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Maibach, Julia
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Naylor, A. J., Makkos, E., Maibach, J., Guerrini, N., Sobkowiak, A., Björklund, E., . . . Bruce, P. G. (2019). Depth-dependent oxygen redox activity in lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes. Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 7(44), 25355-25368
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depth-dependent oxygen redox activity in lithium-rich layered oxide cathodes
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry A, ISSN 2050-7488, Vol. 7, no 44, p. 25355-25368Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lithium-rich materials, such as Li1.2Ni0.2Mn0.6O2, exhibit capacities not limited by transition metal redox, through the reversible oxidation of oxide anions. Here we offer detailed insight into the degree of oxygen redox as a function of depth within the material as it is charged and cycled. Energy-tuned photoelectron spectroscopy is used as a powerful, yet highly sensitive technique to probe electronic states of oxygen and transition metals from the top few nanometers at the near-surface through to the bulk of the particles. Two discrete oxygen species are identified, On− and O2−, where n < 2, confirming our previous model that oxidation generates localised hole states on O upon charging. This is in contrast to the oxygen redox inactive high voltage spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, for which no On− species is detected. The depth profile results demonstrate a concentration gradient exists for On− from the surface through to the bulk, indicating a preferential surface oxidation of the layered oxide particles. This is highly consistent with the already well-established core–shell model for such materials. Ab initio calculations reaffirm the electronic structure differences observed experimentally between the surface and bulk, while modelling of delithiated structures shows good agreement between experimental and calculated binding energies for On−.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-399616 (URN)10.1039/C9TA09019C (DOI)000498556500014 ()
Available from: 2019-12-13 Created: 2019-12-13 Last updated: 2019-12-18Bibliographically approved
Maibach, J., Källquist, I., Andersson, M., Urpelainen, S., Edström, K., Rensmo, H., . . . Hahlin, M. (2019). Probing a battery electrolyte drop with ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy. Nature Communications, 10, Article ID 3080.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Probing a battery electrolyte drop with ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy
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2019 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 3080Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Operando ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy in realistic battery environments is a key development towards probing the functionality of the electrode/electrolyte interface in lithium-ion batteries that is not possible with conventional photoelectron spectroscopy. Here, we present the ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of a model electrolyte based on 1M bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide lithium salt in propylene carbonate. For the first time, we show ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy data of propylene carbonate in the liquid phase by using solvent vapor as the stabilizing environment. This enables us to separate effects from salt and solvent, and to characterize changes in electrolyte composition as a function of probing depth. While the bulk electrolyte meets the expected composition, clear accumulation of ionic species is found at the electrolyte surface. Our results show that it is possible to measure directly complex liquids such as battery electrolytes, which is an important accomplishment towards true operando studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019
National Category
Physical Chemistry Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390789 (URN)10.1038/s41467-019-10803-y (DOI)000475295300002 ()31300638 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-03545Swedish Research Council, 2012-4681Swedish Research Council, 2014-6019Swedish Research Council, 2018-06465Swedish Energy Agency, 40495-1StandUpCarl Tryggers foundation
Available from: 2019-08-15 Created: 2019-08-15 Last updated: 2020-02-24Bibliographically approved
Mogensen, R., Maibach, J., Naylor, A. J. & Younesi, R. (2018). Capacity fading mechanism of tin phosphide anodes in sodium-ion batteries. Dalton Transactions, 47(31), 10752-10758
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capacity fading mechanism of tin phosphide anodes in sodium-ion batteries
2018 (English)In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 47, no 31, p. 10752-10758Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tin phosphide (Sn4P3) is here investigated as an anode material in half-cell, symmetrical, and full-cell sodium-ion batteries. Results from the half-cells using two different electrolyte salts of sodium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (NaFSI) or sodium hexafluorophosphate (NaPF6) show that NaFSI provides improved capacity retention but results from symmetrical cells disclose no advantage for either salt. The impact of high and low desodiation cut-off potentials is studied and the results show a drastic increase in capacity retention when using the desodiation cut-off potential of 1.2 V as compared to 2.5 V. This effect is clear for both NaFSI and NaPF6 salts in a 1:1 binary mixture of ethylene carbonate and diethylene carbonate with 10 vol% fluoroethylene carbonate. Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) results revealed that the thickness of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) changed during cycling and that SEI was stripped from tin particles when tin phosphide was charged to 2.5 V with NaPF6 based electrolyte.

National Category
Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-363107 (URN)10.1039/c8dt01068d (DOI)000441151700048 ()29978157 (PubMedID)
Funder
StandUp
Available from: 2018-10-16 Created: 2018-10-16 Last updated: 2018-10-16Bibliographically approved
Rehnlund, D., Ihrfors, C., Maibach, J. & Nyholm, L. (2018). Dendrite-free lithium electrode cycling via controlled nucleation in low LiPF6 concentration electrolytes. Materials Today, 21(10), 1010-1018
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dendrite-free lithium electrode cycling via controlled nucleation in low LiPF6 concentration electrolytes
2018 (English)In: Materials Today, ISSN 1369-7021, E-ISSN 1873-4103, Vol. 21, no 10, p. 1010-1018Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lithium metal electrodes are not widely used in rechargeable batteries as dendritic lithium growth and electrolyte reactions raise serious stability and safety concerns. In this study, we show that reproducible two-dimensional lithium deposition can be realized using a lithium salt concentration of 0.020 M, an added supporting salt, and a short lithium nucleation pulse. This approach, which is common in electrodeposition of metals, increases the lithium nuclei density on the electrode surface and decreases the extent of Li+ migration favoring dendritic lithium growth. Contrary to common belief, ascribing the dendrite problem to heterogeneous lithium nucleation due to an unstable solid electrolyte interphase layer, we show that the main lithium deposition problem stems from the difficulty to obtain two-dimensional deposition at the low lithium deposition overpotentials encountered in conventional high-lithium concentration electrolytes. The present results hence clearly demonstrate that two-dimensional lithium deposition can be realized in lithium-metal-based batteries.

Keywords
Two-dimensional, Metallic nanocrystals, Renewable energy, Electrocatalysis
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372816 (URN)10.1016/j.mattod.2018.08.003 (DOI)000452551100017 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR. 2015-04421StandUp
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-01-14Bibliographically approved
Naylor, A. J., Maibach, J., Källquist, I., Makkos, E., Roberts, M., Younesi, R., . . . Edström, K. (2018). Energy-tuned photoelectron spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery cathodes: revealing oxygen redox activity and investigating new materials. In: ECS Meeting Abstracts MA2018-02 AiMES 2018 Meeting: . Paper presented at ECS AiMES 2018. Cancun, Mexico, September 30 – October 4, 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-tuned photoelectron spectroscopy of lithium-ion battery cathodes: revealing oxygen redox activity and investigating new materials
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2018 (English)In: ECS Meeting Abstracts MA2018-02 AiMES 2018 Meeting, 2018Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-374701 (URN)
Conference
ECS AiMES 2018. Cancun, Mexico, September 30 – October 4, 2018.
Available from: 2019-01-23 Created: 2019-01-23 Last updated: 2019-01-24Bibliographically approved
Jeschull, F., Maibach, J., Félix, R., Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, M., Edström, K., Memm, M. & Brandell, D. (2018). Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) of Water-Processed Graphite Electrodes Examined in a 65 mAh Full Cell Configuration. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 1(10), 5176-5188
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Solid Electrolyte Interphase (SEI) of Water-Processed Graphite Electrodes Examined in a 65 mAh Full Cell Configuration
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2018 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 1, no 10, p. 5176-5188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrode binders, such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC-Na), styrene–butadiene rubber (SBR) and poly(sodium acrylate) (PAA-Na) are commonly applied binder materials for the manufacture of electrodes from aqueous slurries. Their processability in water has considerable advantages over slurries based on N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) considering toxicity, environment and production costs. In this study, water-processed graphite electrodes containing either CMC-Na:SBR, PAA-Na, or CMC-Na:PAA-Na as binders have been prepared on a pilot scale, cycled in graphite||LiFePO4 Li-ion battery cells and analyzed post-mortem with respect to the binder impact on the SEI composition, using in-house (1486.6 eV) and synchrotron-based (2300 eV) photoelectron spectroscopy (PES). The estimated SEI layer thickness was smaller than 11 nm for all samples and decreased in the order: PAA-Na > CMC-Na:SBR > CMC-Na:PAA-Na. The SEI thickness correlates with the surface concentration of CMC-Na, for example, the CMC-Na:PAA-Na mixture showed signs of polymer depletion of the PAA-Na component. The SEI layer components are largely comparable to those formed on a conventional graphite:poly(vinylidene difluoride) (PVdF) electrode. However, the SEI is complemented, by notable amounts of carboxylates and alkoxides, whose formation is favored in water-based negative electrodes. Additionally, more electrolyte salt degradation is observed in formulations comprising PAA-Na. The choice of the binder for the negative electrode had little impact on the surface layer formed on the LiFePO4 positive electrode, except for different contents of sodium salt deposits, as a result of ion migration from the counter electrode.

Keywords
CMC-Na; graphite; HAXPES; Li-ion battery; PAA; XPS
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368482 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.8b00608 (DOI)000458706600011 ()
Available from: 2018-12-05 Created: 2018-12-05 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Farhat, D., Maibach, J., Eriksson, H., Edström, K., Lemordant, D. & Ghamouss, F. (2018). Towards high-voltage Li-ion batteries: Reversible cycling of graphite anodes and Li-ion batteries in adiponitrile-based electrolytes. Electrochimica Acta, 281, 299-311
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards high-voltage Li-ion batteries: Reversible cycling of graphite anodes and Li-ion batteries in adiponitrile-based electrolytes
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2018 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 281, p. 299-311Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Due to their low vapor pressure and their promising electrochemical and thermal stability, N C- (CH2)n-C N dinitriles are proposed as an electrolyte solvent for Li-ion batteries. Adiponitrile (ADN) has substantial advantages, especially for applications requiring high potential cathodes, because it has high electrochemical/thermal stability (up to 6 V vs. Li/Li+, > 120 degrees C). However, to obtain very high voltage batteries, ADN electrolytes must also passivate the anode of the battery. In this work, reversible cycling of graphite in adiponitrile was successfully achieved by adding a few percent of fluoroethylene carbonate allowing the realization of Graphite/NMC Li-ion battery. The battery of specific capacity of 135 mAhh.g(-1) showed a cycling stability for more than 40 cycles. The composition of the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) was determined as a function of the FEC concentration as well as the state of charge of the graphite anode using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) and XPS. With FEC, the SEI layer is thinner and depends on the SOC of the anode, but does not depend on the FEC concentration. SEM characterizations clearly showed that the surface of the anode is completely covered by the SEI layer, regardless of the concentration of FEC. Indeed, 2% of FEC is sufficient to suppress the reduction of adiponitrile which is explained by a specific adsorption of FEC on the graphite anode.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Graphite, Adiponitrile, SEI additives, Li-ion battery, LiTFSI
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-361488 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2018.05.133 (DOI)000439134600033 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 608575
Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2018-09-27Bibliographically approved
Farhat, D., Ghamouss, F., Maibach, J., Edström, K. & Lemordant, D. (2017). Adiponitrile-Lithium Bis(trimethylsulfonyl)imide Solutions as Alkyl Carbonate-free Electrolytes for Li4Ti5O12 (LTO)/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) Li-Ion Batteries. ChemPhysChem, 18(10), 1333-1344
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adiponitrile-Lithium Bis(trimethylsulfonyl)imide Solutions as Alkyl Carbonate-free Electrolytes for Li4Ti5O12 (LTO)/LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) Li-Ion Batteries
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2017 (English)In: ChemPhysChem, ISSN 1439-4235, E-ISSN 1439-7641, Vol. 18, no 10, p. 1333-1344Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, dinitriles (NC(CH2)(n)CN) and especially adiponitrile (ADN, n = 4) have attracted attention as safe electrolyte solvents owing to their chemical stability, high boiling points, high flash points, and low vapor pressure. The good solvation properties of ADN toward lithium salts and its high electrochemical stability (approximate to 6 V vs. Li/Li+) make it suitable for safer Li-ions cells without performance loss. In this study, ADN is used as a single electrolyte solvent with lithium bis(trimethylsulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI). This electrolyte allows the use of aluminium collectors as almost no corrosion occurs at voltages up to 4.2 V. The physicochemical properties of the ADN-LiTFSI electrolyte, such as salt dissolution, conductivity, and viscosity, were determined. The cycling performances of batteries using Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) as the anode and LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC) as the cathode were determined. The results indicate that LTO/NMC batteries exhibit excellent rate capabilities with a columbic efficiency close to 100 %. As an example, cells were able to reach a capacity of 165 mAhg(-1) at 0.1C and a capacity retention of more than 98% after 200 cycles at 0.5 C. In addition, electrodes analyses by SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy after cycling confirming minimal surface changes of the electrodes in the studied battery system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2017
Keywords
adiponitrile, Li-ion batteries, lithium bis(trimethylsulfonyl)imide, Li4Ti5O12 (LTO), LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NMC)
National Category
Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-327150 (URN)10.1002/cphc.201700058 (DOI)000402713200016 ()28231422 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, Hi-C
Available from: 2017-08-25 Created: 2017-08-25 Last updated: 2017-12-30
Lindgren, F., Rehnlund, D., Källquist, I., Nyholm, L., Edström, K., Hahlin, M. & Maibach, J. (2017). Breaking Down a Complex System: Interpreting PES Peak Positions for Cycled Li-ion Battery Electrodes. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 121, 27303-27312
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Breaking Down a Complex System: Interpreting PES Peak Positions for Cycled Li-ion Battery Electrodes
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2017 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 121, p. 27303-27312Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) is an important technique for tracing and understanding the side reactions responsible for decreasing performance of Li-ion batteries. Interpretation of different spectral components is dependent on correct binding energy referencing and for battery electrodes this is highly complex. In this work, we investigate the effect on binding energy reference points in PES in correlation to solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formation, changing electrode potentials and state of charge variations in Li-ion battery electrodes. The results show that components in the SEI have a significantly different binding energy reference point relative to the bulk electrode material (i.e. up to 2 eV). It is also shown that electrode components with electronically insulating/semi-conducting nature are shifted as a function of electrode potential relative to highly conducting materials. Further, spectral changes due to lithiation are highly depending on the nature of the active material and its lithiation mechanism. Finally, a strategy for planning and evaluating PES experiments on battery electrodes is proposed where some materials require careful choice of one or more internal reference points while others may be treated essentially without internal calibration.

National Category
Physical Sciences Inorganic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336952 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b08923 (DOI)000418393900008 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 40495-1EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, Eurolion & HiCSwedish Research Council, 2016-03545VINNOVA, High Voltage ValleyStandUp
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-02-16Bibliographically approved
Mogensen, R., Maibach, J., Brant, W. R., Brandell, D. & Younesi, R. (2017). Evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase on tin phosphide anodes in sodium ion batteries probed by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochimica Acta, 245, 696-704
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolution of the solid electrolyte interphase on tin phosphide anodes in sodium ion batteries probed by hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
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2017 (English)In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 245, p. 696-704Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work the high capacity anode material Sn4P3 for sodium ion batteries is investigated by electrochemical cycling and synchrotron-based hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) in order to elucidate the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) properties during the first 1.5 cycles. The electrochemical properties of tin phosphide (Sn4P3) when used as an anode material are first established in half cells versus metallic sodium in a 1 M NaFSI in EC: DEC electrolyte including 5 vol% FEC as SEI forming additive. The data from these experiments are then used to select the parameters for the samples to be analysed by HAXPES. A concise series of five cycled samples, as well as a soaked and pristine sample, were measured at different states of sodiation after the initial sodiation and after the following full cycle of sodiation and desodiation. Our results indicate that the SEI is not fully stable, as both significant thickness and composition changes are detected during cell cycling. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2017
Keywords
Solid electrolyte interphase, Sn4P3, Na-ion battery, photoelectron spectroscopy, alloying
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334039 (URN)10.1016/j.electacta.2017.05.173 (DOI)000406762700077 ()
Available from: 2017-11-21 Created: 2017-11-21 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
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