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Farisco, M., Baldassarre, G., Cartoni, E., Leach, A., Petrovici, M., Rosemann, A., . . . van Albada, S. (2024). A method for the ethical analysis of brain-inspired AI. Artificial Intelligence Review, 57(6), Article ID 133.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A method for the ethical analysis of brain-inspired AI
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2024 (English)In: Artificial Intelligence Review, ISSN 0269-2821, E-ISSN 1573-7462, Vol. 57, no 6, article id 133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite its successes, to date Artificial Intelligence (AI) is still characterized by a number of shortcomings with regards to different application domains and goals. These limitations are arguably both conceptual (e.g., related to the underlying theoretical models, such as symbolic vs.connectionist), and operational (e.g., related to robustness and ability to generalize). Biologically inspired AI, and more specifically brain-inspired AI, promises to provide further biological aspects beyond those that are already traditionally included in AI, making it possible to assess and possibly overcome some of its present shortcomings. This article examines some conceptual, technical, and ethical issues raised by the development and use of brain-inspired AI. Against this background, the paper asks whether there is anything ethically unique about brain-inspired AI. The aim of the paper is to introduce a method that has a heuristic nature and that can be applied to identify and address the ethical issues arising from brain-inspired AI (and from AI more generally). The conclusion resulting from the application of this method is that, compared to traditional AI, brain-inspired AI raises new foundational ethical issues and some new practical ethical issues, and exacerbates some of the issues raised by traditional AI.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2024
Keywords
Brain-Inspired AI, NeuroAI, AI Ethics, Philosophy of AI, Neuromorphic Computing
National Category
Robotics Ethics Philosophy Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-527632 (URN)10.1007/s10462-024-10769-4 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 945539EU, Horizon Europe, 101071178Uppsala University
Available from: 2024-05-03 Created: 2024-05-03 Last updated: 2024-05-03Bibliographically approved
Evers, K., Farisco, M. & Pennartz, C. (2024). Assessing the commensurability of theories of consciousness: on the usefulness of common denominators in differentiating, integrating and testing hypotheses. Consciousness and Cognition, 119, Article ID 103668.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the commensurability of theories of consciousness: on the usefulness of common denominators in differentiating, integrating and testing hypotheses
2024 (English)In: Consciousness and Cognition, ISSN 1053-8100, E-ISSN 1090-2376, Vol. 119, article id 103668Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

How deep is the current diversity in the panoply of theories to define consciousness, and to what extent do these theories share common denominators? Here we first examine to what extent different theories are commensurable (or comparable) along particular dimensions. We posit logical (and, when applicable, empirical) commensurability as a necessary condition for identifying common denominators among different theories. By consequence, dimensions for inclusion in a set of logically and empirically commensurable theories of consciousness can be proposed. Next, we compare a limited subset of neuroscience-based theories in terms of commensurability. This analysis does not yield a denominator that might serve to define a minimally unifying model of consciousness. Theories that seem to be akin by one denominator can be remote by another. We suggest a methodology of comparing different theories via multiple probing questions, allowing to discern overall (dis)similarities between theories. Despite very different background definitions of consciousness, we conclude that,  if attention is paid to the search for a common methological approach to brain-consciousness relationships, it should be possible in principle to overcome the current Babylonian confusion of tongues and eventually integrate and merge different theories.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
Commensurability, Consciousness, Denominator, Inference, Information, Integration, Motor action, Neural representation, Predictive Processing, Workspace
National Category
Psychology Philosophy
Research subject
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-523311 (URN)10.1016/j.concog.2024.103668 (DOI)38417198 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 945539European Commission, EIC 101071178
Available from: 2024-02-16 Created: 2024-02-16 Last updated: 2024-03-11Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M., Blumblyte, I. A., Franssen, C., Nitsch, D., Zecchino, I., Capasso, G. & Hafez, G. (2024). Cognitive decline related to chronic kidney disease as an exclusion factor from kidney transplantation: results from an international survey. Clinical Kidney Journal, 17(5), Article ID sfae114.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cognitive decline related to chronic kidney disease as an exclusion factor from kidney transplantation: results from an international survey
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2024 (English)In: Clinical Kidney Journal, ISSN 2048-8505, E-ISSN 2048-8513, Vol. 17, no 5, article id sfae114Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background and hypothesis

There seems to be a lack of consensus on the necessity and the modality of psychological and specifically cognitive assessment of candidates for kidney transplantation. Both points are often delegated to individual hospitals/centres, whereas international guidelines are inconsistent. We think it is essential to investigate professionals' opinions to advance towards a consistent clinical practice.

Methods

This paper presents the results of an international survey among clinical professionals, mainly nephrologists from the CONNECT (Cognitive decline in Nephro-Neurology: European Cooperative Target) network and beyond (i.e. from personal contacts of CONNECT members). The survey investigated their opinions about the question of whether cognitive decline in patients with chronic kidney disease may affect their eligibility for kidney transplantation.

Results

Our results show that most clinicians working with patients affected by chronic kidney disease think that cognitive decline may challenge their eligibility for transplantation despite data that suggest that, in some patients, cognitive problems improve after kidney transplantation.

Conclusion

We conclude that three needs emerge as particularly pressing: defining agreed-on standards for a multifaceted and multifactorial assessment (i.e. including both clinical/medical and psychosocial factors) of candidates with chronic kidney disease to kidney transplantation; further investigating empirically the causal connection between chronic kidney disease and cognition; and further investigating empirically the possible partial reversibility of cognitive decline after kidney transplantation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2024
Keywords
brain, chronic kidney disease, cognitive impairment, ethics, kidney transplantation
National Category
Ethics Urology and Nephrology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-528040 (URN)10.1093/ckj/sfae114 (DOI)001221574700001 ()38745874 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2024-05-15 Created: 2024-05-15 Last updated: 2024-05-24Bibliographically approved
Pigorini, A., Avanzini, P., Barborica, A., Bénar, C.-G., David, O., Farisco, M., . . . Zelmann, R. (2024). Simultaneous invasive and non-invasive recordings in humans: a novel Rosetta stone for deciphering brain activity. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, Article ID 110160.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simultaneous invasive and non-invasive recordings in humans: a novel Rosetta stone for deciphering brain activity
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2024 (English)In: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, ISSN 0165-0270, E-ISSN 1872-678X, article id 110160Article in journal (Refereed) In press
Abstract [en]

Simultaneous noninvasive and invasive electrophysiological recordings provide a unique opportunity to achieve a comprehensive understanding of human brain activity, much like a Rosetta stone for human neuroscience. In this review we focus on the increasingly-used powerful combination of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) with scalp electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG). We first provide practical insight on how to achieve these technically challenging recordings. We then provide examples from clinical research on how simultaneous recordings are advancing our understanding of epilepsy. This is followed by the illustration of how human neuroscience and methodological advances could benefit from these simultaneous recordings. We conclude with a call for open data sharing and collaboration, while ensuring neuroethical approaches and argue that only with a true collaborative approach the promises of simultaneous recordings will be fulfilled.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2024
Keywords
iEEG, simultaneous recordings, invasive and non-invasive, hd-EEG, MEG
National Category
Neurology Medical Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-528052 (URN)10.1016/j.jneumeth.2024.110160 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon Europe, 101071178
Available from: 2024-05-15 Created: 2024-05-15 Last updated: 2024-05-15Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M. & Changeux, J.-P. (2023). About the compatibility between the perturbational complexity index and the global neuronal workspace theory of consciousness. Neuroscience of Consciousness, 2023(1), 1-8, Article ID niad016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>About the compatibility between the perturbational complexity index and the global neuronal workspace theory of consciousness
2023 (English)In: Neuroscience of Consciousness, E-ISSN 2057-2107, Vol. 2023, no 1, p. 1-8, article id niad016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the compatibility between the theoretical framework of the global neuronal workspace theory (GNWT) of conscious processing and the perturbational complexity index (PCI). Even if it has been introduced within the framework of a concurrent theory (i.e. Integrated Information Theory), PCI appears, in principle, compatible with the main tenet of GNWT, which is a conscious process that depends on a long-range connection between different cortical regions, more specifically on the amplification, global propagation, and integration of brain signals. Notwithstanding this basic compatibility, a number of limited compatibilities and apparent differences emerge. This paper starts from the description of brain complexity, a notion that is crucial for PCI, to then summary of the main features of PCI and the main tenets of GNWT. Against this background, the text explores the compatibility between PCI and GNWT. It concludes that GNWT and PCI are fundamentally compatible, even though there are some partial disagreements and some points to further examine.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2023
Keywords
Consciousness, Theory of consciousness, Perturbational Complexity Index, Global Neuronal Worskpace Theory, Integrated Information Theory
National Category
Neurology Philosophy
Research subject
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-506071 (URN)10.1093/nc/niad016 (DOI)001011145600001 ()37342235 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 945539EU, Horizon Europe, 101071178
Available from: 2023-06-23 Created: 2023-06-23 Last updated: 2023-10-05Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M., Formisano, R., Gosseries, O., Yoko, K., Koboyashi, S., Laureys, S., . . . Estraneo, A. (2023). International survey on the implementation of the European and American guidelines on disorders of consciousness. Journal of Neurology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International survey on the implementation of the European and American guidelines on disorders of consciousness
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2023 (English)In: Journal of Neurology, ISSN 0340-5354, E-ISSN 1432-1459Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic procedures for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (pDoCs) vary significantly across countries and clinical settings, likely due to organizational factors (e.g., research vs. non-academic hospitals), expertise and availability of resources (e.g., financial and human). Two international guidelines, one from the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) and one from the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) in collaboration with the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) and the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR), were developed to facilitate consistent practice among professionals working with this challenging patient population. While the recommendations of both guidelines agree in principle, it remains an open issue how to implement them into clinical practice in the care pathway for patients with pDoCs. We conducted an online survey to explore health professional clinical practices related to the management of patients with pDoCs, and compare said practices with selected recommendations from both the guidelines. The survey revealed that while some recommendations are being followed, others are not and/or may require more honing/specificity to enhance their clinical utility. Particular attention should be given to the implementation of a multimodal assessment of residual consciousness, to the detection and treatment of pain, and to the impact of restrictions imposed by COVID-19 pandemics on the involvement of patients’ families/representatives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2023
Keywords
Coma, Disorders of consciousness, Vegetative states, Unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, Minimally conscious state, Cognitive–motor dissociation, Neuroethics, Bioethics, Ethics, Clinical guidelines
National Category
Neurology Ethics
Research subject
Clinical Neurophysiology; Neurology; Medical Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-512373 (URN)10.1007/s00415-023-11956-z (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 945539EU, European Research CouncilUppsala University
Note

Alfonso Magliacano and Anna Estraneo contributed equally to the paper.

Correction in: Journal of Neurology, 2023

DOI: 10.1007/s00415-023-12083-5

Available from: 2023-09-25 Created: 2023-09-25 Last updated: 2023-12-15
Farisco, M. (2023). The Ethical Spectrum of Consciousness. AJOB Neuroscience, 14(2), 55-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Ethical Spectrum of Consciousness
2023 (English)In: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 55-57Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This is an editorial to a special issue of AJOB Neuroscience which explores a number of ethical questions emerging from some of the most recent results of research on consciousness, including its moral interpretation, its technological manipulation, its artificial replication, its pharmacological alteration, and its possible attribution to engineered brain cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2023
Keywords
Consciousness, Disorders of consciousness, neuroethics, Moral status, Artificial Consciousness, Organoids, Psychedelics
National Category
Ethics Philosophy Neurology
Research subject
Ethics; Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-506066 (URN)10.1080/21507740.2023.2188312 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 945539
Available from: 2023-06-23 Created: 2023-06-23 Last updated: 2023-08-25Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M. & Salles, A. (2022). American and European Guidelines on Disorders of Consciousness: Ethical Challenges of Implementation. The journal of head trauma rehabilitation, 37(4), 258-262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>American and European Guidelines on Disorders of Consciousness: Ethical Challenges of Implementation
2022 (English)In: The journal of head trauma rehabilitation, ISSN 0885-9701, E-ISSN 1550-509X, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 258-262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The recently published Guidelines on Disorders of Consciousness (DoCs) by the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) and by the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) in collaboration with the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine (ACRM) and the National Institute on Disability, Independent Living, and Rehabilitation Research (NIDILRR) stand as the most ambitious international attempts to provide clear and standardized recommendations to clinicians working with patients with DoCs. They offer an updated, timely, and wide-ranging list of recommendations for the diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical care of affected patients. However, while commendable, the guidelines pose a number of questions including some related to the practical implementation of their recommendations. The paper introduces the Distributed Responsibility Model as a tool for maximizing the impact of recommendations in clinical practice

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wolters Kluwer, 2022
Keywords
Consciousness, Disorders of consciousness, neuroethics
National Category
Ethics Philosophy Neurology
Research subject
Ethics; Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-472763 (URN)10.1097/htr.0000000000000776 (DOI)000821484300012 ()35417436 (PubMedID)
Projects
The Human Brain Project
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 945539
Available from: 2022-04-14 Created: 2022-04-14 Last updated: 2022-08-04Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M., Pennartz, C., Annen, J., Cecconi, B. & Evers, K. (2022). Indicators and criteria of consciousness: ethical implications for the care of behaviourally unresponsive patients. BMC Medical Ethics, 23(30)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Indicators and criteria of consciousness: ethical implications for the care of behaviourally unresponsive patients
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2022 (English)In: BMC Medical Ethics, ISSN 1472-6939, E-ISSN 1472-6939, Vol. 23, no 30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Assessing consciousness in other subjects, particularly in non-verbal and behaviourally disabled subjects (e.g., patients with disorders of consciousness), is notoriously challenging but increasingly urgent. The high rate of misdiagnosis among disorders of consciousness raises the need for new perspectives in order to inspire new technical and clinical approaches.

Main body

We take as a starting point a recently introduced list of operational indicators of consciousness that facilitates its recognition in challenging cases like non-human animals and Artificial Intelligence to explore their relevance to disorders of consciousness and their potential ethical impact on the diagnosis and healthcare of relevant patients. Indicators of consciousness mean particular capacities that can be deduced from observing the behaviour or cognitive performance of the subject in question (or from neural correlates of such performance) and that do not define a hard threshold in deciding about the presence of consciousness, but can be used to infer a graded measure based on the consistency amongst the different indicators. The indicators of consciousness under consideration offer a potential useful strategy for identifying and assessing residual consciousness in patients with disorders of consciousness, setting the theoretical stage for an operationalization and quantification of relevant brain activity.

Conclusions

Our heuristic analysis supports the conclusion that the application of the identified indicators of consciousness to its disorders will likely inspire new strategies for assessing three very urgent issues: the misdiagnosis of disorders of consciousness; the need for a gold standard in detecting consciousness and diagnosing its disorders; and the need for a refined taxonomy of disorders of consciousness.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer NatureSpringer Nature, 2022
Keywords
Consciousness, Disorders of consciousness, neuroethics
National Category
Neurology Ethics Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-470448 (URN)10.1186/s12910-022-00770-3 (DOI)000771451500001 ()35313885 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 945539
Available from: 2022-03-24 Created: 2022-03-24 Last updated: 2024-01-15Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M., Zecchino, I. & Capasso, G. (2022). The need for a multi-disciplinary reflection about frailty and cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease. Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, 38(5), 1064-1066
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The need for a multi-disciplinary reflection about frailty and cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease
2022 (English)In: Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, ISSN 0931-0509, E-ISSN 1460-2385, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 1064-1066Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

This Editorial outlines the need for a multidisciplinary reflection about the impact of chronic kidney disease on cognitive impairment and its implications for ethically salient notions, like self-determination and autonomy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2022
Keywords
Ethics, Nephrology, Cognitive Impairment, Bioethics, Neuroethics
National Category
Neurology Urology and Nephrology Ethics
Research subject
Bioethics; Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-492294 (URN)10.1093/ndt/gfac334 (DOI)000941160500001 ()36549657 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 945539
Available from: 2023-01-03 Created: 2023-01-03 Last updated: 2023-10-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3298-7829

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