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Leijonhufvud, GustafORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2546-0981
Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Legnér, M. & Leijonhufvud, G. (2019). A Legacy of Energy Saving: The Discussion on Heritage Values in the First Programme on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Sweden, c. 1974–1984. The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, 10(1), 40-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Legacy of Energy Saving: The Discussion on Heritage Values in the First Programme on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Sweden, c. 1974–1984
2019 (English)In: The Historic Environment: Policy & Practice, ISSN 1756-7505, E-ISSN 1756-7513, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 40-57Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper analyses the ‘energy savings plan for existing buildings’ (EBB) introduced in Sweden after the first oil crisis of 1973, and how effects of policies on the built heritage were perceived and communicated to a wider public. A conflict between conservation aims and energy efficiency was constructed for the first time in Sweden. The programme was a huge investment made by the government to reduce the import of oil. At first, little consideration was taken to the fact that heritage values might be at risk when giving property owners financial incentives to retrofit their houses. Soon increasing knowledge about the existing building stock showed that older houses were not necessarily energy inefficient. An information campaign launched by protagonists of building conservation encouraged property owners to direct measures to the interiors of buildings, thus saving the exterior character of not just single buildings but also complete neighbourhoods. Towards the end of EBB, the field of conservation had become a more articulated voice when it came to influencing measures aiming at increased energy efficiency. Finally, the paper discusses how values constituted in the 1970s affect policy and practice today.

Keywords
Energy, efficiency, policies, conservation, built heritage, values
National Category
History Architecture Energy Systems
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363271 (URN)10.1080/17567505.2018.1531646 (DOI)000465547800004 ()
Projects
An evaluation of previous policies on energy efficiency in buildings and their effects on energy use and historical values, Sweden 1974-2014
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40417-1
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2019-05-14Bibliographically approved
Haugen, A., Bertolin, C., Leijonhufvud, G., Olstad, T. & Broström, T. (2018). A Methodology for Long-Term Monitoring of Climate Change Impacts on Historic Buildings. Geosciences, 8(10), Article ID 370.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Methodology for Long-Term Monitoring of Climate Change Impacts on Historic Buildings
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2018 (English)In: Geosciences, ISSN 2076-3263, Vol. 8, no 10, article id 370Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A new methodology for long-term monitoring of climate change impacts on historic buildings and interiors has been developed. This paper proposes a generic framework for how monitoring programs can be developed and describes the planning and arrangement of a Norwegian monitoring campaign. The methodology aims to make it possible to establish a data-driven decision making process based on monitored decay related to climate change. This monitoring campaign includes 45 medieval buildings distributed over the entirety of Norway. Thirty-five of these buildings are dated to before 1537 and include wooden buildings as well as 10 medieval churches built in stone while the remaining 10 buildings are situated in the World Heritage sites of Bryggen, in Bergen on the west coast of Norway, and in Røros, which is a mining town in the inland of the country. The monitoring is planned to run for 30 to 50 years. It includes a zero-level registration and an interval-based registration system focused on relevant indicators, which will make it possible to register climate change-induced decay at an early stage.

Keywords
climate change, long-term monitoring, Norwegian protected buildings, medieval buildings, zero status, warning report
National Category
Engineering and Technology Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364968 (URN)10.3390/geosciences8100370 (DOI)000448548800016 ()
Available from: 2018-11-07 Created: 2018-11-07 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Leijonhufvud, G. & Broström, T. (2018). Standardizing the indoor climate in historic buildings: opportunities, challenges and ways forward. Journal of Architectural Conservation, 24(1), 3-18
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Standardizing the indoor climate in historic buildings: opportunities, challenges and ways forward
2018 (English)In: Journal of Architectural Conservation, ISSN 1355-6207, E-ISSN 2326-6384, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 3-18Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Standardization for indoor climate control in historic buildings has recently taken a new direction with standards and guidelines that focus more on decision processes than outcomes. The objective of the paper is to explore and discuss how standards can evolve to both fit and guide decision processes to facilitate a sustainable management of historic buildings. Interviews with engineers and heritage professionals in the Church of Sweden in combination with indoor climate monitoring were used to understand the technical and organizational context. The results show that the development of process standards solves some of the problems related to the conventional outcome-oriented approach by opening up for a wider set of solutions. However, available guidelines are difficult to apply and integrate in the existing management of churches. A stronger focus on strategic feedback and an increased use of local guidelines are suggested.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018
Keywords
Indoor climate control, process standards, knowledge sharing, sustainable management
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Architecture
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357770 (URN)10.1080/13556207.2018.1447301 (DOI)000434334900002 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 226973
Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-05-15Bibliographically approved
Leijonhufvud, G., Tunefalk, M. & Legnér, M. (2018). What’s behind the façade?: A long-term assessment of the Swedish energy efficiency programme 1977–1984 and its impact on built heritage. In: T. Broström, L. Nilsen, S. Carlsten (Ed.), The 3rdInternational Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: . Paper presented at EEHB2018. The Third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, 26-27 September, 2018, Visby, Sweden (pp. 191-198). Visby, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What’s behind the façade?: A long-term assessment of the Swedish energy efficiency programme 1977–1984 and its impact on built heritage
2018 (English)In: The 3rdInternational Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings / [ed] T. Broström, L. Nilsen, S. Carlsten, Visby, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 191-198Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Energy ef ciency policies might have a negative impact on the heritage values of buildings, an issue widely recognized in Sweden during and after the extensive energy ef ciency programme ‘Energy savings plan for existing buildings’ (EBB 1977–84). The purpose of this paper is to assess the long-term impact of the EBB on an urban district in Gävle, Sweden. The district comprises 69 single- and multi-family detached houses built between the 1920’s and 1950’s. Using archival sources and field studies we describe how the buildings have been modified and trace the role of the EBB on the district as a whole. The results show that despite that the EBB has had a major impact on the district, it is difficult to disentangle its role in relation to other factors. The study raises concerns over the common approach in policy making to draw distinct lines in the sand between heritage and non-heritage buildings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Visby: , 2018
Keywords
conservation; historic buildings; energy ef ciency policy; program evaluation; energy retro t
National Category
Architecture History
Research subject
Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361348 (URN)
Conference
EEHB2018. The Third International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings, 26-27 September, 2018, Visby, Sweden
Projects
En granskning av tidigare styrmedel för energieffektivisering i byggnader och deras effekter på energianvändning och kulturhistoriska värden 1974-2014
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P40417-1
Available from: 2018-09-23 Created: 2018-09-23 Last updated: 2019-05-27Bibliographically approved
Wessberg, M., Leijonhufvud, G. & Broström, T. (2016). An evaluation of three different methods for energy efficient indoor climate control in Skokloster Castle. In: y Michael de Bouw, Samuel Dubois, Liesbeth Dekeyser and Yves Vanhellemont (Ed.), Proceedings EECHB-2016: Energy Efficiency and Comfort of Historic Buildings. Paper presented at EECHB 2016, 2nd international conference on Energy Efficiency and Comfort of Historic Buildings,October 19-21,2016, Brussels, Belgium (pp. 144-150). Bryssel: Flanders Heritage Agency
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An evaluation of three different methods for energy efficient indoor climate control in Skokloster Castle
2016 (English)In: Proceedings EECHB-2016: Energy Efficiency and Comfort of Historic Buildings / [ed] y Michael de Bouw, Samuel Dubois, Liesbeth Dekeyser and Yves Vanhellemont, Bryssel: Flanders Heritage Agency , 2016, p. 144-150Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

 Climate change is expected to result in a warmer and more humid climate in northern Europe. Historic buildings with none or primitive climate control will face higher risk of bio-deterioration – mainly due to mould, rot and insects. There is a lack of experience of how different methods for energy efficient indoor climate control compare to each other in practical applications. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the relative performance of conservation heating, dehumidification and adaptive ventilation in a historic building. The investigation was carried out during three years at Skokloster, an unheated Baroque castle in Sweden suffering from problems due to high indoor relative humidity. The results show that the initial draught proofing of the rooms had a positive effect on the indoor climate which reduced the need for active climate control. Dehumidification was the most energy efficient method

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bryssel: Flanders Heritage Agency, 2016
Keywords
Adaptive ventilation, dehumidification, conservation heating, preventive conservation, mould
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337703 (URN)
Conference
EECHB 2016, 2nd international conference on Energy Efficiency and Comfort of Historic Buildings,October 19-21,2016, Brussels, Belgium
Available from: 2018-01-03 Created: 2018-01-03 Last updated: 2018-03-02Bibliographically approved
Leijonhufvud, G. (2016). Making sense of climate risk information: The case of future indoor climate risks in Swedish churches. Climate Risk Management, 13, 76-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making sense of climate risk information: The case of future indoor climate risks in Swedish churches
2016 (English)In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 13, p. 76-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organizations and institutions managing built heritage have to make use of increasingly detailed, elaborate and complex climate change impact assessments. It is a challenge to determine how, when and by whom climate predictions should be translated into risk estimates usable for decision-making. In this paper results from the Climate for Culture project are used to study how heritage decision-makers interpret future indoor climate-related risks to Swedish churches. Different sets of risk maps were presented to ten engineers, ten building conservators and five experts on indoor climate related risks. Interviews were used to understand how the interviewees made sense of the presented information and if they associated it with a perceived need for adaptation. The results show that the risks were interpreted and assessed largely dependent on their pre-understanding and familiarity with the individual risks. The magnitude of change and the lack of uncertainty estimates were subordinate to the overall impression of the information as being credible and salient. The major conclusion is that the dissemination of risk information, also from projects which at the outset have aimed at producing knowledge relevant for end-users, should be both customized and tested in collaborative efforts by stakeholders and scientists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Risk communication, Cultural heritage management, Sensemaking, Adaptation
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-306947 (URN)10.1016/j.crm.2016.05.003 (DOI)000390813100007 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 226973 FP7-ENV-2008-1
Available from: 2016-11-07 Created: 2016-11-07 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Leijonhufvud, G. & Henning, A. (2014). Rethinking indoor climate control in historic buildings: The importance of negotiated priorities and discursive hegemony at a Swedish museum. Energy Research & Social Science, 4(0), 117-123
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rethinking indoor climate control in historic buildings: The importance of negotiated priorities and discursive hegemony at a Swedish museum
2014 (English)In: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, Vol. 4, no 0, p. 117-123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Abstract Much effort has in recent years been directed to support sustainable indoor climate control strategies in historic buildings. In this paper we show the necessity to complement the dominant technical approaches with research that take a wider interest in specific contexts, social practices, and negotiated decisions. The objective of the paper is to illustrate how the interactions between perceptions and experiences of different professional groups are pivotal for the management of the indoor climate. An ethnographic study of decision making in an historic house museum was carried out in 2009 and 2012. Interviews were made with individuals who either took part in management or were affected by the indoor climate. The findings show how discussions among social actors and the way their respective priorities are negotiated are essential features of the management of the indoor climate and have a strong impact on the ability to modify it. It turns out that a hegemonic discourse about preservation as the dominant rationale for indoor climate control in tandem with “acceptable” conditions with respect to preservation have reinforced a state of stability. This explorative study opens up for a re-framing of how a more sustainable management of historic buildings can be achieved.

Keywords
Environmental management, Decision making, Practices, Preventive conservation
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240317 (URN)10.1016/j.erss.2014.10.005 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-01-07 Created: 2015-01-07 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Leijonhufvud, G., Kjellström, E., Broström, T., Ashley-Smith, J. & Camuffo, D. (2013). Uncertainties in damage assessments of future indoor climates. In: Ashley-Smith, Jonathan and Burmester, Andreas and Eibl, Melanie (Ed.), Climate for Collections - Standards and Uncertainties: . Paper presented at Postprints of the Munich Climate Conference 7 to 9 November 2012 (pp. 405-418). Munich
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Uncertainties in damage assessments of future indoor climates
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2013 (English)In: Climate for Collections - Standards and Uncertainties / [ed] Ashley-Smith, Jonathan and Burmester, Andreas and Eibl, Melanie, Munich, 2013, p. 405-418Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A significant amount of uncertainty is generated in the processof combining projections of future climate, building simulationsand damage functions to produce risk maps for historic buildings.The objective of this paper is to identify and qualitatively describethe main uncertainties in the production of such maps. The mainsources of uncertainty for each modeling step are identified. It isconcluded that the level of uncertainty in risk maps is so high thatdeterministic approaches have severe limitations, and that furtherresearch is needed to assess the levels of uncertainty introducedby each modeling step.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Munich: , 2013
Keywords
Damage functions, Climate change, Risk maps, Uncertainty
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Building Conservation (HGO)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-219931 (URN)978-1-909492-00-4 (ISBN)
Conference
Postprints of the Munich Climate Conference 7 to 9 November 2012
Projects
Climate for Culture
Available from: 2014-03-07 Created: 2014-03-07 Last updated: 2016-11-14
Bjurman, J. & Leijonhufvud, G. (2012). An analysis of microclimate differences leading to sporadic mould growth in Skokloster Castle, an unheated historic building. In: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 2011. Paper presented at Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 2011 (pp. 236-244). Gotland University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of microclimate differences leading to sporadic mould growth in Skokloster Castle, an unheated historic building
2012 (English)In: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 2011, Gotland University Press, 2012, p. 236-244Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mould growth has repeatedly occurred in Skokloster Castle over the years. Visible mould was also found during a survey in September 2010. Mould has been found sporadically on walls, books and tapestries and behind paintings and within furniture in parts of the castle. Work is presented on the attempted correlation of incidence of mould growth and indoor climate recorded mainly during one year, from July 2008 to August 2009. The indoor climate is influenced to a high extent by the outdoor climate but is clearly improved by the influence of the building envelope. The absolute humidity is almost the same in the whole castle. Temperature differences between rooms are therefore decisive for the recorded differences in RH. Recorded RH differences could partly explain the location of mould growth. The results are discussed in relation to current models describing the critical levels of RH, temperature and substrates supporting mould growth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Gotland University Press, 2012
Series
Gotland University Press, ISSN 1653-7424 ; 15
National Category
Building Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hgo:diva-1437 (URN)978-91-86343-11-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 2011
Available from: 2012-06-05 Created: 2012-06-05 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
Leijonhufvud, G. & Broström, T. (2012). Decision-making on Climate Control for Energy Efficiency and Conservation in Historic Buildings. In: Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen (Ed.), Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 2011. Paper presented at Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings Visby, February 9–11, 2011 (pp. 70-80). Visby: Gotland University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decision-making on Climate Control for Energy Efficiency and Conservation in Historic Buildings
2012 (English)In: Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings: Postprints from the Conference : Visby, February 9–11, 2011 / [ed] Tor Broström, Lisa Nilsen, Visby: Gotland University Press, 2012, p. 70-80Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A conceptual framework for decision-making about indoor climate control inhistoric buildings is suggested and discussed. Ideas developed in environmentaldecision making are discussed, and it is argued that the two fields share a set offundamental characteristics that make the transfer of ideas legitimate. It is alsosuggested that an improved decision process is a necessary, although not sufficient,step towards sustainable management.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Visby: Gotland University Press, 2012
Series
Gotland University Press, ISSN 1653-7424 ; 15
National Category
Building Technologies
Research subject
Conservation
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hgo:diva-1436 (URN)978-91-86343-11-8 (ISBN)
Conference
Energy Efficiency in Historic Buildings Visby, February 9–11, 2011
Available from: 2012-06-05 Created: 2012-06-05 Last updated: 2017-01-25Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2546-0981

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