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Publications (10 of 36) Show all publications
Balkenius, C., Fawcett, C., Falck-Ytter, T., Gredebäck, G. & Johansson, B. (2019). Pupillary Correlates of Emotion and Cognition: A Computational Model. In: 2019 9th International IEEE/EMBS Conference On Neural Engineering (NER): . Paper presented at 9th IEEE/EMBS International Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), MAR 20-23, 2019, San Francisco, CA (pp. 903-907). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pupillary Correlates of Emotion and Cognition: A Computational Model
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2019 (English)In: 2019 9th International IEEE/EMBS Conference On Neural Engineering (NER), IEEE, 2019, p. 903-907Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In addition to controlling the influx of light to the retina, the pupil also reacts as a result of cognitive and emotional processing. This makes it possible to use pupil dilation as an index for cognitive effort and emotional arousal. We show how an extended version of a computational model of pupil dilation can account for pupillary contagion effects where the pupil of an observer dilates upon seeing another person with dilated pupils. We also show how the model can reproduce the effects of cognitive effort in a math exercise. Furthermore, we investigate how the model can account for different explanations for the abnormal pupil response seen in individuals with or at risk for autism spectrum disorder. The reported computer simulations illustrate the usefulness of system-level models of the brain in addressing complex cognitive and emotional phenomena.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2019
Series
International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, ISSN 1948-3546
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387991 (URN)000469933200220 ()978-1-5386-7921-0 (ISBN)
Conference
9th IEEE/EMBS International Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), MAR 20-23, 2019, San Francisco, CA
Funder
EU, European Research Council, ERC StG CACTUS 312292
Available from: 2019-06-27 Created: 2019-06-27 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Truedsson, E., Fawcett, C., Wesevich, V., Gredebäck, G. & Wåhlstedt, C. (2019). The Role of Callous-Unemotional Traits on Adolescent Positive and Negative Emotional Reactivity: A Longitudinal Community-Based Study. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, Article ID 573.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Callous-Unemotional Traits on Adolescent Positive and Negative Emotional Reactivity: A Longitudinal Community-Based Study
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2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 573Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Callous-unemotional (CU) traits are associated with lower emotional reactivity in adolescents. However, since previous studies have focused mainly on reactivity to negative stimuli, it is unclear whether reactivity to positive stimuli is also affected. Further, few studies have addressed the link between CU traits and emotional reactivity in longitudinal community samples, which is important for determining its generalizability and developmental course. In the current study, pupil dilation and self-ratings of arousal and valence were assessed in 100 adolescents (15-17 years) from a community sample, while viewing images with negative and positive valence from the International Affective Pictures System (ZAPS). Behavioral traits (CU) were assessed concurrently, as well as at ages 12-15, and 8-9 (subsample, n = 68, low levels of prosocial behavior were used as a proxy for CU traits). The results demonstrate that CU traits assessed at ages 12-15 and 8-9 predicted less pupil dilation to both positive and negative images at ages 15-17. Further, CU traits at ages 12-15 and concurrently were associated with less negative valence ratings for negative images and concurrently to less positive valence ratings for positive images. The current findings demonstrate that CU traits are related to lower emotional reactivity to both negative and positive stimuli in adolescents from a community sample.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2019
Keywords
callous-unemotional traits, emotional reactivity, pupil dilation, longitudinal, community sample
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380439 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00573 (DOI)000461259600001 ()
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2012.0120
Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Fawcett, C., Arslan, M., Falck-Ytter, T., Roeyers, H. & Gredebäck, G. (2018). Author Correction: Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 4157.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Author Correction: Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 4157Article in journal (Other academic) Published
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352923 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-22184-1 (DOI)000426469000002 ()29500403 (PubMedID)
Note

Correction to: Scientific Reports, 2017, vol. 7, article Number: 9601.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-08223-3

WoS title: Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants (vol 7, 2017)

Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Gredebäck, G., Astor, K. & Fawcett, C. (2018). Gaze Following Is Not Dependent on Ostensive Cues: A Critical Test of Natural Pedagogy. Child Development, 89(6), 2091-2098
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gaze Following Is Not Dependent on Ostensive Cues: A Critical Test of Natural Pedagogy
2018 (English)In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 89, no 6, p. 2091-2098Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The theory of natural pedagogy stipulates that infants follow gaze because they are sensitive to the communicative intent of others. According to this theory, gaze following should be present if, and only if, accompanied by at least one of a set of specific ostensive cues. The current article demonstrates gaze following in a range of contexts, both with and without expressions of communicative intent in a between-subjects design with a large sample of 6-month-old infants (n = 94). Thus, conceptually replicating prior results from Szufnarowska et al. (2014) and falsifying a central pillar of the natural pedagogy theory. The results suggest that there are opportunities to learn from others’ gaze independently of their displayed communicative intent.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-340804 (URN)10.1111/cdev.13026 (DOI)000452463400024 ()29315501 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2012.0120
Available from: 2018-02-02 Created: 2018-02-02 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Hellmer, K., Stenberg, G. & Fawcett, C. (2018). Preschoolers' conformity (and its motivation) is linked to own and parents' personalities. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 36(4), 573-588
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preschoolers' conformity (and its motivation) is linked to own and parents' personalities
2018 (English)In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 573-588Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous studies on conformity have primarily focused on factors that moderate conformity rates overall and paid little attention to explaining the individual differences. In the current study we investigate five factor model personality traits of both parents and children and experimentally-elicited conformity in 3.5-year-olds (N=59) using an Asch-like paradigm with which we measure both overt conformity (public responses) and covert opinions (private beliefs after conformist responses): A correct covert opinion after an incorrect conformist response results from a socially normative motivation whereas an incorrect covert opinion results from an informational motivation. Our data show (1) low parental extroversion is associated with participants’ overall rate of conformity; (2) and low participant extroversion and high openness are associated with an informational instead of a normative motivation to conform. This suggests that sensitivity to the social context or social engagement level, as manifested through extroversion, could be an important factor in conformist behaviour.

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348652 (URN)10.1111/bjdp.12243 (DOI)000446428000004 ()29604110 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, ERC StG CACTUS 312292
Available from: 2018-04-16 Created: 2018-04-16 Last updated: 2018-11-29Bibliographically approved
Shutts, K., Kenward, B., Falk, H., Ivegran, A. & Fawcett, C. (2017). Early preschool environments and gender: Effects of gender pedagogy in Sweden. Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), 162, 1-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early preschool environments and gender: Effects of gender pedagogy in Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 162, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To test how early social environments affect children's consideration of gender, 3- to 6-year-old children (N = 80) enrolled in gender-neutral or typical preschool programs in the central district of a large Swedish city completed measures designed to assess their gender-based social preferences, stereotypes, and automatic encoding. Compared with children in typical preschools, a greater proportion of children in the gender-neutral school were interested in playing with unfamiliar other-gender children. In addition, children attending the gender-neutral preschool scored lower on a gender stereotyping measure than children attending typical preschools. Children at the gender-neutral school, however, were not less likely to automatically encode others' gender. The findings suggest that gender-neutral pedagogy has moderate effects on how children think and feel about people of different genders but might not affect children's tendency to spontaneously notice gender.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2017
Keywords
Children, Gender, Attitudes, Stereotypes, Encoding, Socialization
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331206 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2017.04.014 (DOI)000405539800001 ()28551105 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2011-1785
Available from: 2017-10-16 Created: 2017-10-16 Last updated: 2017-10-16Bibliographically approved
Fawcett, C., Arslan, M., Falck-Ytter, T., Roeyers, H. & Gredebäck, G. (2017). Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants. Scientific Reports, 7, Article ID 9601.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants
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2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 9601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Being sensitive and responsive to others’ internal states is critical for social life. One reliable cue to what others might be feeling is pupil dilation because it is linked to increases in arousal. When adults view an individual with dilated pupils, their pupils dilate in response, suggesting not only sensitivity to pupil size, but a corresponding response as well. However, little is known about the origins or mechanism underlying this phenomenon of pupillary contagion. Here we show that 4- to 6-month-old infants show pupillary contagion when viewing photographs of eyes with varying pupil sizes: their pupils dilate in response to others’ large, but not small or medium pupils. The results suggest that pupillary contagion is likely driven by a transfer of arousal and that it is present very early in life in human infants, supporting the view that it could be an adaptation fundamental for social and emotional development.

National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328764 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-08223-3 (DOI)000408533600004 ()28851872 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, ERC StG CACTUS 312292Swedish Research Council, 2014-1156
Note

Correction in: Scientific Reports, 2018, vol. 8, article Number: 4157.

DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22184-1

Available from: 2017-08-31 Created: 2017-08-31 Last updated: 2018-06-08Bibliographically approved
Fawcett, C. & Tuncgenc, B. (2017). Infants’ use of movement synchrony to anticipate affiliation in others. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology (160), 127-136
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infants’ use of movement synchrony to anticipate affiliation in others
2017 (English)In: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, no 160, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

abstractInfants socially engage with others and observe others’ social inter-actions from early in life. One characteristic found to be importantfor signaling and establishing affiliative social relationships isphysical coordination and synchronization of movements. Thisstudy investigated whether synchrony in others’ movements sig-nals affiliation to 12- and 15-month-old infants. The infants wereshown a scene in which two characters moved either syn-chronously or non-synchronously with a third character in the cen-ter. Next, the center character made an affiliation declaration andsubsequently approached and cuddled one of the two characters.Using measures of gaze, we gauged infants’ inferences about whomthe center character would affiliate with before the cuddling tookplace. We found that 15-month-olds, but not 12-month-olds,inferred that the center character would affiliate with the previ-ously synchronous character, suggesting that they can make infer-ences about others’ affiliation based on movement synchrony. Thefindings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the infants’personal preferences and the potential importance of first-personexperience in the development of social cognition.Ó2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. This is an openaccess article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362472 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2017.03.014 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1156
Available from: 2018-10-05 Created: 2018-10-05 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Fawcett, C. & Tunçgenç, B. (2017). Infants' use of movement synchrony to infer social affiliation in others. Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), 160, 127-136
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Infants' use of movement synchrony to infer social affiliation in others
2017 (English)In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 160, p. 127-136Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Infants socially engage with others and observe others' social interactions from early in life. One characteristic found to be important for signaling and establishing affiliative social relationships is physical coordination and synchronization of movements. This study investigated whether synchrony in others' movements signals affiliation to 12- and 15-month-old infants. The infants were shown a scene in which two characters moved either synchronously or non-synchronously with a third character in the center. Next, the center character made an affiliation declaration and subsequently approached and cuddled one of the two characters. Using measures of gaze, we gauged infants' inferences about whom the center character would affiliate with before the cuddling took place. We found that 15-month-olds, but not 12-month-olds, inferred that the center character would affiliate with the previously synchronous character, suggesting that they can make inferences about others' affiliation based on movement synchrony. The findings are discussed in terms of their relevance to the infants' personal preferences and the potential importance of first-person experience in the development of social cognition.

Keywords
Affiliation inference, Eye tracking, Infant, Social cognition, Third-person evaluation, Synchrony
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323750 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2017.03.014 (DOI)000401376400010 ()28427721 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-1156
Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2017-06-13Bibliographically approved
Fawcett, C., Wesevich, V., Truedsson, E., Wåhlstedt, C. & Gredebäck, G. (2016). Callous-unemotional traits affect adolescents' perception of collaboration. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 57(12), 1400-1406
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Callous-unemotional traits affect adolescents' perception of collaboration
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 57, no 12, p. 1400-1406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: How is the perception of collaboration influenced by individual characteristics, in particular high levels of callous-unemotional (CU) traits? CU traits are associated with low empathy and endorsement of negative social goals such as dominance and forced respect. Thus, it is possible that they could relate to difficulties in interpreting that others are collaborating based on a shared goal.

METHODS: In the current study, a community sample of 15- to 16-year olds participated in an eye tracking task measuring whether they expect that others engaged in an action sequence are collaborating, depending on the emotion they display toward each other. Positive emotion would indicate that they share a goal, while negative emotion would indicate that they hold individual goals.

RESULTS: When the actors showed positive emotion toward each other, expectations of collaboration varied with CU traits. The higher adolescents were on CU traits, the less likely they were to expect collaboration. When the actors showed negative emotion toward each other, CU traits did not influence expectations of collaboration.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that CU traits are associated with difficulty in perceiving positive social interactions, which could further contribute to the behavioral and emotional problems common to those with high CU traits.

Keywords
Autism; Gaze following; Joint attention; Early development; Neurodevelopmental disorders; Social cognition; Communication; Younger siblings
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-309033 (URN)10.1111/jcpp.12588 (DOI)000388500300007 ()27363607 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, ERC-StG CACTUS 312292Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2009-0869
Available from: 2016-12-01 Created: 2016-12-01 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0898-9920

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