uu.seUppsala University Publications
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Sturesson, P., Seton, R., Klintberg, L., Thornell, G. & Persson, A. (2019). Effect of Resistive and Plasma Heating on the Specific Impulse of a Ceramic Cold Gas Thruster. Journal of microelectromechanical systems, 28(2), 235-244
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of Resistive and Plasma Heating on the Specific Impulse of a Ceramic Cold Gas Thruster
Show others...
2019 (English)In: Journal of microelectromechanical systems, ISSN 1057-7157, E-ISSN 1941-0158, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 235-244Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The research and development of small satellites has continued to expand over the last decades. However, the propulsion systems with adequate performance have persisted to be a great challenge. In this paper, the effects of three different heaters on the specific impulse and overall thrust efficiency of a cold gas microthruster are presented. They consisted of a conventional, printed resistive thick-film element, a freely suspended wire, and a stripline split-ring resonator microplasma source, and were integrated in a single device made from the high-temperature co-fired ceramics. The devices were evaluated in two setups, where the first measured thrust and the other measured shock cell geometry. In addition, the resistive elements were evaluated as gas temperature sensors. The microplasma source was found to provide the greatest improvement in both specific impulse and thrust efficiency, increasing the former from an un-heated level of 44–56 s when heating with a power of 1.1 W. This corresponded to a thrust efficiency of 55%, which could be compared with the results from the wire and printed heaters which were 51s and 18%, and 45s and 14%, respectively. The combined results also showed that imaging the shock cells of a plasma heated thruster was a simple and effective way to determine its performance, when compared to the traditional thrust balance method.

Keywords
Microthruster, HTCC, Resistive Heating, Plasma Heating, Specific Impulse, Shock Cells
National Category
Aerospace Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356675 (URN)10.1109/JMEMS.2019.2893359 (DOI)000463623600008 ()
Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Sturesson, P., Klintberg, L. & Thornell, G. (2019). Pirani Microgauge Fabricated of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics with Integrated Platinum Wires. Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, 285, 8-16
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pirani Microgauge Fabricated of High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics with Integrated Platinum Wires
2019 (English)In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 285, p. 8-16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the integration and pressure sensor operation of platinum bond wires in High-Temperature Co-fired alumina (HTCC). Devices were fabricated with a 50 μm diameter wire suspended across a 500 μm wide cavity in green-body state HTCC, electrically connected to screen printed alumina conductors. The substrate shrinkage during sintering to a cavity width of 400 μm causes the wire element to elevate from the cavity´s bottom surface. Resulting devices were compared with reference devices, containing screen-printed sensor elements, as Pirani gauges operated at 100 °C in constant-resistance mode, and in dynamic mode with a feeding current of 1 A in a pressure range from 10−4 Torr to atmospheric pressure. Also, devices with wire lengths between 500 and 3500 μm were operated and studied in constant-resistance and dynamic mode. Lastly, a device is demonstrated in operation at a mean temperature of 830 °C. The results include wire elements with a consistent elevation from their substrate surfaces, with irregularities along the wires. The wire devices exhibit a faster pressure response in dynamic mode than the reference devices do but operate similarly in constant-resistance mode. Increasing the wire element length shows an increasing dynamic pressure range but a decreasing maximum sensitivity. The sensitivity is retained in high temperature mode, but the dynamic range is extended from about 10 Torr to about 700 Torr.

Keywords
HTCC, Pirani gauge, High temperature, Bond wires
National Category
Ceramics Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356481 (URN)10.1016/j.sna.2018.10.008 (DOI)000456902600002 ()
Available from: 2018-07-30 Created: 2018-07-30 Last updated: 2019-02-19Bibliographically approved
Seton, R., Sturesson, P. & Persson, A. (2018). Investigating the plasma properties of a Xe-microplasma thruster. In: 29th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe workshop, Bratislava, Slovakia, August 26-29, 2018: . Paper presented at Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe workshop, Bratislava, Slovakia, August 26-29, 2018. Bratislava, Slovenia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating the plasma properties of a Xe-microplasma thruster
2018 (English)In: 29th Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe workshop, Bratislava, Slovakia, August 26-29, 2018, Bratislava, Slovenia, 2018Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

By combining optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and Langumuir probes, the plasma properties of a Xenon-microplasma thruster have been investigated. Using IV-curve analysis the properties of the plasma have been determined and correlated to the power fed into it. Satisfactory agreement has been obtained with the results of OES measurements (line-ratio technique) and shock-cell distance calculations. While the fuel consumption of the thruster decreased very linearly with the power fed to the plasma, the plasma properties was found to have behave in a more complex way. In the studied power range, the density ratio between at least two ions, with upper configurations 5p5(2P◦3/2)7p and 5p5(2P◦3/2)6p, strongly indicated that the ionization processes of the former was favorable in terms of thrust for the geometry of the nozzle. This was supported electron temperature measurements from IV-curves. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bratislava, Slovenia: , 2018
Keywords
Microplasma thruster, IV-curves, Optical emission spectroscopy, Shock-cells, Xenon ionization
National Category
Embedded Systems Aerospace Engineering Fusion, Plasma and Space Physics
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368394 (URN)
Conference
Micromechanics and Microsystems Europe workshop, Bratislava, Slovakia, August 26-29, 2018
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 104/14
Available from: 2018-12-04 Created: 2018-12-04 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Sturesson, P. (2018). Sense, Actuate and Survive: Ceramic Microsystems for High-Temperature Aerospace Applications. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sense, Actuate and Survive: Ceramic Microsystems for High-Temperature Aerospace Applications
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In aerospace applications, but also in manufacturing, mining, energy industry and natural hazards, high temperature, corrosion, erosion and radiation, challenge the performance and being of hardware.

In this work, high-temperature co-fired ceramic (HTCC) alumina and platinum have been used for a range of devices intended for aerospace applications at up to 1000°C.

The thermomechanics of a pressure sensor was investigated, and the interfacing was attained by wireless powering and reading. However, read range was limited and sensitivity decreased with temperature. Silver, electroplated after sintering, was found to remedy this until it eventually alloyed with platinum.

Copper was electroplated and oxidized for oxygen storage in a microcombustor, intended for sample preparation for optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) to indicate extraterrestrial life. Despite delamination, caused by residual stresses, the device operated successfully.

Conversely, pre-firing metallization by integration of platinum wires was studied. Freely suspended, and despite heat-induced shape irregularities, these were found advantageous over screen printed elements for gas heating, and temperature and pressure sensing. By fusing off the wires, spherical tips, allowing for impedance monitoring of microplasma sources in, e.g., OGS, were formed.

Microplasma sources can also be used for gas heating. This, together with screen printed and suspended resistive heaters, was evaluated in a microthruster, showing that plasma heating is the most effective, implying fuel consumption reduction in satellite propulsion.

In conclusion, HTCC alumina microdevices are thermally stable and could benefit several aerospace applications, especially with the complementary metallization schemes devised here.

Future developments are expected to include both processing and design, all with the intention of sensing, actuating and surviving in high-temperature environments.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 44
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1696
Keywords
High temperature, ceramics, microsystems, aerospace, sensors, thrusters
National Category
Aerospace Engineering Materials Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356692 (URN)978-91-513-0392-5 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-09-21, Polhemsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 09:30 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-08-31 Created: 2018-08-03 Last updated: 2018-09-10
Åkerfeldt, E., Klintberg, L., Sturesson, P. & Thornell, G. (2018). Taking ceramic microcomponents to higher temperatures. In: : . Paper presented at Micronano System Workshop (MSW 2018).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Taking ceramic microcomponents to higher temperatures
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363404 (URN)
Conference
Micronano System Workshop (MSW 2018)
Available from: 2018-10-18 Created: 2018-10-18 Last updated: 2018-10-18
Sturesson, P., Khaji, Z., Klintberg, L. & Thornell, G. (2017). Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures – Investigation of the Effect of Metallizationon on Read Range. IEEE Sensors Journal, 17(8), 2411-2421
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ceramic Pressure Sensor for High Temperatures – Investigation of the Effect of Metallizationon on Read Range
2017 (English)In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 2411-2421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A study on the relationship between circuit metallization, made by double-layer screen printing of platinum and electroplating of silver on top of platinum, and its impact on practical read range of ceramic LC resonators for high-temperature pressure measurements is presented. Also included is the first realization of membranes by draping a graphite insert with ceramic green body sheets. As a quality factor circuit reference, two-port microstrip meander devices were positively evaluated and to study interdiffusion between silver and platinum, test samples were annealed at 500 degrees C, 700 degrees C, and 900 degrees C for 4, 36, 72, and 96 h. The LC resonators were fabricated with both metallization methods, and the practical read range at room temperature was evaluated. Pressure-sensitive membranes were characterized for pressures up to 2.5 bar at room temperature, 500 degrees C and up to 900 degrees C. Samples electroplated with silver exhibited performance equal to or better than double-layer platinum samples for up to 60 h at 500 degrees C, 20 h at 700 degrees C, and for 1 h at 900 degrees C, which was correlated with the degree of interdiffusion as determined from cross-sectional analysis. The LC resonator samples with double-layer platinum exhibited a read range of 61 mm, and the samples with platinum and silver exhibited a read range of 59 mm. The lowest sheet resistance, and, thereby, the highest read range of 86 mm, was obtained with a silver electroplated LC resonator sample after 36 h of annealing at 500 degrees C.

Keywords
Alternative metallization, ceramic membrane, harsh environment sensor, high temperature co-fired ceramics (HTCC), HTCC processing, LC resonator, pressure sensor, wireless reading
National Category
Accelerator Physics and Instrumentation Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302852 (URN)10.1109/JSEN.2017.2671418 (DOI)000398890800016 ()
Available from: 2016-09-11 Created: 2016-09-11 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
Sturesson, P., Berglund, M., Söderberg, J., Klintberg, L., Persson, A. & Thornell, G. (2016). Fabrication of Suspended All-Metal Sensor Elements in Ceramic Laminates. In: Proc. of Micronano System Workshop 2016, Lund, Sweden, May 17-18, 2016: . Paper presented at Micronano System Workshop (MSW2016) Lund, Sweden, May 17-18, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fabrication of Suspended All-Metal Sensor Elements in Ceramic Laminates
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Proc. of Micronano System Workshop 2016, Lund, Sweden, May 17-18, 2016, 2016Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To target a wide range of high-temperature applications [1-4], the Ångström Space Technology Centre has added High-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics, HTTC, technology to its repertoire. Usually, this technology follows a processing scheme where thin sheets of green-body ceramics are metallized through screen printing and structured by embossing, punching or milling, before they are laminated and sintered to form components. A limitation with this, is the difficulty of realizing freely suspended metal structures, which is a disadvantage in, e.g., the fabrication of calorimetric sensors or electric field probes. In this work, the embedding of platinum wires in HTCC is explored experimentally, and demonstrated for use in pressure and plasma I-V sensing.

Keywords
Microsensors, Bond WIre, Harsh Environments, High Temperatures, Ceramic Systems
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microwave Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-309945 (URN)
Conference
Micronano System Workshop (MSW2016) Lund, Sweden, May 17-18, 2016
Available from: 2016-12-08 Created: 2016-12-08 Last updated: 2017-05-16
Persson, A., Berglund, M., Khaji, Z., Sturesson, P., Söderberg, J. & Thornell, G. (2016). Optogalvanic spectroscopy with microplasma sources – Current status and development towards lab on a chip. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 26(10), Article ID 104003.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optogalvanic spectroscopy with microplasma sources – Current status and development towards lab on a chip
Show others...
2016 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 26, no 10, article id 104003Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Miniaturized optogalvanic spectroscopy (OGS) shows excellent prospects of becoming ahighly sensitive method for gas analysis in micro total analysis systems. Here, a status reporton the current development of microwave induced microplasma sources for OGS is presented,together with the first comparison of the sensitivity of the method to conventional single-passabsorption spectroscopy. The studied microplasma sources are stripline split-ring resonators(SSRRs), with typical ring radii between 3.5 and 6 mm and operation frequencies around2.6 GHz. A linear response (R2 = 0.9999), and a stability of more than 100 s are demonstratedwhen using the microplasma source as an optogalvanic detector. Additionally, saturationeffects at laser powers higher than 100 mW are observed, and the temporal response of theplasma to periodic laser perturbation with repletion rates between 20 Hz and 200 Hz arestudied. Finally, the potential of integrating additional functionality with the detector isdiscussed, with the particular focus on a pressure sensor and a miniaturized combustor toallow for studies of solid samples.

Keywords
Optogalvanic spectroscopy, split-ring resonator, microplasma sources
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-284627 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/26/10/104003 (DOI)000384028900003 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board, 104/14
Note

Awaiting publication online. 

Available from: 2016-04-19 Created: 2016-04-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Khaji, Z., Sturesson, P., Klintberg, L., Hjort, K. & Thornell, G. (2015). Manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic microcombustor with integrated oxygen storage and release element. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 25(10), Article ID 104006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manufacturing and characterization of a ceramic microcombustor with integrated oxygen storage and release element
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 104006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A microscale ceramic high-temperature combustor with a built-in temperature sensor and source of oxygen has been designed, manufactured and characterized. The successful in situ electroplating and oxidation of copper, and the use of copper oxide as the source of oxygen were demonstrated. It was shown that residual stresses from electroplating, copper oxidation and oxide decomposition did not cause much deformation of the substrate but influenced mainly the integrity and adhesion of the metal films. The process had influence on the electrical resistances, however. Calibration of the temperature sensor and correlation with IR thermography up to 1000°C revealed a nearly linear sensor behavior. Demonstration of combustion in a vacuum chamber proved that no combustion had occurred before release of oxygen from the metal oxide resource.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2015
Keywords
isotopic analysis, HTCC, combustor, EDS, TGA, RGA, oxygen release
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-264147 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/25/10/104006 (DOI)000366827400007 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space Board
Available from: 2015-10-06 Created: 2015-10-06 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
Berglund, M., Sturesson, P., Thornell, G. & Persson, A. (2015). Manufacturing Miniature Langmuir probes by Fusing Platinum Bond Wires. Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 25(10), Article ID 105012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manufacturing Miniature Langmuir probes by Fusing Platinum Bond Wires
2015 (English)In: Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, ISSN 0960-1317, E-ISSN 1361-6439, Vol. 25, no 10, article id 105012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reports on a novel method for manufacturing microscopic Langmuir probes with spherical tips from platinum bond wires for plasma characterization in microplasma sources by fusing. Here, the resulting endpoints, formed by droplets of a fused wire, are intended to act as a spherical Langmuir probe. For studying the fusing behavior, bond wires were wedge-bonded over a 2 mm wide slit, to emulate the final application, and fused at different currents and voltages. For electrical isolation, a set of wires were coated with a 4 µm thick layer of Parylene before they were fused. After fusing, the gap size, as well as the shape and area of the ends of the remaining stubs were measured. The yield of the process was also investigated, and the fusing event was studied using a high-speed camera for analyzing the dynamics of fusing. Four characteristic tip shapes were observed: spherical, semi-spherical, serpentine shaped and folded. The stub length leveled out at ~420µm. The fusing of the coated wires required a higher power for attaining a spherical shape. Finally, a Parylene coated bond wire was integrated into a stripline split-ring resonator (SSRR) microplasma source, and fused to form two Langmuir probes with spherical endpoints. These probes were used for measuring the I-V characteristics of a plasma generated by the SSRR. In a voltage range between -60 V and 60 V, the fused stubs exhibited the expected behavior of spherical Langmuir probes and will be considered for future integration.

Keywords
Langmuir probe; bond wire; fusing; microplasma source
National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Microsystems Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-251306 (URN)10.1088/0960-1317/25/10/105012 (DOI)000366827400028 ()
Funder
Swedish National Space BoardKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2015-04-15 Created: 2015-04-15 Last updated: 2018-08-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0501-0887

Search in DiVA

Show all publications