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Martin, Benjamin GeorgeORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3180-2973
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Martin, B. G. (2018). Charting the ’Culture’ of Cultural Treaties: Digital Humanities approaches to the history of international ideas. In: : . Paper presented at Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries, 3rd Conference (7-9 March 2018, Helsinki).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Charting the ’Culture’ of Cultural Treaties: Digital Humanities approaches to the history of international ideas
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Cultural treaties are the bi-lateral or sometimes multilateral agreements among states that promote and regulate cooperation and exchange in the fields of life we call cultural or intellectual. Pioneered by France just after World War I, this type of treaty represents a distinctive technology of modern international relations, a tool in the toolkit of public diplomacy, a vector of “soft power.” One goal of a comparative examination of these treaties is to locate them in the history of public diplomacy and in the broader history of culture and power in the international arena. But these treaties can also serve as sources for the study of what the historian David Armitage has called “the intellectual history of the international.” In this project, I use digital humanities methods to approach cultural treaties as a historical source with which to explore the emergence of a global concept of culture in the twentieth century. Specifically, the project will investigate the hypothesis that the culture concept, in contrast to earlier ideas of civilization, played a key role in the consolidation of the post-World War II international order.

I approach the topic by charting how concepts of culture were given form in the system of international treaties between 1919 (when the first such treaty was signed) and 1972 (when UNESCO’s Convention on cultural heritage marked the “arrival” of a global embrace of the culture concept), studying them with the large-scale, quantitative methods of the digital humanities, as well as with the tools of textual and conceptual analysis associated with the study of intellectual history. In my paper for DH Nordic 2018, I will outline the topic, goals, and methods of the project, focusing on the ways we (that is, my colleagues at Umeå University’s HUMlab and I) seek to apply DH approaches to this study of global intellectual history.

The project uses computer-assisted quantitative analysis to analyze and visualize how cultural treaties contributed to the spread of cultural concepts and to the development of transnational cultural networks. We explore the source material offered by these treaties by approaching it as two distinct data sets. First, to chart the emergence of an international system of cultural treaties, we use quantitative analysis of the basic information, or “metadata” (countries, date, topic) from the complete set of treaties on cultural matters between 1919 and 1972, approximately 1250 documents. Our source for this information is the World Treaty Index (www.worldtreatyindex.com). This data can also help identify historical patterns in the emergence of a global network of bilateral cultural treaties. Once mapped, these networks will allow me to pose interesting questions by comparing them to any number of other transnational systems. How, for example, does the map of cultural agreements compare to that of trade treaties, military alliances, or to the transnational flows of cultural goods, capital, or migrants?

Second, to identify the development of concepts, we will observe the changing use of key terms through quantitative analysis of the treaty texts. By treating a large group of cultural treaties as several distinct text corpora and, perhaps, as a single text corpus, we will be able explore the treaties using textometry and topic modeling. The treaty texts (digital versions of most which can be found online) will be limited to four subsets: a) Britain, France, and Italy, 1919-1972; b) India, 1947-1972; c) the German Reich (1919-1945) and the two German successor states (1949-1972); and d) UNESCO’s multilateral conventions (1945-1972). This selection is designed to approach a global perspective while taking into account practical factors, such as language and accessibility. Our use of text analysis seeks (a) to offer insight into the changing usage and meanings of concepts like “culture” and “civilization”; (b) to identify which key areas of cultural activity were regulated by the treaties over time and by world region; and (c) to clarify whether “culture” was used in a broad, anthropological sense, or in a narrower sense to refer to the realm of arts, music, and literature. This aspect of the project raises interesting challenges, for example regarding how best to manipulate a multi-lingual text corpus (with texts in English, French, and German, at least).

In these ways, the project seeks to contribute to our understanding of how the concept of culture that guides today’s international society developed. It also explores how digital tools can help us ask (and eventually answer) questions in the field of global intellectual history.

Keywords
culture concept, international society, digital humanities, intellectual history
National Category
History Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
History of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346775 (URN)
Conference
Digital Humanities in the Nordic Countries, 3rd Conference (7-9 March 2018, Helsinki)
Projects
The Culture of International Relations (funded by Riksbankens jubileumsfond, 2017-2020)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P16-0900:1
Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Martin, B. (2018). International legal cooperation in the Nazi-fascist New Order. International Politics, 55(6), 870-887
Open this publication in new window or tab >>International legal cooperation in the Nazi-fascist New Order
2018 (English)In: International Politics, ISSN 1384-5748, E-ISSN 1740-3898, Vol. 55, no 6, p. 870-887Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

In the interwar history of the discipline of international law, the Nazi period was apparently nothing more than what Martti Koskenniemi calls a ‘dark gap.’ But the same cannot be said about international organizing in the law under Hitler. After reaching out to like-minded foreign jurists throughout the 1930s, Nazi jurists launched an international legal institution in 1939. Officially founded in1941, the International Law Chamber (Internationale Rechtskammer) created an international professional association that gathered jurists from across Europe in a transnational network, but one that rejected the liberal and universalist premises of international law. Instead, the organization used the ‘soft power’ of international intellectual exchange to promote a regional-European, anti-liberal, and fascist-corporatist vision of international legal order. During World War II, Nazi jurists used this network to pursue legal integration among the allied and conquered states included in Hitler’s eme rging European empire, thereby helping to build the Nazi ‘New Order’ in Europe.

Keywords
International law, National Socialism, Fascism, International cooperation, European integration
National Category
History
Research subject
History; History of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346771 (URN)10.1057/s41311-017-0107-z (DOI)
Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2018-11-02
Martin, B. G. (2017). Alessio Ponzio. Shaping the New Man: Youth Training Regimes in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany [Review]. American Historical Review, 122(5), 1700-1701
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alessio Ponzio. Shaping the New Man: Youth Training Regimes in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany
2017 (English)In: American Historical Review, ISSN 0002-8762, E-ISSN 1937-5239, Vol. 122, no 5, p. 1700-1701Article, book review (Other academic) Published
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347719 (URN)10.1093/ahr/122.5.1700 (DOI)000418687600138 ()
Available from: 2018-04-06 Created: 2018-04-06 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Martin, B. (2017). ‘European culture’ is an invented tradition. Aeon (online)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>‘European culture’ is an invented tradition
2017 (English)In: Aeon (online)Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.)) Published
Abstract [en]

An essay on the twentieth-century birth of the idea of "European culture" in Aeon, the online magazine of ideas.

European intellectuals' "attachment to European distinctiveness led to an embrace and celebration of something else, something almost ineffable, that neither the US nor the USSR could ever claim: that was ‘European culture’."

Keywords
Idea of Europe, European culture, cultural history, intellectual history, cosmopolitanism
National Category
History Other Humanities not elsewhere specified
Research subject
History of Sciences and Ideas; History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346864 (URN)
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-04-18Bibliographically approved
Martin, B. G. (2017). Fascist Italy’s Illiberal Cultural Networks: Culture, Corporatism and International Relations. In: : . Paper presented at Genealogie e geografie dell’anti-democrazia nella crisi europea degli anni Trenta: fascismi, corporativismi, laburismi”, Università Ca’ Foscari, Venice, Italy (23-24 November 2017).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fascist Italy’s Illiberal Cultural Networks: Culture, Corporatism and International Relations
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keywords
Italy, fascism, corporatism, cultural history, international relations
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346926 (URN)
Conference
Genealogie e geografie dell’anti-democrazia nella crisi europea degli anni Trenta: fascismi, corporativismi, laburismi”, Università Ca’ Foscari, Venice, Italy (23-24 November 2017)
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-03-22
Martin, B. G. (2017). Interpreting the Axis through the History of International Cultural Relations: Centers and Peripheries in the Global Geopolitics of Culture. In: : . Paper presented at The Axis Alliance in Global Perspective, Universität Konstanz, Germany (7-10 June 2017).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interpreting the Axis through the History of International Cultural Relations: Centers and Peripheries in the Global Geopolitics of Culture
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keywords
Germany, Italy, Japan, Axis, cultural history, world-system theory
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346925 (URN)
Conference
The Axis Alliance in Global Perspective, Universität Konstanz, Germany (7-10 June 2017)
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-03-22
Martin, B. G. (2017). Review of Alessio Ponzio. Shaping the New Man: Youth Training Regimes in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany [Review]. American Historical Review, 122(5), 1700-1701
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Review of Alessio Ponzio. Shaping the New Man: Youth Training Regimes in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany
2017 (English)In: American Historical Review, ISSN 0002-8762, E-ISSN 1937-5239, Vol. 122, no 5, p. 1700-1701Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Keywords
fascism, National Socialism, youth politics
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346772 (URN)10.1093/ahr/122.5.1700 (DOI)
Note

Madison: Univ of Wisconsin Press, 2015

Available from: 2018-03-21 Created: 2018-03-21 Last updated: 2018-04-19Bibliographically approved
Martin, B. G. (2017). Sveriges plats i Hitlers kulturella ’Neuordnung’. In: : . Paper presented at Svenska historikermötet, Mittuniversitet, Sundsvall, 10-12 may 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sveriges plats i Hitlers kulturella ’Neuordnung’
2017 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keywords
Swedish cinema, Nazi Germany, cultural history, international cooperation
National Category
History Studies on Film
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346924 (URN)
Conference
Svenska historikermötet, Mittuniversitet, Sundsvall, 10-12 may 2017
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-03-22
Martin, B. G. (2017). The Culture of International Society: Charting the Emergence of a Global Concept of Culture through Europe’s Cultural Treaties. In: : . Paper presented at Fourth Mellon Biennial Zuckermann Conference, Columbia University, New York (6-7 April 2017).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Culture of International Society: Charting the Emergence of a Global Concept of Culture through Europe’s Cultural Treaties
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Keywords
international relations, culture concept, cultural treaties, digital humanities
National Category
History
Research subject
History of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346923 (URN)
Conference
Fourth Mellon Biennial Zuckermann Conference, Columbia University, New York (6-7 April 2017)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P16-0900:1
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-03-22
Martin, B. G. (2017). The Culture of International Society: Charting the Emergence of a Global Concept of Culture through Europe’s Cultural Treaties. In: : . Paper presented at Idéhistoria på gång, Göteborgs universitet (30 november-1 december 2017).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Culture of International Society: Charting the Emergence of a Global Concept of Culture through Europe’s Cultural Treaties
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Keywords
culture concept, international relations, digital humanities
National Category
History Other Humanities
Research subject
History of Sciences and Ideas
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346927 (URN)
Conference
Idéhistoria på gång, Göteborgs universitet (30 november-1 december 2017)
Projects
Kulturen i den internationella världsordningen (RJ-projekt 2017-2020)
Funder
Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, P16-0900:1
Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-03-22
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3180-2973

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