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Breton, Simon-Philippe
Publications (10 of 20) Show all publications
Eriksson, O., Breton, S.-P., Nilsson, K. & Ivanell, S. (2019). Impact of Wind Veer and the Coriolis Force for an Idealized Farm to Farm Interaction Case. Applied Sciences, 9(5), Article ID 922.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of Wind Veer and the Coriolis Force for an Idealized Farm to Farm Interaction Case
2019 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, no 5, article id 922Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The impact of the Coriolis force on the long distance wake behind wind farms is investigated using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) combined with a Forced Boundary Layer (FBL) technique. When using the FBL technique any mean wind shear and turbulent fluctuations can be added with body forces. The wind shear can also include the mean wind veer due to the Coriolis force. The variation of the Coriolis force due to local deviations from the mean profile, e.g., from wakes, is not taken into account in the FBL. This can be corrected for with an extra source term in the equations, hereon defined as the Coriolis correction. For a row of 4 turbines it is shown that the inclusion of the wind veer turns the wake to the right, while including the Coriolis correction turns it to the left. When including both wind veer and Coriolis correction the impact of wind veer dominates. For an idealized farm to farm interaction case, two farms of 4 * 4 turbines with 6 km in between, it can be seen that when including wind veer and the Coriolis correction a approximately 3% increase in the relative production for a full wake direction can be seen and only a slightly smaller increase can be seen when including only wind veer. The results indicate that FBL can be used for studies of long distance wakes without including a Coriolis correction but efforts need to be taken to use a wind shear with a correct mean wind veer.

Keywords
long distance wake, farm to farm interaction, wind farm cluster, large Eddy simulations, LES, actuator disc, ACD, forced boundary layer, FBL, coriolis, wind veer
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379116 (URN)10.3390/app9050922 (DOI)000462504400109 ()
Funder
Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)
Available from: 2019-03-12 Created: 2019-03-12 Last updated: 2019-04-25Bibliographically approved
Olivares-Espinosa, H., Breton, S.-P., Nilsson, K., Masson, C., Dufresne, L. & Ivanell, S. (2018). Assessment of Turbulence Modelling in the Wake of an Actuator Disk with a Decaying Turbulence Inflow. Applied Sciences, 8(9), Article ID 1530.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of Turbulence Modelling in the Wake of an Actuator Disk with a Decaying Turbulence Inflow
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2018 (English)In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 8, no 9, article id 1530Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The characteristics of the turbulence field in the wake produced by a wind turbine model are studied. To this aim, a methodology is developed and applied to replicate wake measurements obtained in a decaying homogeneous turbulence inflow produced by a wind tunnel. In this method, a synthetic turbulence field is generated to be employed as an inflow of Large-Eddy Simulations performed to model the flow development of the decaying turbulence as well as the wake flow behind an actuator disk. The implementation is carried out on the OpenFOAM platform, resembling a well-documented procedure used for wake flow simulations. The proposed methodology is validated by comparing with experimental results, for two levels of turbulence at inflow and disks with two different porosities. It is found that mean velocities and turbulent kinetic energy behind the disk are well estimated. The development of turbulence lengthscales behind the disk resembles what is observed in the free flow, predicting the ambient turbulence lengthscales to dominate across the wake, with little effect of shear from the wake envelope. However, observations of the power spectra confirm that shear yields a boost to the turbulence energy within the wake noticeable only in the low turbulence case. The results obtained show that the present implementation can successfully be used in the modelling and analysis of turbulence in wake flows.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
wind turbine wakes, turbulence, actuator disk, LES, wind tunnel, OpenFOAM
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368765 (URN)10.3390/app8091530 (DOI)000445760200119 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2018-12-07Bibliographically approved
Breton, S.-P., Sumner, J., Sörensen, J. N., Hansen, K. S., Sarmast, S. & Ivanell, S. (2017). A survey of modelling methods for high-fidelity wind farm simulations using large eddy simulation. Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, 375(2091), Article ID 20160097.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A survey of modelling methods for high-fidelity wind farm simulations using large eddy simulation
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2017 (English)In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 375, no 2091, article id 20160097Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Large eddy simulations (LES) of wind farms have the capability to provide valuable and detailed information about the dynamics of wind turbine wakes. For this reason, their use within the wind energy research community is on the rise, spurring the development of new models and methods. This review surveys the most common schemes available to model the rotor, atmospheric conditions and terrain effects within current state-of-the-art LES codes, of which an overview is provided. A summary of the experimental research data available for validation of LES codes within the context of single and multiple wake situations is also supplied. Some typical results for wind turbine and wind farm flows are presented to illustrate best practices for carrying out high-fidelity LES of wind farms under various atmospheric and terrain conditions. This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL SOC, 2017
Keywords
large eddy simulation, wind turbine wakes, wind farm wakes, rotor modelling, atmospheric modelling, complex terrain
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321549 (URN)10.1098/rsta.2016.0097 (DOI)000397879700002 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2017-05-11Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, O., Baltscheffsky, M., Breton, S.-P., Söderberg, S. & Ivanell, S. (2017). The Long distance wake behind Horns Rev I studied using large eddy simulations and a wind turbine parameterization in WRF. Paper presented at Wake Conference 2017, 30 May to 1 June 2017, Visby, Sweden. Journal of Physics, Conference Series, 854, Article ID 012012.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Long distance wake behind Horns Rev I studied using large eddy simulations and a wind turbine parameterization in WRF
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 854, article id 012012Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present paper is to obtain a better understanding of long distance wakes generated by wind farms as a first step towards a better understanding of farm to farm interaction. The Horns Rev I (HR) wind farm is considered for this purpose, where comparisons are performed between microscale Large Eddy Simulations (LES) using an Actuator Disc model (ACD), mesoscale simulations in the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) using a wind turbine parameterization, production data as well as wind measurements in the wind farm wake. The LES is manually set up according to the wind conditions obtained from the mesoscale simulation as a first step towards a meso/microscale coupling.

The LES using an ACD are performed in the EllipSys3D code. A forced boundary layer (FBL) approach is used to introduce the desired wind shear and the atmospheric turbulence field from the Mann model. The WRF uses a wind turbine parameterization based on momentum sink. To make comparisons with the LESs and the site data possible an idealized setup of WRF is used in this study.

The case studied here considers a westerly wind direction sector (at hub height) of 270 ± 2.5 degrees and a wind speed of 8 ± 0.5 m/s. For both the simulations and the site data a neutral atmosphere is considered. The simulation results for the relative production as well as the wind speed 2 km and 6 km downstream from the wind farm are compared to site data. Further comparisons between LES and WRF are also performed regarding the wake recovery and expansion.

The results are also compared to an earlier study of HR using LES as well as an earlier comparison of LES and WRF. Overall the results in this study show a better agreement between LES and WRF as well as better agreement between simulations and site data.

The procedure of using the profile from WRF as inlet to LES can be seen as a simplified coupling of the models that could be developed further to combine the methods for cases of farm to farm interaction.

National Category
Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362564 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/854/1/012012 (DOI)000435276400012 ()
Conference
Wake Conference 2017, 30 May to 1 June 2017, Visby, Sweden
Available from: 2018-10-07 Created: 2018-10-07 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Breton, S.-P., Shen, W. & Ivanell, S. (2017). Validation of the actuator disc and actuator line techniques for yawed rotor flows using the New MEXICO experimental data. In: : . Paper presented at Wake Conference, MAY 30-JUN 01, 2017, Uppsala Univ Gotland Campus, Visby, SWEDEN. United Kingdom: Institute of Physics (IOP), Article ID 012005.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of the actuator disc and actuator line techniques for yawed rotor flows using the New MEXICO experimental data
2017 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Experimental data acquired in the New MEXICO experiment on a yawed 4.5m diameter rotor model turbine are used here to validate the actuator line (AL) and actuator disc (AD) models implemented in the Large Eddy Simulation code EllipSys3D in terms of loadingand velocity field. Even without modelling the geometry of the hub and nacelle, the AL and AD models produce similar results that are generally in good agreement with the experimental data under the various configurations considered. As expected, the AL model does better at capturing the induction effects from the individual blade tip vortices, while the AD model can reproduce the averaged features of the flow. The importance of using high quality airfoil data (including 3D corrections) as well as a fine grid resolution is highlighted by the results obtained. Overall, it is found that both models can satisfactorily predict the 3D velocity field and blade loading of the New MEXICO rotor under yawed inflow.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United Kingdom: Institute of Physics (IOP), 2017
Series
Journal of Physics Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588 ; 854
National Category
Geophysical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-338806 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/854/1/012005 (DOI)000435276400005 ()
Conference
Wake Conference, MAY 30-JUN 01, 2017, Uppsala Univ Gotland Campus, Visby, SWEDEN
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencySwedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), SNIC 2016/10-33
Note

This work was also supported by the Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP2014, J. nr. 64014-0543) under the Danish Energy Agency.

Available from: 2018-01-12 Created: 2018-01-12 Last updated: 2018-12-12Bibliographically approved
Simisiroglou, N., Breton, S.-P. & Ivanell, S. (2017). Validation of the actuator disc approach using small-scale model wind turbines. Wind Energy Science, 2, 587-601
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validation of the actuator disc approach using small-scale model wind turbines
2017 (English)In: Wind Energy Science, ISSN 2213-3968, E-ISSN 2366-7443, Vol. 2, p. 587-601Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study is the validation of the implementation of an actuator disc (ACD) model in the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code PHOENICS. The flow behaviour for three wind turbine cases is investigated numerically and compared to wind tunnel measurements: (A) the flow around a single model wind turbine, (B) the wake interaction between two in-line model wind turbines for a uniform inflow of low turbulence intensity and (C) the wake interaction between two in-line model wind turbines at different separation distances in a uniform or sheared inflow of high turbulence intensity. This is carried out using Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) simulations and an ACD technique in the CFD code PHOENICS. The computations are conducted for the design condition of the rotors using four different turbulence closure models and five different thrust distributions. The computed axial velocity field as well as the turbulence kinetic energy are compared with hot-wire anemometry (HWA) measurements. For the cases with two in-line wind turbines, the thrust coefficient is also computed and compared with measurements. The results show that for different inflow conditions and wind turbine spacings the proposed method is able to predict the overall behaviour of the flow with low computational effort. When using the k-ε and Kato–Launder k-ε turbulence models the results are generally in closer agreement with the measurements.

National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-338124 (URN)10.5194/wes-2-587-2017 (DOI)000416160500001 ()
Available from: 2018-01-08 Created: 2018-01-08 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
Simisiroglou, N., Breton, S.-P., Gravdahl, A. & Ivanell, S. (2016). Description and validation of the actuator disc approach in PHOENICS..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Description and validation of the actuator disc approach in PHOENICS.
2016 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-350027 (URN)
Available from: 2018-05-03 Created: 2018-05-03 Last updated: 2018-05-03
Simisiroglou, N., Karatsioris, M., Nilsson, K., Breton, S.-P. & Ivanell, S. (2016). The actuator disc concept in PHOENICS. In: Tande, JOG; Kvamsdal, T; Muskulus, M (Ed.), Energy Procedia: . Paper presented at 13th Deep Sea Offshore Wind R&D Conference, EERA DeepWind’ JAN 20-22, 2016, Trondheim, Norway (pp. 269-277). , 94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The actuator disc concept in PHOENICS
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2016 (English)In: Energy Procedia / [ed] Tande, JOG; Kvamsdal, T; Muskulus, M, 2016, Vol. 94, p. 269-277Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This study presents two models to simulate a wind turbine. This is done by employing the 1D momentum actuator disc theory in PHOENICS, a general purpose computational fluid dynamics software. To test the general applicability of these models, single wind turbine simulations are conducted using eight different wind turbine models from two manufacturers. The simulations are performed by imposing sheared inflow with hub height wind speeds ranging from 3 m/s up to 25 m/s. A range of computational parameters are investigated, including the resolution of the domain, the thickness of the actuator disc and the iterative convergence criteria. To investigate the wake development produced by these methods, a comparison study is performed with the more complex large-eddy simulation software EllipSys3D using an actuator disc approach for validation purposes. The resulting wind turbine thrust and power outputs from PHOENICS are compared with the experimental power curves and thrust values provided by the manufacturers for each wind turbine. The results show that actuator disc methods are able to provide a reasonable estimation of the conventional wind turbine power and thrust output with low computational effort. Moreover, the results from the preliminary comparison of the wake produced from these two rotor models compare well with the wake produced by the actuator disc in EllipSys3D.

Series
Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102 ; 94
Keywords
Wind energy, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS), Actuator Disc (ACD), Large-eddy simulation (LES)
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-306640 (URN)10.1016/j.egypro.2016.09.182 (DOI)000387586600028 ()
Conference
13th Deep Sea Offshore Wind R&D Conference, EERA DeepWind’ JAN 20-22, 2016, Trondheim, Norway
Funder
StandUp for Wind
Available from: 2016-10-31 Created: 2016-10-31 Last updated: 2018-05-03Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, K., Ivanell, S., Mikkelsen, R., Hansen, K., Sørensen, J. N., Breton, S.-P. & Henningson, D. (2015). Large-eddy simulations of the Lillgrund wind farm. Wind Energy, 18(3), 449-467
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-eddy simulations of the Lillgrund wind farm
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2015 (English)In: Wind Energy, ISSN 1095-4244, E-ISSN 1099-1824, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 449-467Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The power production of the Lillgrund wind farm is determined numerically using large-eddy simulations and compared with measurements. In order to simulate realistic atmospheric conditions, pre-generated turbulence and wind shear are imposed in the computational domain. The atmospheric conditions are determined from data extracted from a met mast, which was erected prior to the establishment of the farm. In order to allocate most of the computational power to the simulations of the wake flow, the turbines are modeled using an actuator disc method where the discs are imposed in the computational domain as body forces which for every time step are calculated from tabulated airfoil data. A study of the influence of imposed upstream ambient turbulence is performed and shows that higher levels of turbulence results in slightly increased total power production and that it is of great importance to include ambient turbulence in the simulations. By introducing ambient atmospheric turbulence, the simulations compare very well with measurements at the studied inflow angles. A final study aiming at increasing the farm production by curtailing the power output of the front row turbines and thus letting more kinetic energy pass downstream is performed. The results, however, show that manipulating only the front row turbines has no positive effect on the farm production, and therefore, more complex curtailment strategies are needed to be tested.

Keywords
large-eddy simulation, actuator disc, wind farms, power estimation, wakes
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-238263 (URN)10.1002/we.1707 (DOI)000348899700005 ()
Funder
Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)StandUp for Wind
Note

Article first published online: 18 FEB 2014

Available from: 2014-12-11 Created: 2014-12-11 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, O., Nilsson, K., Breton, S.-P. & Ivanell, S. (2015). Large-eddy simulations of wind farm production and long distance wakes. In: Wake Conference 2015: . Paper presented at Wake Conference, JUN 09-11, 2015, Visby, SWEDEN (pp. 012022). , Article ID 012022.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Large-eddy simulations of wind farm production and long distance wakes
2015 (English)In: Wake Conference 2015, 2015, p. 012022-, article id 012022Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The future development of offshore wind power will include many wind farms built in the same areas. It is known that wind farms produce long distance wakes, which means that we will see more occasions of farm to farm interaction, namely one wind farm operating in the wake of another wind farm. This study investigates how to perform accurate power predictions on large wind farms and how to assess the long distance wakes generated by these farms. The focus of this paper is the production's and wake's sensitivity to the extension of the grid as well as the turbulence when using Large-eddy simulations (LES) with pregenerated Mann turbulence. The aim is to determine an optimal grid which minimizes blockage effects and ensures constant resolution in the entire wake region at the lowest computational cost. The simulations are first performed in the absence of wind turbines in order to assess how the atmospheric turbulence and wind profile are evolving downstream (up to 12,000 m behind the position where the turbulence is imposed). In the second step, 10 turbines are added in the domain (using an actuator disc method) and their production is analyzed alongside the mean velocities in the domain. The blockage effects are tested using grids with different vertical extents. An equidistant region is used in order to ensure high resolution in the wake region. The importance of covering the entire wake structure inside the equidistant region is analyzed by decreasing the size of this region. In this step, the importance of the lateral size of the Mann turbulence box is also analyzed. In the results it can be seen that the flow is acceptably preserved through the empty domain if a larger turbulence box is used. The relative production is increased (due to blockage effects) for the last turbines using a smaller vertical domain, increased for a lower or narrower equidistant region (due to the smearing of the wake in the stretched area) and decreased when using a smaller turbulence box (due to decreased inmixing) The long distance wake behind the row is most impacted by the use of a smaller turbulence box, while the other simulation setups have less influence on these results. In summary, the results show the importance of having relatively large extensions of the domain, large extensions of the equidistant region and especially large extensions of the turbulence box.

Series
Journal of Physics Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588 ; 625
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261143 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/625/1/012022 (DOI)000358047700022 ()
Conference
Wake Conference, JUN 09-11, 2015, Visby, SWEDEN
Funder
Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)StandUp for Wind
Available from: 2015-08-31 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
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