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Larsson, E. (2019). A pedagogical revolution at grassroots level: The introduction and early spread of the monitorial system in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at NERA 2019: Education in a globalized world, Uppsala 6-8 march 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A pedagogical revolution at grassroots level: The introduction and early spread of the monitorial system in Sweden
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

‘The monitorial system’ and ‘mutual instruction’ are two of the terms used for the new teaching methods that were developed separately by Andrew Bell in India and Joseph Lancaster in England in around 1800. These methods spread rapidly around the world, and in just a couple of decades they were practised worldwide (Caruso & Vera 2005; Tschurenev 2008). Bell’s and Lancaster’s methods had in common the fact that one teacher used the best pupils as helpers – socalled monitors. Thereby it was possible for one teacher to teach hundreds of pupils at the same time (Kaestle 1974). In Sweden, these teaching methods became known in 1810, but it was not until 1817 that the teacher Peter (Per) Reinhold Svensson was sent to England by the Swedish government to learn more about the monitorial system. Thereafter monitorial education spread throughout Sweden under the name of växelundervisning, and in 1822 the Society for the Promotion of Monitorial Education (Sällskapet för växelundervisningens befrämjande) was formed. In 1824, the monitorial system had reached such recognition in Sweden that following a royal resolution it became the recommended method for teaching in Swedish elementary schools (Nordin 1974). In this paper I will examine the introduction and early spread of the monitorial system in Sweden. This has not been done systematically before, despite the fact that several investigations has dealt with the introduction and/or the spread of the monitorial system in Sweden (Nordin 1974; Hodacs 2003; Neidenmark 2011; Larsson 2014). The thing that distinguishes this investigation from previous studies is its focus on the very first spread of the monitorial system in Sweden, prior to the formation of the Society for the Promotion of Monitorial Education. Drawing on documents in the archive from the society describing the introduction of the monitorial system in the first 30 monitorial schools in Sweden the paper can show that the introduction of the monitorial system in Sweden was not just the result of a decision of the Royal Majesty to send Svensson to England. Although Svensson began using the monitorial system in the school where he taught, the monitorial system was also introduced around the same time in two other schools in Norrköping and Gothenburg. These schools were in turn the result of an import of ideas from France and Denmark. The monitorial system then continued to spread throughout the country from these three original schools. The spread seems to have occurred as a result of people visiting or by parishes sending a teacher to one of these schools to learn more about the new teaching methods. As new monitorial schools started they could also function as inspiration for others planning to start schools in surrounding parishes. This shows that the introduction of the monitorial system in Sweden was not the result of any government decision, but rather part of a kind of grassroots movement involving rich philanthropists, the local clergy and teachers.

Keywords
History of Education, dissemination of ideas, the monitorial system
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-378943 (URN)
Conference
NERA 2019: Education in a globalized world, Uppsala 6-8 march 2019
Available from: 2019-03-11 Created: 2019-03-11 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Karlsson Sjögren, Å., Larsson, E. & Rimm, S. (2019). Agents and subjects: schooling and conceptions of citizenship in early nineteenth-century Sweden. History of Education, 48(3), 297-316
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Agents and subjects: schooling and conceptions of citizenship in early nineteenth-century Sweden
2019 (English)In: History of Education, ISSN 0046-760X, E-ISSN 1464-5130, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 297-316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article aims to analyse how the emerging Swedish school system in the early nineteenth century can be understood within the context of a gradual break-up of the estate society and its replacement with a class society in which citizenship was an important foundation. This is done through the discussion of the conceptions of citizenship on two levels. The first is the national level, focusing the national debate on education, and the second is the local level, investigating the local schools and the school setting. The main result is that the conceptions of citizenship in the school context were formed along two major lines: an inclusive social and civil citizenship and an exclusive, active and political citizenship. Consequently, the emerging Swedish school system simultaneously fostered these two citizenship conceptions, which coexisted in an educational system that was able to cast pupils as either subjects (comprehensive citizenship) or agents (designated citizenship).

Keywords
citizenship, gender, class, school system, medborgarskap, kön, klass, undervisningsväsende
National Category
History Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379873 (URN)10.1080/0046760X.2018.1541482 (DOI)000461870600002 ()
Projects
Segregation och integration. Genus, klass och medborgarskap i svenskt undervisningsväsende, ca 1800-1850 (Vr 721−2013−1228)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721−2013−1228
Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-05-07Bibliographically approved
Larsson, E. (2019). Boys and Girls in the Service of Total War: Defense Service Training in Swedish Schools During World War II. In: Honeck, Mischa & Marten, James (Ed.), War and Childhood in the Era of the Two World Wars: (pp. 113-127). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boys and Girls in the Service of Total War: Defense Service Training in Swedish Schools During World War II
2019 (English)In: War and Childhood in the Era of the Two World Wars / [ed] Honeck, Mischa & Marten, James, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 113-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019
Series
Publications of the German Historical Institute
Keywords
Social and Population History, Twentieth Century European History, History, Twentieth Century Regional History, History of Education, Military History, History of Childhood and Youth, Gender History, Defense Service Training
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377995 (URN)10.1017/9781108671965.007 (DOI)978-1-108-47853-3 (ISBN)9781108671965 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-02-28 Created: 2019-02-28 Last updated: 2019-04-29Bibliographically approved
Larsson, E. (2019). Problemet med vinster [Review]. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 139(1), 152-154
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Problemet med vinster
2019 (Swedish)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 139, no 1, p. 152-154Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SVENSKA HISTORISKA FORENINGEN, 2019
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-382027 (URN)000462100100021 ()
Available from: 2019-04-24 Created: 2019-04-24 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Larsson, E. (2018). Hyddans son i ett framväxande parallellskolesystem: Skolavgifter och försörjningskrav vid de svenska allmänna skolorna under 1800-talets första hälft. Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, 102(2), 133-144
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hyddans son i ett framväxande parallellskolesystem: Skolavgifter och försörjningskrav vid de svenska allmänna skolorna under 1800-talets första hälft
2018 (Swedish)In: Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-2052, E-ISSN 1504-2987, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 133-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

I denna artikel studeras förekomsten av och debatten om skolavgifter och andra ekonomiska krav vid svenska allmänna skolor under 1800-talets första hälft, i relation till framväxten av ett parallellskolesystem i Sverige. Undersökningarna visar att det inte fanns någon uttalad strategi att genom avgifter försöka skilja fattiga lärjungar från dessa skolor. De ökade avgifterna hade i stället sin grund i bland annat förändringar av de allmänna skolornas undervisning, som gjorde att det saknades medel för nya lärarlöner. Man skulle därmed kunna hävda att det var den nya medelklassens krav på reformer av undervisningen som bidrog till ökade kostnader för skolgången.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2018
Keywords
utbildningshistoria, skolavgifter, parallellskolesystem
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352236 (URN)10.18261/issn.1504-2987-2018-02-04 (DOI)
Projects
Segregation och integration. Genus, klass och medborgarskap i svenskt undervisningsväsende, ca 1800-1850
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 721−2013−1228
Available from: 2018-06-01 Created: 2018-06-01 Last updated: 2018-09-14Bibliographically approved
Larsson, E. (2018). Introduktionen av flickors värntjänstutbildning under andra världskriget: En studie av förändrade uppfattningar om kvinnors verksamhetssfär i det totala krigets tidsålder. In: Daniel Nyström & Johanna Overud (Ed.), Gender, History, Futures: Report from the XI Nordic Women’s and Gender History Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, August 19–21 2015 (pp. 199-207). Umeå: Sveriges kvinno- och genushistoriker
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduktionen av flickors värntjänstutbildning under andra världskriget: En studie av förändrade uppfattningar om kvinnors verksamhetssfär i det totala krigets tidsålder
2018 (Swedish)In: Gender, History, Futures: Report from the XI Nordic Women’s and Gender History Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, August 19–21 2015 / [ed] Daniel Nyström & Johanna Overud, Umeå: Sveriges kvinno- och genushistoriker , 2018, p. 199-207Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Umeå: Sveriges kvinno- och genushistoriker, 2018
Series
Sveriges kvinno- och genushistorikers skriftserie / Report Series of the Swedish Association for Women's and Gender Historians ; 2
Keywords
genushistoria, andra världskriget, värntjänstutbildning, gymnastikundervisning, scoutrörelsen
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352858 (URN)978-91-7601-848-4 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-06-08 Created: 2018-06-08 Last updated: 2018-06-12Bibliographically approved
Larsson, E. (2018). On the Changing Perceptions of Women’s Role in the Nation’s Defence during the Age of Total War: The Introduction of Defence Service Training for Girls in Sweden during World War II. In: : . Paper presented at Twelfth European Social Science History conference in Belfast, 4-7 April 2018 at Queen's University.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the Changing Perceptions of Women’s Role in the Nation’s Defence during the Age of Total War: The Introduction of Defence Service Training for Girls in Sweden during World War II
2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper investigates the introduction of defence service training for girls in Sweden during World War II. Drawing on earlier research into both women’s military work and defence service training for school children during World War II, which has shown that women participated in the defence of Sweden as air surveillance personnel and girls in Swedish secondary schools were trained in scouting for targets, writing reports and to serve as dispatch messengers, the paper investigates the origin of the latter exercises in training for girls.

As shown in this paper exercises in moving in the terrain and making observations without getting detected were introduced in the Swedish secondary schools’ physical education for both girls and boys already in 1935, when it was still unthinkable that Swedish women would be used as air surveillance personnel in the event of war. During World War II these exercises were singled out as a suitable preparation for the actual defence service exercises in schools.

An in-depth analysis of the development of the defence service training program in the Swedish secondary schools also shows that the scout movement's activities were an important source of inspiration, even though the Swedish scout organizations were against the introduction of defence service training in schools. Similar, and sometimes more advanced exercises, as the ones that were introduced as a part of the secondary schools’ physical education in 1935 were also included in the Swedish girl scouts training program as early as in the 1920s.

In light of these findings, this paper tries to problematize how the change in the perception of women’s role in military work came about as a result of the outbreak of the Second World War.

Keywords
Gender, Female military work, Defence Service Training, Girl Scouts, Physical education
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-347671 (URN)
Conference
Twelfth European Social Science History conference in Belfast, 4-7 April 2018 at Queen's University
Available from: 2018-04-05 Created: 2018-04-05 Last updated: 2018-04-06Bibliographically approved
Larsson, E. (2018). Pretend wars: Notions of war, masculinity and history in 200 years of wargames [Review]. Historisk Tidskrift (S), 138(4), 724-730
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pretend wars: Notions of war, masculinity and history in 200 years of wargames
2018 (English)In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 138, no 4, p. 724-730Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Svenska Historiska Föreningen, 2018
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-375615 (URN)000454663800010 ()
Available from: 2019-01-31 Created: 2019-01-31 Last updated: 2019-01-31Bibliographically approved
Larsson, E. & Westberg, J. (2018). The Child as a Voucher?: The Marketization of the Swedish Preschools. In: : . Paper presented at ISCHE 40 EDUCATION AND NATURE, BERLIN, AUGUST 29 - SEPT 1 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Child as a Voucher?: The Marketization of the Swedish Preschools
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Swedish early childhood education has gone through a tremendous expansion since the 1970s. This massive expansion coincided with some significant changes in how early childhood education was conducted. Apart from a “schoolification” of the content in Swedish early childhood education (from primarily being a kind of day-care into more of a preschool education) the sphere of early childhood education also went through a significant change in how preschools were organized and funded. The latter process can be described as a marketization of Swedish preschools, which is one of the main focuses of the research project “The First Choice: The Expansion of Preschool, its Marketization and Increased Importance for Families’ Educational Strategies” (http://www.edu.uu.se/research/shed/projects/firstchoice/)

In this paper we will examine the emergence of the conditions for a Swedish preschool market by analyzing three different political decisions in the 1980s, 1990s and the 2000s, which included a ban on profit-making preschools (1984), a waiver of the ban (1991), and the introduction of a kind of childcare voucher that allows Swedish parents to freely choose preschool for their children (2009). The study is based mainly on analyzes of parliamentary debates, but it also makes use of the extensive newspaper debate in connection with the decisions in parliament.

Our paper will focus on how the nature of preschool children and their education was discussed in these debates. Our paper will be guided by the hypothesis that the marketization of the preschool sector also implied changing visions of children and their education, whereby children were portrayed as rational agents responding to their environment, and as economic resources that enables an efficient resource distribution of the Swedish government’s resources.

Keywords
Preschools, Marketization, Vouchers, Lex Pysslingen, Förskolor, marknadisering, skolpeng, Lex Pysslingen
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358546 (URN)
Conference
ISCHE 40 EDUCATION AND NATURE, BERLIN, AUGUST 29 - SEPT 1 2018
Projects
Det första valet: förskolans expansion, marknadisering och ökade betydelse i familjers utbildningsstrategier
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-03542
Available from: 2018-08-30 Created: 2018-08-30 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Larsson, E. (2017). Att disciplinera adeln: En studie av maktutövning vid Kungl. Krigsakademien på Karlbergs slott. In: Marie Lennersand & Leos Müller (Ed.), Från Afrikakompaniet till Tokyo: En vänbok till György Nováky (pp. 176-200). Stockholm: Bokförlaget Exkurs
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Att disciplinera adeln: En studie av maktutövning vid Kungl. Krigsakademien på Karlbergs slott
2017 (Swedish)In: Från Afrikakompaniet till Tokyo: En vänbok till György Nováky / [ed] Marie Lennersand & Leos Müller, Stockholm: Bokförlaget Exkurs , 2017, p. 176-200Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Bokförlaget Exkurs, 2017
Keywords
militärhistoria, utbildningshistoria, Foucault, disciplinering
National Category
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337067 (URN)978-91-7773-394-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-12-20 Created: 2017-12-20 Last updated: 2018-03-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6803-4010

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