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Thulin, Elisabeth
Publications (4 of 4) Show all publications
Thulin, E. & Andersson, D. I. (2019). Upregulation of PBP1B and LpoB in cysB Mutants Confers Mecillinam (Amdinocillin) Resistance in Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 63(10), Article ID e00612-19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Upregulation of PBP1B and LpoB in cysB Mutants Confers Mecillinam (Amdinocillin) Resistance in Escherichia coli
2019 (English)In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 63, no 10, article id e00612-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mecillinam (amdinocillin) is a beta-lactam antibiotic that inhibits the essential penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2). In clinical isolates of Escherichia coli from urinary tract infections, inactivation of the cysB gene (which encodes the main regulator of cysteine biosynthesis, CysB) is the major cause of resistance. How a nonfunctional CysB protein confers resistance is unknown, however, and in this study we wanted to examine the mechanism of resistance. Results show that cysB mutations cause a gene regulatory response that changes the expression of similar to 450 genes. Among the proteins that show increased levels are the PBP1B, LpoB, and FtsZ proteins, which are known to be involved in peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Artificial overexpression of either PBP1B or LpoB in a wild-type E. coli strain conferred mecillinam resistance; conversely, inactivation of either the mrcB gene (which encodes PBP1B) or the IpoB gene (which encodes the PBP1B activator LpoB) made cysB mutants susceptible. These results show that expression of the proteins PBP1B and LpoB is both necessary and sufficient to confer mecillinam resistance. The addition of reducing agents to a cysB mutant converted it to full susceptibility, with associated downregulation of PBP1B, LpoB, and FtsZ. We propose a model in which cysB mutants confer mecillinam resistance by inducing a response that causes upregulation of the PBP1B and LpoB proteins. The higher levels of these two proteins can then rescue cells with mecillinam-inhibited PBP2. Our results also show how resistance can be modulated by external conditions such as reducing agents.

Keywords
Escherichia coli, amdinocillin, antibiotic resistance, cell wall, cysB, cysteine, ftsZ, IpoB, mechanisms of resistance, mecillinam, penicillin-binding protein, redox state
National Category
Microbiology in the medical area Microbiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-395783 (URN)10.1128/AAC.00612-19 (DOI)000487320100076 ()31332059 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-10-28 Created: 2019-10-28 Last updated: 2019-10-28Bibliographically approved
Thulin, E., Eriksson, M. & Andersson, D. I. (2017). Reversion of High-level Mecillinam Resistance to Susceptibility in Escherichia coli During Growth in Urine.. EBioMedicine, 23, 111-118
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reversion of High-level Mecillinam Resistance to Susceptibility in Escherichia coli During Growth in Urine.
2017 (English)In: EBioMedicine, ISSN 0360-0637, E-ISSN 2352-3964, Vol. 23, p. 111-118Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mecillinam (amdinocillin) is a β-lactam antibiotic used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). We have previously shown that inactivation of the Escherichia coli cysB gene is the major cause of mecillinam resistance (Mec(R)) in clinical isolates. In this study, we used different E. coli strains (laboratory and clinical isolates) that were Mec(R) due to cysB mutations to determine how mecillinam susceptibility was affected during growth in urine compared to growth in the commonly used growth medium Mueller Hinton (MHB). We also examined mecillinam susceptibility when bacteria were grown in urine obtained from 48 different healthy volunteers. Metabolome analysis was done on the urine samples and the association between the mecillinam susceptibility patterns of the bacteria and urine metabolite levels was studied. Two major findings with clinical significance are reported. First, Mec(R)E. coli cysB mutant strains (both laboratory and clinical isolates) were always more susceptible to mecillinam when grown in urine as compared to laboratory medium, with many strains showing complete phenotypic susceptibility in urine. Second, the degree of reversion to susceptibility varied between urine samples obtained from different individuals. This difference was correlated with osmolality such that in urine with low osmolality the Mec(R) mutants were more susceptible to mecillinam than in urine with high osmolality. This is the first example describing conditional resistance where a genetically stable antibiotic resistance can be phenotypically reverted to susceptibility by metabolites present in urine. These findings have several important clinical implications regarding the use of mecillinam to treat UTIs. First, they suggest that mecillinam can be used to treat also those clinical strains that are identified as Mec(R) in standard laboratory tests. Second, the results suggest that testing of mecillinam susceptibility in the laboratory ought to be performed in media that mimics urine to obtain clinically relevant susceptibility testing results. Third, these findings imply that changes in patient behavior, such as increased water intake or use of diuretics to reduce urine osmolality and increased intake of cysteine, might induce antibiotic susceptibility in an infecting Mec(R)E. coli strain and thereby increase treatment efficiency.

Keywords
Conditional resistance, Escherichia coli, Mecillinam, Metabolomics, Urinary tract infection, Urine
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-330802 (URN)10.1016/j.ebiom.2017.08.021 (DOI)000410740900018 ()28855073 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-03482
Available from: 2017-10-04 Created: 2017-10-04 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Thulin, E., Sundqvist, M. & Andersson, D. I. (2015). Amdinocillin (Mecillinam) Resistance Mutations in Clinical Isolates and Laboratory-Selected Mutants of Escherichia coli. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 59(3), 1723-1732
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Amdinocillin (Mecillinam) Resistance Mutations in Clinical Isolates and Laboratory-Selected Mutants of Escherichia coli
2015 (English)In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 59, no 3, p. 1723-1732Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Amdinocillin (mecillinam) is a beta-lactam antibiotic that is used mainly for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections. The objectives of this study were to identify mutations that confer amdinocillin resistance on laboratory-isolated mutants and clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and to determine why amdinocillin resistance remains rare clinically even though resistance is easily selected in the laboratory. Under laboratory selection, frequencies of mutation to amdinocillin resistance varied from 8 x 10(-8) to 2 x 10(-5) per cell, depending on the concentration of amdinocillin used during selection. Several genes have been demonstrated to give amdinocillin resistance, but here eight novel genes previously unknown to be involved in amdinocillin resistance were identified. These genes encode functions involved in the respiratory chain, the ribosome, cysteine biosynthesis, tRNA synthesis, and pyrophosphate metabolism. The clinical isolates exhibited significantly greater fitness than the laboratory-isolated mutants and a different mutation spectrum. The cysB gene was mutated (inactivated) in all of the clinical isolates, in contrast to the laboratory-isolated mutants, where mainly other types of more costly mutations were found. Our results suggest that the frequency of mutation to amdinocillin resistance is high because of the large mutational target (at least 38 genes). However, the majority of these resistant mutants have a low growth rate, reducing the probability that they are stably maintained in the bladder. Inactivation of the cysB gene and a resulting loss of cysteine biosynthesis are the major mechanism of amdinocillin resistance in clinical isolates of E. coli.

National Category
Microbiology in the medical area
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-252716 (URN)10.1128/AAC.04819-14 (DOI)000352550000043 ()25583718 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-11 Created: 2015-05-11 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Lofton Tomenius, H., Pränting, M., Thulin, E. & Andersson, D. I. (2013). Mechanisms and Fitness Costs of Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides LL-37, CNY100HL and Wheat Germ Histones. PLoS ONE, 8(7), e68875
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanisms and Fitness Costs of Resistance to Antimicrobial Peptides LL-37, CNY100HL and Wheat Germ Histones
2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, p. e68875-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a potential new class of antimicrobial drugs with potent and broad-spectrum activities. However, knowledge about the mechanisms and rates of resistance development to AMPs and the resulting effects on fitness and cross-resistance is limited. We isolated antimicrobial peptide (AMP) resistant Salmonella typhimurium LT2 mutants by serially passaging several independent bacterial lineages in progressively increasing concentrations of LL-37, CNY100HL and Wheat Germ Histones. Significant AMP resistance developed in 15/18 independent bacterial lineages. Resistance mutations were identified by whole genome sequencing in two-component signal transduction systems (pmrB and phoP) as well as in the LPS core biosynthesis pathway (waaY, also designated rfaY). In most cases, resistance was associated with a reduced fitness, observed as a decreased growth rate, which was dependent on growth conditions and mutation type. Importantly, mutations in waaY decreased bacterial susceptibility to all tested AMPs and the mutant outcompeted the wild type parental strain at AMP concentrations below the MIC for the wild type. Our data suggests that resistance to antimicrobial peptides can develop rapidly through mechanisms that confer cross-resistance to several AMPs. Importantly, AMP-resistant mutants can have a competitive advantage over the wild type strain at AMP concentrations similar to those found near human epithelial cells. These results suggest that resistant mutants could both be selected de novo and maintained by exposure to our own natural repertoire of defence molecules.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-210752 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0068875 (DOI)000325211000049 ()
Available from: 2013-11-14 Created: 2013-11-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
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