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Marklund, Matti
Publications (10 of 25) Show all publications
Fretts, A. M., Imamura, F., Marklund, M., Micha, R., Wu, J. H. Y., Murphy, R. A., . . . Lemaitre, R. N. (2019). Associations of circulating very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 109(4), 1216-1223
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations of circulating very-long-chain saturated fatty acids and incident type 2 diabetes: a pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies
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2019 (English)In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 109, no 4, p. 1216-1223Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Saturated fatty acids (SFAs) of different chain lengths have unique metabolic and biological effects, and a small number of recent studies suggest that higher circulating concentrations of the very-long-chain SFAs (VLSFAs) arachidic acid (20:0), behenic acid (22:0), and lignoceric acid (24:0) are associated with a lower risk of diabetes. Confirmation of these findings in a large and diverse population is needed.

Objective: We investigated the associations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident type 2 diabetes in prospective studies.

Methods: Twelve studies that are part of the Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium participated in the analysis. Using Cox or logistic regression within studies and an inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis across studies, we examined the associations of VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 with incident diabetes among 51,431 participants.

Results: There were 14,276 cases of incident diabetes across participating studies. Higher circulating concentrations of 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 were each associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes. Pooling across cohorts, the RR (95% CI) for incident diabetes comparing the 90th percentile to the 10th percentile was 0.78 (0.70, 0.87) for 20:0, 0.84 (0.77, 0.91) for 22:0, and 0.75 (0.69, 0.83) for 24:0 after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, adiposity, and other health factors. Results were fully attenuated in exploratory models that adjusted for circulating 16:0 and triglycerides.

Conclusions: Results from this pooled analysis indicate that higher concentrations of circulating VLSFAs 20:0, 22:0, and 24:0 are each associated with a lower risk of diabetes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2019
Keywords
saturated fatty acids, very-long-chain saturated fatty acids, diabetes, meta-analysis, Fatty Acids and Outcomes Research Consortium, Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392890 (URN)10.1093/ajcn/nqz005 (DOI)000478064700020 ()30982858 (PubMedID)
Funder
Academy of Finland
Available from: 2019-09-24 Created: 2019-09-24 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Marklund, M., Wu, J. H. Y., Imamura, F., Del Gobbo, L. C., Fretts, A., de Goede, J., . . . Risérus, U. (2019). Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies. Circulation, 139(21), 2422-2436
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomarkers of Dietary Omega-6 Fatty Acids and Incident Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality: An Individual-Level Pooled Analysis of 30 Cohort Studies
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2019 (English)In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 139, no 21, p. 2422-2436Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

Global dietary recommendations for and cardiovascular effects of linoleic acid, the major dietary omega-6 fatty acid, and its major metabolite, arachidonic acid, remain controversial. To address this uncertainty and inform international recommendations, we evaluated how in vivo circulating and tissue levels of linoleic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) relate to incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) across multiple international studies.

Methods:

We performed harmonized, de novo, individual-level analyses in a global consortium of 30 prospective observational studies from 13 countries. Multivariable-adjusted associations of circulating and adipose tissue LA and AA biomarkers with incident total CVD and subtypes (coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, cardiovascular mortality) were investigated according to a prespecified analytic plan. Levels of LA and AA, measured as the percentage of total fatty acids, were evaluated linearly according to their interquintile range (ie, the range between the midpoint of the first and fifth quintiles), and categorically by quintiles. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored by age, sex, race, diabetes mellitus, statin use, aspirin use, omega-3 levels, and fatty acid desaturase 1 genotype (when available).

Results:

In 30 prospective studies with medians of follow-up ranging 2.5 to 31.9 years, 15198 incident cardiovascular events occurred among 68659 participants. Higher levels of LA were significantly associated with lower risks of total CVD, cardiovascular mortality, and ischemic stroke, with hazard ratios per interquintile range of 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99), 0.78 (0.70-0.85), and 0.88 (0.79-0.98), respectively, and nonsignificantly with lower coronary heart disease risk (0.94; 0.88-1.00). Relationships were similar for LA evaluated across quintiles. AA levels were not associated with higher risk of cardiovascular outcomes; in a comparison of extreme quintiles, higher levels were associated with lower risk of total CVD (0.92; 0.86-0.99). No consistent heterogeneity by population subgroups was identified in the observed relationships.

Conclusions:

In pooled global analyses, higher in vivo circulating and tissue levels of LA and possibly AA were associated with lower risk of major cardiovascular events. These results support a favorable role for LA in CVD prevention.

Keywords
arachidonic acid, biomarkers, cardiovascular diseases, diet, epidemiology, linoleic acid, primary prevention
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387592 (URN)10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038908 (DOI)000469018300011 ()30971107 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-06-26 Created: 2019-06-26 Last updated: 2019-06-26Bibliographically approved
Laguzzi, F., Risérus, U., Marklund, M., Vikström, M., Sjögren, P., Gigante, B., . . . Leander, K. (2018). Circulating fatty acids in relation to alcohol consumption: Cross-sectional results from a cohort of 60-year-old men and women. Clinical Nutrition, 37(6, Part A), 2001-2010
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Circulating fatty acids in relation to alcohol consumption: Cross-sectional results from a cohort of 60-year-old men and women
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2018 (English)In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, Vol. 37, no 6, Part A, p. 2001-2010Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background & aims: Alcohol consumption is considered to affect circulating fatty acids (FAs) but knowledge about specific associations is limited. We aimed to assess the relation between alcohol consumption and serum FAs in 60-year-old Swedish men and women.

Methods: In a random sample of 1917 men and 2058 women residing in Stockholm county, cross-sectional associations between different categories of alcohol consumption and FAs were assessed using linear regression; beta(1) coefficients with 95% confidence interval (Cl) were calculated. Self-reported alcohol consumption was categorized as none, low (<= 9.9 g/day) (reference), moderate (10-29.9 g/day) and high (>= 30 g/day). Moderate alcohol consumption was further subdivided into consumption of beer, wine, liquor and their combinations. Thirteen serum cholesterol ester FM were measured by gas chromatography and individual FM were expressed as percentage of total FAs.

Results: Increasing alcohol consumption was associated to linear increase of saturated myristic acid, monounsaturated FAs and n-6 polyunsaturated (PUFA) arachidonic acid, whereas linear decrease was noted for saturated pentadecanoic acid and for n-6 PUFA linoleic acid. With non-linear associations, increasing alcohol consumption also associated to decreased saturated stearic acid, n-6 PUFA dihomogamma-linolenic acid, and n-3 PUFA docosahexaenoic acid and increased saturated palmitic acid, n-6 PUFA gamma-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid. Among types of beverages, wine consumption was associated with n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (beta(1) 0.59; 95% CI: 030;0.88) and the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (beta(1) 0.54; 95% CI: 0.30;0.78), and docosahexaenoic acid (beta(1) 0.06; 95% CI: 0.00;0.12).

Conclusions: These findings may give important basis for further investigations to better understand biological mechanisms behind the dose-dependent associations between alcohol consumption and health outcomes observed in many previous studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CHURCHILL LIVINGSTONE, 2018
Keywords
Ethanol, Alcohol drinking, Alcoholic beverages, Wine, Beer, Fatty acids
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-375579 (URN)10.1016/j.clnu.2017.09.007 (DOI)000455069400023 ()29032841 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 52120133894Swedish Research Council, 09533Stockholm County Council, 20150163Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20150581
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Imamura, F., Fretts, A., Marklund, M., Korat, A. V. A., Yang, W.-S., Lankinen, M., . . . Mozaffarian, D. (2018). Fatty acid biomarkers of dairy fat consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. PLoS Medicine, 15(10), Article ID e1002670.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatty acid biomarkers of dairy fat consumption and incidence of type 2 diabetes: A pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies
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2018 (English)In: PLoS Medicine, ISSN 1549-1277, E-ISSN 1549-1676, Vol. 15, no 10, article id e1002670Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background We aimed to investigate prospective associations of circulating or adipose tissue odd-chain fatty acids 15: 0 and 17: 0 and trans-palmitoleic acid, t16:1n-7, as potential biomarkers of dairy fat intake, with incident type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods and findings Sixteen prospective cohorts from 12 countries (7 from the United States, 7 from Europe, 1 from Australia, 1 from Taiwan) performed new harmonised individual-level analysis for the prospective associations according to a standardised plan. In total, 63,682 participants with a broad range of baseline ages and BMIs and 15,180 incident cases of T2D over the average of 9 years of follow-up were evaluated. Study-specific results were pooled using inverse-variance-weighted meta-analysis. Prespecified interactions by age, sex, BMI, and race/ethnicity were explored in each cohort and were meta-analysed. Potential heterogeneity by cohort-specific characteristics (regions, lipid compartments used for fatty acid assays) was assessed with metaregression. After adjustment for potential confounders, including measures of adiposity (BMI, waist circumference) and lipogenesis (levels of palmitate, tri-glycerides), higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with lower incidence of T2D. In the most adjusted model, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for incident T2D per cohort-specific 10th to 90th percentile range of 15:0 was 0.80 (0.73-0.87); of 17:0, 0.65 (0.59-0.72); of t16:1n7, 0.82 (0.70-0.96); and of their sum, 0.71 (0.63-0.79). In exploratory analyses, similar associations for 15:0, 17:0, and the sum of all three fatty acids were present in both genders but stronger in women than in men ((pinteraction) < 0.001). Whereas studying associations with biomarkers has several advantages, as limitations, the biomarkers do not distinguish between different food sources of dairy fat (e.g., cheese, yogurt, milk), and residual confounding by unmeasured or imprecisely measured confounders may exist. Conclusions In a large meta-analysis that pooled the findings from 16 prospective cohort studies, higher levels of 15:0, 17:0, and t16:1n-7 were associated with a lower risk of T2D.

National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369767 (URN)10.1371/journal.pmed.1002670 (DOI)000448970800008 ()30303968 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and WelfareSwedish Research CouncilEU, FP7, Seventh Framework ProgrammeEU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2018-12-17 Created: 2018-12-17 Last updated: 2018-12-17Bibliographically approved
Marklund, M., Morris, A. P., Mahajan, A., Ingelsson, E., Lindgren, C. M., Lind, L. & Risérus, U. (2018). Genome-Wide Association Studies of Estimated Fatty Acid Desaturase Activity in Serum and Adipose Tissue in Elderly Individuals: Associations with Insulin Sensitivity. Nutrients, 10(11), Article ID 1791.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genome-Wide Association Studies of Estimated Fatty Acid Desaturase Activity in Serum and Adipose Tissue in Elderly Individuals: Associations with Insulin Sensitivity
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2018 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 1791Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fatty acid desaturases (FADS) catalyze the formation of unsaturated fatty acids and have been related to insulin sensitivity (IS). FADS activities differ between tissues and are influenced by genetic factors that may impact the link to IS. Genome-wide association studies of delta-5-desaturase (D5D), delta-6-desaturase (D6D) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD) activities (estimated by product-to-precursor ratios of fatty acids analyzed by gas chromatography) in serum cholesterol esters (n = 1453) and adipose tissue (n = 783, all men) were performed in two Swedish population-based cohorts. Genome-wide significant associated loci were evaluated for associations with IS measured with a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp (n = 554). Variants at the FADS1 were strongly associated with D5D in both cholesterol esters (p = 1.9 x 10(-70)) and adipose tissue (p = 1.1 x 10(-27)). Variants in three further loci were associated with D6D in cholesterol esters (FADS2, p = 3.0 x 10(-67); PDXDCI, p = 4.8 x 10(-8); and near MC4R, p = 3.7 x 10(-8)) but no associations with D6D in adipose tissue attained genome-wide significance. One locus was associated with SCD in adipose tissue (PKDL1, p = 2.2 x 10(-19)). Genetic variants near MC4R were associated with IS (p = 3.8 x 10(-3)). The FADS cluster was the main genetic determinant of estimated FADS activity. However, fatty acid (FA) ratios in adipose tissue and cholesterol esters represent FADS activities in separate tissues and are thus influenced by different genetic factors with potential varying effects on IS.

Keywords
fatty acid, desaturase, Genome-wide association study (GWAS), Insulin sensitivity, adipose tissue, cholesterol ester
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372460 (URN)10.3390/nu10111791 (DOI)000451547700229 ()30453627 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2007-2135Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2013-01586Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Heart Lung Foundation, 20070212The Royal Swedish Academy of SciencesSwedish Diabetes AssociationSwedish Society of MedicineNovo NordiskThe Karolinska Institutet's Research FoundationEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7/2007-2013Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), p2013055
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Marklund, M., Pingel, R., Rosqvist, F., Lindroos, A. K., Eriksson, J. W., Vessby, B., . . . Risérus, U. (2017). Fatty Acid Proportions in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids Are Positively Correlated in Various Swedish Populations. Journal of Nutrition, 147(11), 2118-2125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatty Acid Proportions in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids Are Positively Correlated in Various Swedish Populations
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0022-3166, E-ISSN 1541-6100, Vol. 147, no 11, p. 2118-2125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Fatty acid (FA) proportions in cholesterol esters (CEs) and plasma phospholipids are widely used as dietary biomarkers. Information on how proportions in these fractions correlate could have implications for interpretation and use of FA biomarkers in observational and interventional studies. Objective: We investigated correlations between FA proportions in CEs and phospholipids in free-living individuals and assessed how diet-induced alterations of FA proportions correlate between fractions. Methods: Spearman's rank correlation coefficients (rs) between FA proportions (percentage of total FAs) in circulating CEs and phospholipids were calculated separately in 8 individual study populations including Swedish females and males (N = 2052; age range: 11-84 y), and pooled by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. In addition, study populations were stratified by age, sex, body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)), and diabetes status, and strata-specific rs were pooled by meta-analysis. In 2 randomized trials (N = 79) in which dietary saturated FAs were isocalorically replaced with unsaturated FAs, treatment-wise calculations of rs were conducted between FA changes in CEs and phospholipids. Results: Overall, FA proportions in CEs and phospholipids correlated well and especially strongly for polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs), with pooled rs (95% CIs) ranging from 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) for a-linolenic acid to 0.92 (0.91, 0.93) for eicosapentaenoic acid. Weak correlations (pooled rs <0.4) were observed only for palmitic acid and stearic acid, with pooled rs (95% CIs): 0.29 (0.24, 0.33) and 0.30 (0.25, 0.34), respectively. Overall, correlations were not affected by age, sex, BMI, or diabetes status. Strong correlations (r(s) >= 0.6) between diet-induced FA changes in CEs and phospholipids were observed for most PUFAs. Conclusions: Proportions of most FAs in CEs and phospholipids ranked individuals similarly, suggesting that FA proportions in these fractions can be used interchangeably in populations of diverse age, sex, body composition, and diabetes status. Caution is advised, however, when comparing results from studies assessing palmitic acid or stearic acid in different lipid fractions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER SOC NUTRITION-ASN, 2017
Keywords
fatty acid, biomarker, cholesterol ester, phospholipid, meta-analysis
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-344334 (URN)10.3945/jn.117.254250 (DOI)000417124300014 ()28931585 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-07 Created: 2018-03-07 Last updated: 2018-03-07Bibliographically approved
Marklund, M., Pingel, R., Rosqvist, F., Lindroos, A. K., Eriksson, J., Vessby, B., . . . Risérus, U. (2017). Interrelationships Between Fatty Acid Composition in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 71, 372-372
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interrelationships Between Fatty Acid Composition in Plasma Cholesterol Esters and Phospholipids in Men and Women: A Pooled Analysis
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2017 (English)In: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, ISSN 0250-6807, E-ISSN 1421-9697, Vol. 71, p. 372-372Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2017
Keywords
Biomarker, Fatty acid, Cholesterol ester, Phospholipid, Meta-analysis
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377742 (URN)000415605300664 ()
Available from: 2019-02-26 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-02-26Bibliographically approved
Risérus, U. & Marklund, M. (2017). Milk fat biomarkers and cardiometabolic disease. Current Opinion in Lipidology, 28(1), 46-51
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Milk fat biomarkers and cardiometabolic disease
2017 (English)In: Current Opinion in Lipidology, ISSN 0957-9672, E-ISSN 1473-6535, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 46-51Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose of review Dairy is a major food group with potential impact on cardiometabolic health. Self-reported dairy intake has limitations that can partly be avoided by using biomarkers. This review aims to summarize the evidence of odd-chain saturated fatty acids (OCFAs), that is, pentadecanoic acid (C15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0), as biomarkers of dairy fat intake. In addition, the associations of OCFA biomarkers with cardiometabolic disease will be overviewed. Recent findings Adipose tissue 15 : 0 is the preferred biomarker but also circulating 15 : 0, and to a weaker extent 17 : 0, reflects both habitual and changes in dairy intake. Whereas results from studies assessing cardiovascular outcomes are inconsistent, OCFA biomarkers are overall associated with lower diabetes risk. Residual confounding should however be considered until interventional data and mechanisms are available. Although OCFA biomarkers mainly reflect dairy fat intake, recently proposed endogenous synthesis and metabolism do motivate further research. Summary Taking into account the study population diet and limitations of OCFA biomarkers, both adipose and circulating levels of 15 : 0, in particular, are useful for estimating total dairy fat intake. OCFA biomarkers are overall not linked to cardiovascular disease risk, but a possible beneficial role of dairy foods in diabetes prevention warrant further study.

Keywords
biomarkers, dairy food intake, milk fat, odd-chain saturated fatty acids, pentadecanoic acid
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316205 (URN)10.1097/MOL.0000000000000381 (DOI)000392077500007 ()27906713 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Diabetes Association
Available from: 2017-02-27 Created: 2017-02-27 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Wu, J. H. Y., Marklund, M., Imamura, F., Tintle, N., Korat, A. V. A., de Goede, J., . . . Mozaffarian, D. (2017). Omega-6 fatty acid biomarkers and incident type 2 diabetes: pooled analysis of individual-level data for 39 740 adults from 20 prospective cohort studies. The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, 5(12), 965-974
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Omega-6 fatty acid biomarkers and incident type 2 diabetes: pooled analysis of individual-level data for 39 740 adults from 20 prospective cohort studies
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2017 (English)In: The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, ISSN 2213-8587, E-ISSN 2213-8595, Vol. 5, no 12, p. 965-974Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background The metabolic effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) remain contentious, and little evidence is available regarding their potential role in primary prevention of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to assess the associations of linoleic acid and arachidonic acid biomarkers with incident type 2 diabetes. Methods We did a pooled analysis of new, harmonised, individual-level analyses for the biomarkers linoleic acid and its metabolite arachidonic acid and incident type 2 diabetes. We analysed data from 20 prospective cohort studies from ten countries (Iceland, the Netherlands, the USA, Taiwan, the UK, Germany, Finland, Australia, Sweden, and France), with biomarkers sampled between 1970 and 2010. Participants included in the analyses were aged 18 years or older and had data available for linoleic acid and arachidonic acid biomarkers at baseline. We excluded participants with type 2 diabetes at baseline. The main outcome was the association between omega-6 PUFA biomarkers and incident type 2 diabetes. We assessed the relative risk of type 2 diabetes prospectively for each cohort and lipid compartment separately using a prespecified analytic plan for exposures, covariates, effect modifiers, and analysis, and the findings were then pooled using inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Findings Participants were 39 740 adults, aged (range of cohort means) 49-76 years with a BMI (range of cohort means) of 23.3-28.4 kg/m(2), who did not have type 2 diabetes at baseline. During a follow-up of 366 073 person-years, we identified 4347 cases of incident type 2 diabetes. In multivariable-adjusted pooled analyses, higher proportions of linoleic acid biomarkers as percentages of total fatty acid were associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes overall (risk ratio [RR] per interquintile range 0.65, 95% CI 0.60-0.72, p<0.0001; I-2=53.9%, p(heterogeneity) = 0.002). The associations between linoleic acid biomarkers and type 2 diabetes were generally similar in different lipid compartments, including phospholipids, plasma, cholesterol esters, and adipose tissue. Levels of arachidonic acid biomarker were not significantly associated with type 2 diabetes risk overall (RR per interquintile range 0.96, 95% CI 0.88-1.05; p=0.38; I-2 = 63.0%, p(heterogeneity) < 0.0001). The associations between linoleic acid and arachidonic acid biomarkers and the risk of type 2 diabetes were not significantly modified by any prespecified potential sources of heterogeneity (ie, age, BMI, sex, race, aspirin use, omega-3 PUFA levels, or variants of the FADS gene; all p(heterogeneity) >= 0-13). Interpretation Findings suggest that linoleic acid has long-term benefits for the prevention of type 2 diabetes and that arachidonic acid is not harmful.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2017
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343564 (URN)10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30307-8 (DOI)000416514700018 ()
Available from: 2018-03-02 Created: 2018-03-02 Last updated: 2018-03-02Bibliographically approved
Alsharari, Z., Risérus, U., Leander, K., Sjögren, P., Carlsson, A. C., Vikstrom, M., . . . Marklund, M. (2017). Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity - A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women. PLoS ONE, 12(1), Article ID e0170684.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Serum Fatty Acids, Desaturase Activities and Abdominal Obesity - A Population-Based Study of 60-Year Old Men and Women
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2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e0170684Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abdominal obesity is a key contributor of metabolic disease. Recent trials suggest that dietary fat quality affects abdominal fat content, where palmitic acid and linoleic acid influence abdominal obesity differently, while effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are less studied. Also, fatty acid desaturation may be altered in abdominal obesity. We aimed to investigate cross-sectional associations of serum fatty acids and desaturases with abdominal obesity prevalence in a population-based cohort study. Serum cholesteryl ester fatty acids composition was measured by gas chromatography in 60-year old men (n = 1883) and women (n = 2015). Cross-sectional associations of fatty acids with abdominal obesity prevalence and anthropometric measures (e.g., sagittal abdominal diameter) were evaluated in multivariable-adjusted logistic and linear regression models, respectively. Similar models were employed to investigate relations between desaturase activities (estimated by fatty acid ratios) and abdominal obesity. In logistic regression analyses, palmitic acid, stearoyl-CoA- desaturase and Delta 6-desaturase indices were associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for highest versus lowest quartiles were 1.45 (1.19-1.76), 4.06 (3.27-5.05), and 3.07 (2.51-3.75), respectively. Linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, docohexaenoic acid, and Delta 5-desaturase were inversely associated with abdominal obesity; multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals): 0.39 (0.32-0.48), 0.74 (0.61-0.89), 0.76 (0.62-0.93), and 0.40 (0.33-0.49), respectively. Eicosapentaenoic acid was not associated with abdominal obesity. Similar results were obtained from linear regression models evaluating associations with different anthropometric measures. Sex-specific and linear associations were mainly observed for n3-polyunsaturated fatty acids, while associations of the other exposures were generally non-linear and similar across sexes. In accordance with findings from short-term trials, abdominal obesity was more common among individuals with relatively high proportions of palmitic acid, whilst the contrary was true for linoleic acid. Further trials should examine the potential role of linoleic acid and its main dietary source, vegetable oils, in abdominal obesity prevention.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2017
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-319131 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0170684 (DOI)000396176100074 ()28125662 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-03-31 Created: 2017-03-31 Last updated: 2018-02-22Bibliographically approved
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