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Publications (10 of 17) Show all publications
Ostman, J. R., Mullner, E., Eriksson, J., Kristinsson, H., Gustafsson, J., Witthoft, C., . . . Moazzami, A. A. (2019). Glucose Appearance Rate Rather than the Blood Glucose Concentrations Explains Differences in Postprandial Insulin Responses between Wholemeal Rye and Refined Wheat Breads-Results from A Cross-Over Meal Study. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 63(7), Article ID 1800959.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Glucose Appearance Rate Rather than the Blood Glucose Concentrations Explains Differences in Postprandial Insulin Responses between Wholemeal Rye and Refined Wheat Breads-Results from A Cross-Over Meal Study
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2019 (English)In: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, ISSN 1613-4125, E-ISSN 1613-4133, Vol. 63, no 7, article id 1800959Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scope Ingestion of rye bread leads to lower postprandial plasma insulin concentrations than wheat bread ingestion, but most often not too different glucose profiles. The mechanism behind this discrepancy is still largely unknown. This study investigates whether glucose kinetics may explain the observed discrepancy. Methods and results Nine healthy men participated in a crossover study, eating 50 g of available carbohydrates as either refined wheat (WB) or traditional wholemeal rye bread (WMR) during d-[6,6-H-2(2)]glucose infusion. Labeled glucose enrichment is measured by an HPLC-TOF-MS method. The calculated rate of glucose appearance (RaE) is significantly lower after ingestion of WMR during the initial 15 min postprandial period. Additionally, the 0-90 min RaE area under the curve (AUC) is significantly lower after ingestion of WMR, as is plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) at 60 and 90 min. Postprandial glycemic responses do not differ between the breads. Postprandial insulin is lower after ingestion of WMR at 45 and 60 min, as is the 0-90 min AUC. Conclusion Ingestion of WMR elicits a lower rate of glucose appearance into the bloodstream compared with WB. This may explain the lower insulin response observed after rye bread ingestion, commonly known as the rye factor.

Keywords
glucose flux, rye factor, stable isotope labeled glucose, time-of-flight mass spectrometry, wholemeal rye bread
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383481 (URN)10.1002/mnfr.201800959 (DOI)000466411200004 ()30636184 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council Formas
Available from: 2019-05-16 Created: 2019-05-16 Last updated: 2019-05-16Bibliographically approved
Manell, H., Kristinsson, H., Kullberg, J., Ubhayasekera, S. J., Mörwald, K., Staaf, J., . . . Bergsten, P. (2019). Hyperglucagonemia in youth is associated with high plasma free fatty acids, visceral adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance. Pediatric Diabetes, 20(7), 880-891
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hyperglucagonemia in youth is associated with high plasma free fatty acids, visceral adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance
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2019 (English)In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 880-891Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To delineate mechanisms for fasting hyperglucagonemia in childhood obesity bystudying the associations between fasting plasma glucagon concentrations and plasmalipid parameters and fat compartments.

Methods: Cross-sectional study of children and adolescents with obesity (n=147) and leancontrols (n=43). Differences in free fatty acids (FFA), triglycerides, insulin and fatcompartments (quantified by magnetic resonance imaging) across quartiles of fastingplasma glucagon concentration were analysed. Differences in OGTT glucagonresponse was tested in high vs low FFAs, triglycerides and insulin. Human islets ofLangerhans were cultured at 5.5 mmol/l glucose and in the absence or presence of aFFA mixture with total FFA concentration of 0.5 mmol/l and glucagon secretionquantified.

Results: In children with obesity, the quartile with the highest fasting glucagon had higherinsulin (201±174 vs 83±39 pmol/l, p<0.01), FFAs (383±52 vs 338±109 μmol/l,p=0.02), triglycerides (1.5±0.9 vs 1.0±0.7 mmol/l, p<0.01), visceral adipose tissuevolume (1.9±0.8 vs 1.2±0.3 dm3, p<0.001) and a higher prevalence of impairedglucose tolerance (41% vs 8%, p=0.01) than the lowest quartile. During OGTT,children with obesity and high insulin had a worse suppression of glucagon during thefirst 10 minutes after glucose intake. Glucagon secretion was 2.6-fold higher in isletstreated with FFAs than in those not treated with FFAs.4

Conclusion: Hyperglucagonemia in childhood obesity is associated with hyperinsulinemia, highplasma FFAs, high plasma triglycerides, visceral adiposity and impaired glucosetolerance. The glucagonotropic effect of FFAs on isolated human islets provides apotential mechanism linking high fasting plasma FFAs and glucagon levels.

Keywords
Childhood obesity, glucagon, free fatty acids, insulin, visceral adiposity, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes
National Category
Pediatrics Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380313 (URN)10.1111/pedi.12890 (DOI)000476081000001 ()31271247 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 279153EXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in SwedenErnfors FoundationErik, Karin och Gösta Selanders FoundationSwedish Research Council, 2015-4870Swedish Diabetes Association
Available from: 2019-03-26 Created: 2019-03-26 Last updated: 2019-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ntika, S., Thombare, K., Aryapoor, M., Kristinsson, H., Bergsten, P. & Krizhanovskii, C. (2019). Oleate increase neutral lipid accumulation, cellular respiration and rescues palmitate-exposed GLP-1 secreting cells by reducing ceramide-induced ROS. Biochimie, 159, 23-35
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oleate increase neutral lipid accumulation, cellular respiration and rescues palmitate-exposed GLP-1 secreting cells by reducing ceramide-induced ROS
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2019 (English)In: Biochimie, ISSN 0300-9084, E-ISSN 1638-6183, Vol. 159, p. 23-35Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Fatty acids (FAs), and especially monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) stimulate GLP-1 release. However, lipotoxicity is indicated in GLP-1 secreting cells following long-term exposure to elevated levels of saturated FAs (SFAs) in vivo and in vitro, where in vitro studies indicate that cosupplementation with MUFAs confers lipoprotection. SFAs and MUFAs differentially affect the fate of cells in ways that depend on the cell type, concentration and ratio of the FAs. The present study was designed to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effects of SFAs/MUFAs on GLP-1-producing cells in terms of lipotoxicity/lipoprotection and GLP-1 secretion.

Methods: Cultured GLP-1 secreting cells were exposed to hyperlipidemia simulated by SFA-albumin complexes where the molar ratio was 2:1. The cellular response to simulated hyperlipidemia was assessed in the presence/absence of MUFA cosupplementation by determining intracellular ceramide, ROS, neutral lipid accumulation, and cellular respiration. The role for cellular respiration in GLP-1 secretion in response to SFAs/MUFAs was assessed.

Results: Generation of intracellular ceramide mediate a detrimental increased in ROS production following long term exposure to SFAs in GLP-1-secreting cells. Cosupplementation with MUFAs increases cellular respiration, triglyceride synthesis, and the expression of ceramide kinase, while reducing ceramide synthesis and attenuating ROS production, caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation. Further, acute secretory effects of unsaturated FAs are independent of FAO, but mediated by a FFAR1 induced increase in cellular respiration.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates novel data supporting effects of MUFAs on the ceramide biosynthetic pathway, triglyceride storage respiration and secretion in GLP-1 secreting cells. These findings may be of value for nutritional interventions, as well as for identification of novel targets, to help preserve L-cell mass and potentiate GLP-1 secretion in diabesity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER FRANCE-EDITIONS SCIENTIFIQUES MEDICALES ELSEVIER, 2019
Keywords
Type 2 diabetes, Unsaturated/saturated fatty acids, GLP-1 secretion, Lipotoxicity, Lipoprotection, Ceramide
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381113 (URN)10.1016/j.biochi.2018.11.017 (DOI)000461698100004 ()30513370 (PubMedID)
Funder
Tore Nilsons Stiftelse för medicinsk forskningFredrik och Ingrid Thurings Stiftelse
Available from: 2019-04-04 Created: 2019-04-04 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Drzazga, A., Kristinsson, H., Salaga, M., Zatorski, H., Koziolkiewicz, M., Gendaszewska-Darmach, E. & Bergsten, P. (2018). Lysophosphatidylcholine and its phosphorothioate analogues potentiate insulin secretion via GPR40 (FFAR1), GPR55 and GPR119 receptors in a different manner. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 472, 117-125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lysophosphatidylcholine and its phosphorothioate analogues potentiate insulin secretion via GPR40 (FFAR1), GPR55 and GPR119 receptors in a different manner
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2018 (English)In: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, ISSN 0303-7207, E-ISSN 1872-8057, Vol. 472, p. 117-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is an endogenous ligand for GPR119 receptor, mediating glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). We demonstrate that LPC facilitates GSIS in MINE pancreatic beta-cell line and murine islets of Langerhans by recognizing not only GPR119 but also GPR40 (free fatty acid receptor 1) and GPR55 activated by lysophosphatidylinositol. Natural LPCs are unstable when administered in vivo limiting their therapeutic value and therefore, we present phosphorothioate LPC analogues with increased stability. All the modified LPCs under study (12:0,14:0,16:0,18:0, and 18:1) significantly enhanced GSIS. The 16:0 sulfur analogue was the most potent, evoking 2-fold accentuated GSIS compared to the native counterpart. Interestingly, LPC analogues evoked GPR40-, GPR55-and GPR119 dependent [Ca2+](i), signaling, but did not stimulate cAMP accumulation as in the case of unmodified molecules. Thus, introduction of a phosphorothioate function not only increases LPC stability but also modulates affinity towards receptor targets and evokes different signaling pathways.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD, 2018
Keywords
Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), GPR40 (FFAR1), GPR55, GPR119, Insulin secretion
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369515 (URN)10.1016/j.mce.2017.12.002 (DOI)000447981000013 ()29225068 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 279 153Swedish Diabetes Association, DIA 2016-146Ernfors Foundation, 170504EXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Kristinsson, H., Manell, H., Dahlbom, M., Presto, J., Garedal, C., Ritzen, H., . . . Bergsten, P. (2018). The initial rise in GIP secretion during OGTT correlates with the initial suppression of glucagon secretion in adolescents with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Paper presented at 54th Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), OCT 01-05, 2018, Berlin, GERMANY. Diabetologia, 61, S247-S247
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The initial rise in GIP secretion during OGTT correlates with the initial suppression of glucagon secretion in adolescents with obesity and type 2 diabetes
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2018 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, p. S247-S247Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2018
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367127 (URN)000443556003095 ()
Conference
54th Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), OCT 01-05, 2018, Berlin, GERMANY
Available from: 2018-11-30 Created: 2018-11-30 Last updated: 2018-11-30Bibliographically approved
Kristinsson, H., Sargsyan, E., Manell, H., Smith, D. M., Gopel, S. O. & Bergsten, P. (2017). Basal hypersecretion of glucagon and insulin from palmitate-exposed human islets depends on FFAR1 but not decreased somatostatin secretion. Scientific Reports, 7, Article ID 4657.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Basal hypersecretion of glucagon and insulin from palmitate-exposed human islets depends on FFAR1 but not decreased somatostatin secretion
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2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 4657Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In obesity fasting levels of both glucagon and insulin are elevated. In these subjects fasting levels of the free fatty acid palmitate are raised. We have demonstrated that palmitate enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from isolated human islets via free fatty acid receptor 1 (FFAR1/GPR40). Since FFAR1 is also present on glucagon- secreting alpha-cells, we hypothesized that palmitate simultaneously stimulates secretion of glucagon and insulin at fasting glucose concentrations. In addition, we hypothesized that concomitant hypersecretion of glucagon and insulin was also contributed by reduced somatostatin secretion. We found basal glucagon, insulin and somatostatin secretion and respiration from human islets, to be enhanced during palmitate treatment at normoglycemia. Secretion of all hormones and mitochondrial respiration were lowered when FFAR1 or fatty acid beta-oxidation was inhibited. The findings were confirmed in the human beta-cell line EndoC-beta H1. We conclude that fatty acids enhance both glucagon and insulin secretion at fasting glucose concentrations and that FFAR1 and enhanced mitochondrial metabolism but not lowered somatostatin secretion are crucial in this effect. The ability of chronically elevated palmitate levels to simultaneously increase basal secretion of glucagon and insulin positions elevated levels of fatty acids as potential triggering factors for the development of obesity and impaired glucose control.

National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-329998 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-04730-5 (DOI)000404846000030 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 279153VINNOVASwedish Diabetes AssociationEXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in Sweden
Available from: 2017-10-13 Created: 2017-10-13 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Roomp, K., Kristinsson, H., Schvartz, D., Ubhayasekera, K., Sargsyan, E., Manukyan, L., . . . Bergsten, P. (2017). Combined lipidomic and proteomic analysis of isolated human islets exposed to palmitate reveals time-dependent changes in insulin secretion and lipid metabolism. PLoS ONE, 12(4), Article ID e0176391.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Combined lipidomic and proteomic analysis of isolated human islets exposed to palmitate reveals time-dependent changes in insulin secretion and lipid metabolism
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2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 4, article id e0176391Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Studies on the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have linked the accumulation of lipid metabolites to the development of beta-cell dysfunction and impaired insulin secretion. In most in vitro models of T2DM, rodent islets or beta-cell lines are used and typically focus is on specific cellular pathways or organs. Our aim was to, firstly, develop a combined lipidomics and proteomics approach for lipotoxicity in isolated human islets and, secondly, investigate if the approach could delineate novel and/or confirm reported mechanisms of lipotoxicity. To this end isolated human pancreatic islets, exposed to chronically elevated palmitate concentrations for 0, 2 and 7 days, were functionally characterized and their levels of multiple targeted lipid and untargeted protein species determined. Glucosestimulated insulin secretion from the islets increased on day 2 and decreased on day 7. At day 7 islet insulin content decreased and the proinsulin to insulin content ratio doubled. Amounts of cholesterol, stearic acid, C16 dihydroceramide and C24: 1 sphingomyelin, obtained from the lipidomic screen, increased time-dependently in the palmitate-exposed islets. The proteomic screen identified matching changes in proteins involved in lipid biosynthesis indicating up-regulated cholesterol and lipid biosynthesis in the islets. Furthermore, proteins associated with immature secretory granules were decreased when palmitate exposure time was increased despite their high affinity for cholesterol. Proteins associated with mature secretory granules remained unchanged. Pathway analysis based on the protein and lipid expression profiles implicated autocrine effects of insulin in lipotoxicity. Taken together the study demonstrates that combining different omics approaches has potential in mapping of multiple simultaneous cellular events. However, it also shows that challenges exist for effectively combining lipidomics and proteomics in primary cells. Our findings provide insight into how saturated fatty acids contribute to islet cell dysfunction by affecting the granule maturation process and confirmation in human islets of some previous findings from rodent islet and cell-line studies.

National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-323459 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0176391 (DOI)000400383600072 ()28448538 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme
Available from: 2017-06-07 Created: 2017-06-07 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Krizhanovskii, C., Kristinsson, H., Elksnis, A., Wang, X., Gavali, H., Bergsten, P., . . . Welsh, N. (2017). EndoC-beta H1 cells display increased sensitivity to sodium palmitate when cultured in DMEM/F12 medium. Islets, 9(3), 43-48
Open this publication in new window or tab >>EndoC-beta H1 cells display increased sensitivity to sodium palmitate when cultured in DMEM/F12 medium
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2017 (English)In: Islets, ISSN 1938-2014, E-ISSN 1938-2022, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 43-48Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims - Human pancreatic islets are known to die in response to the free fatty acid of sodium palmitate when cultured in vitro. This is in contrast to EndoC-beta H1 cells, which in our hands are not sensitive to the cell death-inducing effects sodium palmitate, making these cells seemingly unsuitable for lipotoxicity studies. However, the EndoC-beta H1 cells are routinely cultured in a nutrient mixture based on Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM), which may not be the optimal choice for studies dealing with lipotoxicity. The aim of the present investigation was to define culture conditions that render EndoC-beta H1 cells sensitive to toxic effects of sodium palmitate. Methods - EndoC-beta H1 cells were cultured at standard conditions in either DMEM or DMEM/F12 culture medium. Cell death was analyzed using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry. Insulin release and content was quantified using a human insulin ELISA. Results - We presently observe that substitution of DMEM for a DMEM/Ham's F12 mixture (50%/50% vol/vol) renders the cells sensitive to the apoptotic effects of sodium palmitate and sodium palmitate + high glucose leading to an increased cell death. Supplementation of the DMEM culture medium with linoleic acid partially mimicked the effect of DMEM/F12. Culture of EndoC-beta H1 cells in DMEM/F12 resulted also in increased proliferation, ROS production and insulin contents, but markers for metabolic stress, autophagy or amyloid deposits were unaffected. Conclusions - The culture conditions for EndoC-beta H1 cells can be modified so these cells display signs of lipotoxicity in response to sodium palmitate.

Keywords
cell death, EndoC-beta H1 cells, insulin, ROS production, sodium palmitate
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-331910 (URN)10.1080/19382014.2017.1296995 (DOI)000405586500001 ()
Funder
EXODIAB - Excellence of Diabetes Research in SwedenSwedish Diabetes AssociationSwedish Child Diabetes Foundation
Available from: 2017-10-23 Created: 2017-10-23 Last updated: 2017-10-23Bibliographically approved
Forslund, A., Weghuber, D., Paulmichl, K., Zsoldos, F., Widhalm, K., Vheu, M. D., . . . Bergsten, P. (2017). Exenatide Once Weekly Reduces Weight, Liver Fat And 2-Hour Postprandial Glucose In Obese Adolescents. Acta Paediatrica, 106(470), 14-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exenatide Once Weekly Reduces Weight, Liver Fat And 2-Hour Postprandial Glucose In Obese Adolescents
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2017 (English)In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, no 470, p. 14-15Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2017
Keywords
Pediatric obesity, reduced glucose tolerance, NAFLD, GLP-1 analog, Exenatide
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-366467 (URN)10.1111/apa.14093 (DOI)000440296300025 ()
Available from: 2018-11-21 Created: 2018-11-21 Last updated: 2018-11-21Bibliographically approved
Manell, H., Staaf, J., Manukyan, L., Kristinsson, H., Cen, J., Stenlid, R., . . . Bergsten, P. (2016). Altered Plasma Levels of Glucagon, GLP-1 and Glicentin During OGTT in Adolescents With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 101(3), 1181-1189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Altered Plasma Levels of Glucagon, GLP-1 and Glicentin During OGTT in Adolescents With Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, E-ISSN 1945-7197, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 1181-1189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

CONTEXT: Proglucagon-derived hormones are important for glucose metabolism, but little is known about them in pediatric obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

OBJECTIVE: Fasting and postprandial levels of proglucagon-derived peptides glucagon, GLP-1, and glicentin in adolescents with obesity across the glucose tolerance spectrum were investigated.

DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study with plasma hormone levels quantified at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

SETTING: This study took place in a pediatric obesity clinic at Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden.

PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: Adolescents with obesity, age 10-18 years, with normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 23), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT, n = 19), or T2DM (n = 4) and age-matched lean adolescents (n = 19) were included.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcome measures were fasting and OGTT plasma levels of insulin, glucagon, active GLP-1, and glicentin.

RESULTS: Adolescents with obesity and IGT had lower fasting GLP-1 and glicentin levels than those with NGT (0.25 vs 0.53 pM, P < .05; 18.2 vs 23.6 pM, P < .01) and adolescents with obesity and T2DM had higher fasting glucagon levels (18.1 vs 10.1 pM, P < .01) than those with NGT. During OGTT, glicentin/glucagon ratios were lower in adolescents with obesity and NGT than in lean adolescents (P < .01) and even lower in IGT (P < .05) and T2DM (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: Obese adolescents with IGT have lowered fasting GLP-1 and glicentin levels. In T2DM, fasting glucagon levels are elevated, whereas GLP-1 and glicentin levels are maintained low. During OGTT, adolescents with obesity have more products of pancreatically than intestinally cleaved proglucagon (ie, more glucagon and less GLP-1) in the plasma. This shift becomes more pronounced when glucose tolerance deteriorates.

National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-292749 (URN)10.1210/jc.2015-3885 (DOI)000378811300051 ()26745255 (PubMedID)
Funder
VINNOVAEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 279153Swedish Diabetes Association, DIA 2013-043
Available from: 2016-05-09 Created: 2016-05-09 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5480-0666

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