with DNL, whereas the abundances of 16: 1n-7, 18: 1n-7, and 18: 1n-9 were not associated. When the cohort was split by median DNL, only the abundances of 14: 0 and 18: 0 in VLDL-TG could discriminate between subjects having high (11.5%) and low(3.8%) fasting hepatic DNL. Based on a subgroup, FA markers in total plasma TG, plasma cholesteryl esters, plasma phospholipids, and red blood cell phospholipids were generally not associated with DNL. Conclusions: The usefulness of circulating FAs as markers of hepatic DNL in healthy individuals consuming their habitual diet is limited due to their inability to discriminate clearly between individuals with low and high fasting hepatic DNL.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2019
Keywords
de novo lipogenesis, fatty acids, metabolism, human, triglycerides, lipogenic index, SCD, palmitoleic acid
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380498 (URN)10.1093/ajcn/nqy304 (DOI)000460615600005 ()30721918 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-04-23 Created: 2019-04-23 Last updated: 2019-04-23Bibliographically approved
Myhrstad, M. C. W., de Mello, V. D., Dahlman, I., Kolehmainen, M., Paananen, J., Rundblad, A., . . . Ulven, S. M. (2019). Healthy Nordic Diet Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to Mitochondrial Function and Immune Response in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome-A SYSDIET Sub-Study. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 63(13), Article ID 1801405.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Healthy Nordic Diet Modulates the Expression of Genes Related to Mitochondrial Function and Immune Response in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Subjects with Metabolic Syndrome-A SYSDIET Sub-Study
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2019 (English)In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 63, no 13, article id 1801405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scope To explore the effect of a healthy Nordic diet on the global transcriptome profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of subjects with metabolic syndrome. Methods and results Subjects with metabolic syndrome undergo a 18/24 week randomized intervention study comparing an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet with an average habitual Nordic diet served as control (SYSDIET study). Altogether, 68 participants are included. PBMCs are obtained before and after intervention and total RNA is subjected to global transcriptome analysis. 1302 probe sets are differentially expressed between the diet groups (p-value < 0.05). Twenty-five of these are significantly regulated (FDR q-value < 0.25) and are mainly involved in mitochondrial function, cell growth, and cell adhesion. The list of 1302 regulated probe sets is subjected to functional analyses. Pathways and processes involved in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, immune response, and cell cycle are downregulated in the healthy Nordic diet group. In addition, gene transcripts with common motifs for 42 transcription factors, including NFR1, NFR2, and NF-kappa B, are downregulated in the healthy Nordic diet group. Conclusion These results suggest that benefits of a healthy diet may be mediated by improved mitochondrial function and reduced inflammation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2019
Keywords
gene-expression, healthy Nordic diet, metabolic syndrome, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, transcriptome
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390915 (URN)10.1002/mnfr.201801405 (DOI)000473667000001 ()30964598 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Heart Lung FoundationNordForsk, 070014Swedish Diabetes Association
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Rosqvist, F., Kullberg, J., Ståhlman, M., Cedernaes, J., Heurling, K., Johansson, H.-E., . . . Risérus, U. (2019). Overeating saturated fat promotes fatty liver and ceramides compared to polyunsaturated fat: a randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 104(12), 6207-6219
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overeating saturated fat promotes fatty liver and ceramides compared to polyunsaturated fat: a randomized trial
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 104, no 12, p. 6207-6219Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

CONTEXT: Saturated fat (SFA) versus polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) may promote non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by yet unclear mechanisms.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if overeating SFA- and PUFA-enriched diets lead to differential liver fat accumulation in overweight and obese humans.

DESIGN: Double-blind randomized trial (LIPOGAIN-2). Overfeeding SFA vs PUFA for 8 weeks, followed by 4 weeks of caloric restriction.

SETTING: General community.Participants: n=61 overweight or obese men and women.

INTERVENTION: Muffins high in either palm (SFA)- or sunflower oil (PUFA) were added to the habitual diet.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Lean tissue mass (not reported here). Secondary and exploratory outcomes included liver and ectopic fat depots.

RESULTS: By design, body weight gain was similar in SFA (2.31±1.38 kg) and PUFA (2.01±1.90 kg) groups, P=0.50. SFA markedly induced liver fat content (50% relative increase) along with liver enzymes and atherogenic serum lipids. In contrast, despite similar weight gain, PUFA did not increase liver fat or liver enzymes or cause any adverse effects on blood lipids. SFA had no differential effect on the accumulation of visceral fat, pancreas fat or total body fat compared with PUFA. SFA consistently increased, while PUFA reduced circulating ceramides; changes that were moderately associated with liver fat changes and proposed markers of hepatic lipogenesis. The adverse metabolic effects of SFA were reversed by calorie restriction.

CONCLUSIONS: Saturated fat markedly induces liver fat and serum ceramides whereas dietary polyunsaturated fat prevent liver fat accumulation, reduce ceramides and hyperlipidemia during excess energy intake and weight gain in overweight individuals.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2019
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-391140 (URN)10.1210/jc.2019-00160 (DOI)31369090 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2015-54X-22081-04-3Swedish Research Council, 2016-01040Swedish Research Council, 2015-02781Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20160491Stockholm County Council, ALF 20150447Ernfors FoundationSwedish Nutrition Foundation (SNF)EXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2020-03-20Bibliographically approved
Straniero, S., Rosqvist, F., Edholm, D., Ahlström, H., Kullberg, J., Sundbom, M., . . . Rudling, M. (2017). Acute caloric restriction counteracts hepatic bile acid and cholesterol deficiency in morbid obesity. Journal of Internal Medicine, 281(5), 507-517
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Acute caloric restriction counteracts hepatic bile acid and cholesterol deficiency in morbid obesity
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 281, no 5, p. 507-517Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Bile acid (BA) synthesis is regulated by BA signalling in the liver and by fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), synthesized and released from the intestine. In morbid obesity, faecal excretion and hepatic synthesis of BAs and cholesterol are strongly induced and caloric restriction reduces their faecal excretion considerably. We hypothesized that the high intestinal food mass in morbidly obese subjects promotes faecal excretion of BAs and cholesterol, thereby creating a shortage of both BAs and cholesterol in the liver.

Methods

Ten morbidly obese women (BMI 42 ± 2.6 kg m−2) were monitored on days 0, 3, 7, 14 and 28 after beginning a low‐calorie diet (800–1100 kcal day−1). Serum was collected and liver size and fat content determined. Synthesis of BAs and cholesterol was evaluated from serum markers, and the serum levels of lipoproteins, BAs, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), insulin, glucose and FGF19 were monitored. Fifty‐four nonobese women (BMI <25 kg m−2) served as controls.

Results

At baseline, synthesis of both BAs and cholesterol and serum levels of BAs and PCSK9 were elevated in the obese group compared to controls. Already after 3 days on a low‐calorie diet, BA and cholesterol synthesis and serum BA and PCSK9 levels normalized, whereas LDL cholesterol increased. FGF19 and triglyceride levels were unchanged, and liver volume was reduced by 10%.

Conclusions

The results suggest that hepatic BAs and cholesterol are deficient in morbid obesity. Caloric restriction rapidly counteracts these deficiencies, normalizing BA and cholesterol synthesis and circulating PCSK9 levels, indicating that overproduction of cholesterol in enlarged peripheral tissues cannot explain this phenotype. We propose that excessive food intake promotes faecal loss of BAs and cholesterol contributing to their hepatic deficiencies.

Keywords
bile acid synthesis, cholesterol synthesis, proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316832 (URN)10.1111/joim.12599 (DOI)000458735700009 ()28261926 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-02781Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20160491Stockholm County Council, ALF 20150447Swedish Diabetes Association
Available from: 2017-03-07 Created: 2017-03-07 Last updated: 2019-12-16Bibliographically approved
Petrus, P., Edholm, D., Rosqvist, F., Dahlman, I., Sundbom, M., Arner, P., . . . Risérus, U. (2017). Depot-specific differences in fatty acid composition and distinct associations with lipogenic gene expression in abdominal adipose tissue of obese women. International Journal of Obesity, 41(8), 1295-1298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depot-specific differences in fatty acid composition and distinct associations with lipogenic gene expression in abdominal adipose tissue of obese women
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2017 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 41, no 8, p. 1295-1298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cardiometabolic diseases are primarily linked to enlarged visceral adipose tissue (VAT). However, some data suggest heterogeneity within the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) depot with potential metabolic differences between the superficial SAT (sSAT) and deep SAT (dSAT) compartments. We aimed to investigate the heterogeneity of these three depots with regard to fatty acid (FA) composition and gene expression. Adipose tissue biopsies were collected from 75 obese women undergoing laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery. FA composition and gene expression were determined with gas chromatography and quantitative real-time-PCR, respectively. Stearoyl CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1) activity was estimated by product-to-precursor FA ratios. All polyunsaturated FAs (PUFA) with 20 carbons were consistently lower in VAT than either SAT depots, whereas essential PUFA (linoleic acid, 18:2n-6 and α-linolenic acid, 18:3n-3) were similar between all three depots. Lauric and palmitic acid were higher and lower in VAT, respectively. The SCD-1 product palmitoleic acid as well as estimated SCD-1 activity was higher in VAT than SAT. Overall, there was a distinct association pattern between lipid metabolizing genes and individual FAs in VAT. In conclusion, SAT and VAT are two distinct depots with regard to FA composition and expression of key lipogenic genes. However, the small differences between sSAT and dSAT suggest that FA metabolism of SAT is rather homogenous.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333246 (URN)10.1038/ijo.2017.106 (DOI)000407050500023 ()28465608 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2017-11-09 Created: 2017-11-09 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Rosqvist, F., Bjermo, H., Kullberg, J., Johansson, L., Michaëlsson, K., Ahlström, H., . . . Risérus, U. (2017). Fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters and phospholipids is linked to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue content in elderly individuals: a cross-sectional study. Lipids in Health and Disease, 16, 1-10, Article ID 68.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters and phospholipids is linked to visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue content in elderly individuals: a cross-sectional study
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2017 (English)In: Lipids in Health and Disease, ISSN 1476-511X, E-ISSN 1476-511X, Vol. 16, p. 1-10, article id 68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and truncal fat predict cardiometabolic disease. Intervention trials suggest that saturated fatty acids (SFA), e. g. palmitic acid, promote abdominal and liver fat storage whereas polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), e. g. linoleic acid, prevent fat accumulation. Such findings require investigation in population-based studies of older individuals. We aimed to investigate the relationships of serum biomarkers of PUFA intake as well as serum levels of palmitic acid, with abdominal and total adipose tissue content.

Methods: In a population-based sample of 287 elderly subjects in the PIVUS cohort, we assessed fatty acid composition in serum cholesterol esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) by gas chromatography and the amount of VAT and abdominal subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), liver fat by MR spectroscopy (MRS), and total body fat, trunk fat and leg fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Insulin resistance was estimated by HOMA-IR.

Results: VAT and trunk fat showed the strongest correlation with insulin resistance (r = 0.49, P < 0.001). Linoleic acid in both CE and PL was inversely related to all body fat depots (r = -0.24 to -0.33, P < 0.001) including liver fat measured in a sub-group (r = -0.26, P < 0.05, n = 73), whereas n-3 PUFA showed weak inverse (18: 3n-3) or positive (20: 5n-3) associations. Palmitic acid in CE, but not in PL, was directly correlated with VAT (r = 0.19, P < 0.001) and trunk fat (r = 0.18, P = 0.003). Overall, the significant associations remained after adjusting for energy intake, height, alcohol, sex, smoking, education and physical activity. The inverse correlation between linoleic acid and VAT remained significant after further adjustment for total body fat.

Conclusions: Serum linoleic acid is inversely related to body fat storage including VAT and trunk fat whereas palmitic acid was less consistently but directly associated, in line with recent feeding studies. Considering the close link between VAT and insulin resistance, a potential preventive role of plant-based PUFA in VAT accumulation warrants further study.

Keywords
Adipose tissue distribution, Body fat, Fatty acid, Linoleic acid, Palmitic acid, Polyunsaturated fat, Saturated fat, Visceral adipose tissue
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319605 (URN)10.1186/s12944-017-0445-2 (DOI)000398222200001 ()28372558 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, K2015-54X-22081-04-3EXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in SwedenSwedish Diabetes Association
Available from: 2017-04-06 Created: 2017-04-06 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Marklund, M., Pingel, R., Rosqvist, F., Lindroos, A. K., Eriksson, J. W., Vessby, B., . . . Risérus, U. (2017). Fatty Acid Proportions in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids Are Positively Correlated in Various Swedish Populations. Journal of Nutrition, 147(11), 2118-2125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatty Acid Proportions in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids Are Positively Correlated in Various Swedish Populations
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 147, no 11, p. 2118-2125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Fatty acid (FA) proportions in cholesterol esters (CEs) and plasma phospholipids are widely used as dietary biomarkers. Information on how proportions in these fractions correlate could have implications for interpretation and use of FA biomarkers in observational and interventional studies. Objective: We investigated correlations between FA proportions in CEs and phospholipids in free-living individuals and assessed how diet-induced alterations of FA proportions correlate between fractions. Methods: Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs) between FA proportions (percentage of total FAs) in circulating CEs and phospholipids were calculated separately in 8 individual study populations including Swedish females and males (N = 2052; age range: 11-84 y), and pooled by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. In addition, study populations were stratified by age, sex, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), and diabetes status, and strata-specific rs were pooled by meta-analysis. In 2 randomized trials (N = 79) in which dietary saturated FAs were isocalorically replaced with unsaturated FAs, treatment-wise calculations of rs were conducted between FA changes in CEs and phospholipids. Results: Overall, FA proportions in CEs and phospholipids correlated well and especially strongly for polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), with pooled rs (95% CIs) ranging from 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) for a-linolenic acid to 0.92 (0.91, 0.93) for eicosapentaenoic acid. Weak correlations (pooled rs <0.4) were observed only for palmitic acid and stearic acid, with pooled rs (95% CIs): 0.29 (0.24, 0.33) and 0.30 (0.25, 0.34), respectively. Overall, correlations were not affected by age, sex, BMI, or diabetes status. Strong correlations (r(s) >= 0.6) between diet-induced FA changes in CEs and phospholipids were observed for most PUFAs. Conclusions: Proportions of most FAs in CEs and phospholipids ranked individuals similarly, suggesting that FA proportions in these fractions can be used interchangeably in populations of diverse age, sex, body composition, and diabetes status. Caution is advised, however, when comparing results from studies assessing palmitic acid or stearic acid in different lipid fractions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER SOC NUTRITION-ASN, 2017
Keywords
fatty acid, biomarker, cholesterol ester, phospholipid, meta-analysis
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-344334 (URN)10.3945/jn.117.254250 (DOI)000417124300014 ()28931585 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-07 Created: 2018-03-07 Last updated: 2018-03-07Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8982-6129

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