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Publications (10 of 55) Show all publications
Stevens, T., Buylaert, J.-P., Thiel, C., Ujvari, G., Yi, S., Murray, A., . . . Lu, H. (2018). Ice-volume-forced erosion of the Chinese Loess Plateau global Quaternary stratotype site. Nature Communications, 9, Article ID 983.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ice-volume-forced erosion of the Chinese Loess Plateau global Quaternary stratotype site
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2018 (English)In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 983Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) utilises benchmark chronostratigraphies to divide geologic time. The reliability of these records is fundamental to understand past global change. Here we use the most detailed luminescence dating age model yet published to show that the ICS chronology for the Quaternary terrestrial type section at Jingbian, desert marginal Chinese Loess Plateau, is inaccurate. There are large hiatuses and depositional changes expressed across a dynamic gully landform at the site, which demonstrates rapid environmental shifts at the East Asian desert margin. We propose a new independent age model and reconstruct monsoon climate and desert expansion/contraction for the last ~250 ka. Our record demonstrates the dominant influence of ice volume on desert expansion, dust dynamics and sediment preservation, and further shows that East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM) variation closely matches that of ice volume, but lags insolation by ~5 ka. These observations show that the EASM at the monsoon margin does not respond directly to precessional forcing.

National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-346111 (URN)10.1038/s41467-018-03329-2 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-03-14 Created: 2018-03-14 Last updated: 2018-03-14Bibliographically approved
Újvári, G., Stevens, T., Molnár, M., Demény, A., Lambert, F., Varga, G., . . . Kovács, J. (2017). Coupled European and Greenland last glacial dust activity driven by North Atlantic climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 114(50), E10632-E10638
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Coupled European and Greenland last glacial dust activity driven by North Atlantic climate
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2017 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 114, no 50, p. E10632-E10638Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Centennial-scale mineral dust peaks in last glacial Greenland ice cores match the timing of lowest Greenland temperatures, yet little is known of equivalent changes in dust-emitting regions, limiting our understanding of dust−climate interaction. Here, we present the most detailed and precise age model for European loess dust deposits to date, based on 125 accelerator mass spectrometry 14C ages from Dunaszekcső, Hungary. The record shows that variations in glacial dust deposition variability on centennial–millennial timescales in east central Europe and Greenland were synchronous within uncertainty. We suggest that precipitation and atmospheric circulation changes were likely the major influences on European glacial dust activity and propose that European dust emissions were modulated by dominant phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation, which had a major influence on vegetation and local climate of European dust source regions.

National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337560 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1712651114 (DOI)000417806200007 ()29180406 (PubMedID)
Funder
European Social Fund (ESF), EFOP-3.6.1-16-2016-00004EU, European Research Council
Available from: 2018-01-02 Created: 2018-01-02 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
Zeng, L., Lu, H., Yi, S., Stevens, T., Xu, Z., Zhuo, H., . . . Zhang, H. (2017). Long-term Pleistocene aridification and possible linkage to high-latitude forcing: New evidence from grain size and magnetic susceptibility from loess-paleosol record in northeastern China. Catena (Cremlingen. Print), 154, 21-32
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term Pleistocene aridification and possible linkage to high-latitude forcing: New evidence from grain size and magnetic susceptibility from loess-paleosol record in northeastern China
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2017 (English)In: Catena (Cremlingen. Print), ISSN 0341-8162, E-ISSN 1872-6887, Vol. 154, p. 21-32Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Loess deposits are regarded as good indicators of the inception and development of arid and semi-arid climate in central Asia and northern China during the late Cenozoic. In northeastern China extensive loess deposits are found surrounding the Horqin and Otindag sand fields, and they have great potential for reconstructing the long-term aridification history of the region. However, these loess deposits are currently poorly understood. Here, we present a high-resolution magnetic susceptibility (MS) and grain-size record spanning the last 1.0 Ma from a 36.6-m-thick loess-paleosol sequence at Niuyangzigou site (NYZG) in NE China. The grain-size record reveals a long-term drying trend in NE China since ca. 1.0 Ma, punctuated by two significant abrupt drying events at similar to 0.65 Ma and similar to 0.3 Ma. These results demonstrate a process of stepwise intensification of drying in NE China over the past 1 Ma, and lend support to the hypothesis that global ice volume/temperature changes were the major driver of the long-term aridification of Asian dust source areas. However, unlike the widely studied loess deposits on the central Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP), the MS record in paleosol units Sl, S2 and S4 from the NYZG site do not show evidence of enhanced monsoon precipitation resulting from decreased global ice volume and the prolonged episodes of interglaciation after the Mid-Pleistocene Transition evident in the ice volume record. We hypothesize that this may be due to differences in the climatic sensitivity of the MS of Chinese loess deposits on a regional scale, rather than to in regional differences in monsoon intensity.

Keyword
Loess, Grain size, Magnetic susceptibility, Geochronology, Paleoclimate, Aridification
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Oceanography, Hydrology and Water Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317021 (URN)10.1016/j.catena.2017.02.020 (DOI)000400040300003 ()
Available from: 2017-03-09 Created: 2017-03-09 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Bate, S., Stevens, T., Buylaert, J.-P., Markovic, S., Roos, P. & Tasic, N. (2017). Pottery versus sediment: Optically stimulated luminescence dating of the Neolithic Vinca culture, Serbia. Paper presented at International Conference on Towards the Reconstruction of Paleoenvironment of Vinca- Belo Brdo, Belgrade, SERBIA, JUN, 2013. Quaternary International, 429, 45-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pottery versus sediment: Optically stimulated luminescence dating of the Neolithic Vinca culture, Serbia
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2017 (English)In: Quaternary International, ISSN 1040-6182, E-ISSN 1873-4553, Vol. 429, p. 45-53Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating was applied to the Neolithic Vinca culture's type-site, Vinca Belo-Brdo, to establish best protocols for routine luminescence dating of similar Holocene sites, critical in understanding Neolithic to Chalcolithic cultural development. Equivalent dose (De) values were investigated for sediment samples using 63-90 mm grains on large and small aliquots, and single-grain laser luminescence (SGLL), and for pottery samples using large aliquots of 4-11 mm grains. The effects of changing water content and the different techniques available to establish radionuclide concentration were explored for their impacts on dose rate (Dr) estimates. Ages for two pottery samples of 6.74 +/- 0.37 ka and 7.04 +/- 0.47 ka are in line with the existing AMS radiocarbon chronology for the site and are regarded as the best dates available. Sediment samples at Vinca show poor signal strength, and the uncertainty over past water content, in addition to the possibility of mixing and/or partial bleaching of the quartz, means that we do not recommend the use of sediment-derived ages at complex archaeological sites such as Vinca. OSL dating of fired pottery however, presents a powerful tool for generating independent chronologies at archaeological sites as well as providing additional constraints for Bayesian age models.

Keyword
Vinca, OSL, Pottery, Single grain, Neolithic
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317910 (URN)10.1016/j.quaint.2014.09.042 (DOI)000397931300006 ()
Conference
International Conference on Towards the Reconstruction of Paleoenvironment of Vinca- Belo Brdo, Belgrade, SERBIA, JUN, 2013
Available from: 2017-03-22 Created: 2017-03-22 Last updated: 2017-04-26Bibliographically approved
Obreht, I., Hambach, U., Veres, D., Zeeden, C., Bösken, J., Stevens, T., . . . Lehmkuhl, F. (2017). Shift of large-scale atmospheric systems over Europe during late MIS 3 and implications for Modern Human dispersal. Scientific Reports, 7, Article ID 5848.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Shift of large-scale atmospheric systems over Europe during late MIS 3 and implications for Modern Human dispersal
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2017 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 5848Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding the past dynamics of large-scale atmospheric systems is crucial for our knowledge of the palaeoclimate conditions in Europe. Southeastern Europe currently lies at the border between Atlantic, Mediterranean, and continental climate zones. Past changes in the relative influence of associated atmospheric systems must have been recorded in the region’s palaeoarchives. By comparing high-resolution grain-size, environmental magnetic and geochemical data from two loess-palaeosol sequences in the Lower Danube Basin with other Eurasian palaeorecords, we reconstructed past climatic patterns over Southeastern Europe and the related interaction of the prevailing large-scale circulation modes over Europe, especially during late Marine Isotope Stage 3 (40,000–27,000 years ago). We demonstrate that during this time interval, the intensification of the Siberian High had a crucial influence on European climate causing the more continental conditions over major parts of Europe, and a southwards shift of the Westerlies. Such a climatic and environmental change, combined with the Campanian Ignimbrite/Y-5 volcanic eruption, may have driven the Anatomically Modern Human dispersal towards Central and Western Europe, pointing to a corridor over the Eastern European Plain as an important pathway in their dispersal.

National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-326773 (URN)10.1038/s41598-017-06285-x (DOI)000405899200001 ()28725004 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-07-27 Created: 2017-07-27 Last updated: 2017-10-18Bibliographically approved
Stevens, T., Buylaert, J.-P., Lu, H., Thiel, C., Murray, A., Frechen, M., . . . Lin, Z. (2016). Mass accumulation rate and monsoon records from Xifeng, Chinese Loess Plateau, based on a luminescence age model. Journal of Quaternary Science, 31, 391-405
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mass accumulation rate and monsoon records from Xifeng, Chinese Loess Plateau, based on a luminescence age model
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Quaternary Science, ISSN 0267-8179, E-ISSN 1099-1417, Vol. 31, p. 391-405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Luminescence dating of loess accumulation in China has raised questions over disturbance and gaps in the record, the magnitude of mass accumulation rates (MARs), and monsoon forcing mechanisms. Here we present a detailed quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) chronology from the Xifeng Chinese Loess Plateau site. We reconstruct MARs and construct an age model for monsoon proxies at the site. The luminescence ages show significant pedogenic and anthropogenic disturbance in material deposited after ca. 20-22 ka. Analysis of other published data suggests that this disturbance may be more common than previously realized. MARs from undisturbed portions of Xifeng vary dramatically, with peaks potentially matching the timing of Heinrich events. The last glacial maximum peak MAR (22-27 ka) matches the Pacific and Greenland dust flux records, although appears earlier than peak MARs seen in many other OSL-dated Loess Plateau sites. East Asian monsoon grain-size and magnetic susceptibility records also show several differences between independently dated loess sites. This complicates our understanding of any lag between insolation forcing and monsoon response. Nevertheless, the Xifeng climate proxy changes show apparent broad agreement with the timing of Heinrich events in the North Atlantic, supporting assertions of a climatic teleconnection between the two areas.

Keyword
Chinese loess; dust MAR; East Asian monsoon; luminescence dating; OSL
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297057 (URN)10.1002/jqs.2848 (DOI)000379155600010 ()
Funder
Danish National Research Foundation, 11-104566
Available from: 2016-06-21 Created: 2016-06-21 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Zhang, H., Lu, H., Xu, X., Liu, X., Yang, T., Stevens, T., . . . Feng, H. (2016). Quantitative estimation of the contribution of dustsources to Chinese loess using detrital zircon U-Pbage patterns. Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, 121(11), 2085-2099
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative estimation of the contribution of dustsources to Chinese loess using detrital zircon U-Pbage patterns
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Earth Surface, ISSN 2169-9003, E-ISSN 2169-9011, Vol. 121, no 11, p. 2085-2099Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The origin and provenance of the loess deposits of the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) are stilldebated. In order to pinpoint the dust sources, surface samples from the piedmont of the NortheasternTibetan Plateau, the Gobi Altai Mountains, and modern eolian dunes from the Tengger desert and Mu Ussand field were analyzed by using the detrital zircon dating technique. In order to quantitatively discriminatethe content of different potential sources, zircon grains of different ages were grouped according to theirtectonic origin. Zircon grains aged from 1300 to 550 Ma were assigned to the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau,and grains aged from 550 to 0 Ma to the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau or the Gobi Altai Mountains, or to acombination of the two. Zircon ages of around 2.8 Ga to 1.3 Ga may be a mixture of sources from theNortheastern Tibetan Plateau, Gobi Altai Mountains, or North China Craton. Sediments from the Tenggerdesert and Mu Us sand field consist of a mixture of the three sources and exhibit a high degree of spatialvariability in terms of their source. In the northern part of the two deserts, 43–83% of the sediments arederived from the Gobi Altai Mountains, while in the south, material from the Northeastern Tibetan Plateaucomprises 51–98% of the sediments. Loess deposits from the CLP also comprise a mixture of the threedifferent sources, with material from the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau making the dominant contribution(65–100%), with material from the North China Craton and the Gobi Altai Mountains comprising 0–35% and0–40% of the loess deposits, respectively. The contributions from the three sources to the loess deposits onCLP vary spatially. Application of the novel statistical method of provenance group analysis demonstratesthat the loess deposits comprise a mixture of material from a broad region of northern China and that theNortheastern Tibetan Plateau material makes the dominant contribution.

Keyword
desert and sand fields, detrital zircon U-Pb age, Northeastern Tibetan Plateau, Gobi Altai Mountains
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307180 (URN)10.1002/2016JF003936 (DOI)000392825900007 ()
Available from: 2016-11-10 Created: 2016-11-10 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Rittner, M., Vermeesch, P., Carter, A., Bird, A., Stevens, T., Garzanti, E., . . . Lu, H. (2016). The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 437, 127-137
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The provenance of Taklamakan desert sand
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2016 (English)In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 437, p. 127-137Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sand migration in the vast Taklamakan desert within the Tarim Basin (Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous region, PR China) is governed by two competing transport agents: wind and water, which work in diametrically opposed directions. Net aeolian transport is from northeast to south, while fluvial transport occurs from the south to the north and then west to east at the northern rim, due to a gradual northward slope of the underlying topography. We here present the first comprehensive provenance study of Taklamakan desert sand with the aim to characterise the interplay of these two transport mechanisms and their roles in the formation of the sand sea, and to consider the potential of the Tarim Basin as a contributing source to the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Our dataset comprises 39 aeolian and fluvial samples, which were characterised by detrital-zircon U-Pb geochronology, heavy-mineral, and bulk-petrography analyses. Although the inter-sample differences of all three datasets are subtle, a multivariate statistical analysis using multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly shows that Tarim desert sand is most similar in composition to rivers draining the Kunlun Shan (south) and the Pamirs (west), and is distinctly different from sediment sources in the Tian Shan (north). A small set of samples from the Junggar Basin (north of the Tian Shan) yields different detrital compositions and age spectra than anywhere in the Tarim Basin, indicating that aeolian sediment exchange between the two basins is minimal. Although river transport dominates delivery of sand into the Tarim Basin, wind remobilises and reworks the sediment in the central sand sea. Characteristic signatures of main rivers can be traced from entrance into the basin to the terminus of the Tarim River, and those crossing the desert from the south to north can seasonally bypass sediment through the sand sea. Smaller ephemeral rivers from the Kunlun Shan end in the desert and discharge their sediment there. Both river run-off and wind intensity are strongly seasonal, their respective transport strength and opposing directions maintain the Taklamakan in its position and topography.

Keyword
Tarim, multi-proxy, provenance analysis, MDS mapping, Chinese Loess Plateau
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280228 (URN)10.1016/j.epsl.2015.12.036 (DOI)000370091100013 ()
Funder
EU, European Research Council, 259504NERC - the Natural Environment Research Council, NE/I008837/1
Available from: 2016-03-10 Created: 2016-03-09 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Buylaert, J.-P., Yeo, E.-Y., Thiel, C., Yi, S., Stevens, T., Thompson, W., . . . Lu, H. (2015). A detailed post-IR IRSL chronology for the last interglacial soil at the Jingbian loess site (northern China). Quaternary Geochronology, 30, 194-199
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A detailed post-IR IRSL chronology for the last interglacial soil at the Jingbian loess site (northern China)
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2015 (English)In: Quaternary Geochronology, ISSN 1871-1014, E-ISSN 1878-0350, Vol. 30, p. 194-199Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The chronology of dust deposition and climate during the last interglacial is poorly known on the Chinese Loess Plateau. Here, 51 samples were taken from the similar to 5 m S1 palaeosol (MIS5) at the desert marginal Jingbian site to develop what is currently the most detailed S1 chronology on the Plateau using instrumental dating techniques. We use the post-IR IRSL signal from sand-sized grains of K-rich feldspar. Signal resetting in the agricultural layer shows that it is possible to almost completely zero this signal in nature. First IR stimulation plateau measurements show that there is no clear dependence of D-e on first IR stimulation temperature between 50 and 260 degrees C suggesting negligible signal fading. Resultant ages are consistent with a last interglacial age (similar to 130 to similar to 75 ka) and are also consistent within errors with continuous linear sedimentation rates. The average mass accumulation rate for S1 is similar to 150 g m(-2) a(-1), considerably higher than at many other sites but within the overall range of Loess Plateau estimates. The remarkably stable sediment accumulation at the site contrasts with a more complex record of environmental and monsoonal change recorded in grain-size and magnetic susceptibility.

Keyword
Chinese loess; Last interglacial soil (S1); High sampling density; Post-IR IRSL
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary Geophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-258523 (URN)10.1016/j.quageo.2015.02.022 (DOI)000366538200011 ()
Available from: 2015-07-15 Created: 2015-07-15 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Markovic, S. B., Stevens, T., Kukla, G. J., Hambach, U., Fitzsimmons, K. E., Gibbard, P., . . . Svircev, Z. (2015). Danube loess stratigraphy - Towards a pan-European loess stratigraphic model. Earth-Science Reviews, 148, 228-258
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Danube loess stratigraphy - Towards a pan-European loess stratigraphic model
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2015 (English)In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 148, p. 228-258Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Danube River drainage basin is the second largest river catchment in Europe and contains a significant and extensive region of thick loess deposits that preserve a record of a wide variety of recent and past environments. Indeed, the Danube River and tributaries may themselves be responsible for the transportation of large volumes of silt that ultimately drive loess formation in the middle and lower reaches of this large catchment However, this vast loess province lacks a unified stratigraphic scheme. European loess research started in the late 17th century in the Danube Basin with the work of Count Luigi Ferdinand Marsigli. Since that time numerous investigations provided the basis for the pioneering stratigraphic framework proposed initially by Kukla (1970, 1977) in his correlations of loess with deep-sea sediments. Loess-palaeosol sequences in the middle and lower reaches of the Danube River basin were a key part of this framework and contain some of the longest and most complete continental climate records in Europe, covering more than the last million years. However, the very size of the Danube loess belt and the large number of countries it covers presents a major limiting factor in developing a unified approach that enables continental scale analysis of the deposits. Local loess-palaeosol stratigraphic schemes have been defined separately in different countries and the difficulties in correlating such schemes, which often change significantly with advances in age-dating, have limited the number of basin-wide studies. A unified basin-wide stratigraphic model would greatly alleviate these difficulties and facilitate research into the wider significance of these loess records. Therefore we review the existing stratigraphic schemes and define a new Danube Basin wide loess stratigraphy based around a synthetic type section of the Mosorin and Stari Slankamen sites in Serbia. We present a detailed comparison with the sedimentological and palaeoclimatic records preserved in sediments of the Chinese Loess Plateau, with the oxygen isotope records from deep-sea sediments, and with classic European Pleistocene stratigraphic subdivisions. The hierarchy of Danubian stratigraphic units is determined by climatically controlled environmental shifts, in a similar way to the Chinese loess stratigraphic scheme. A new unified Danube loess stratigraphic model has a number of advantages, including preventing confusion resulting from the use of multiple national schemes, a more transparent basis, and the potential to set Pleistocene palaeoenvironmental changes recorded in the Danube catchment area into a global context. The use of a very simple labelling system based on the well-established Chinese loess scheme facilitates interpretation of palaeoenvironmental information reported from the Danube Basin loess sites in a wider more accessible context that can be readily correlated world-wide. This stratigraphic approach also provides, for the first time, an appropriate framework for the development of an integrated, pan-European and potentially pan-Eurasian loess stratigraphic scheme.

Keyword
Danube, Europe, Loess, Pleistocene, Stratigraphy, Chinese Loess Plateau
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261220 (URN)10.1016/j.earscirev.2015.06.005 (DOI)000358625700013 ()
Funder
German Research Foundation (DFG), GL 327/8-2
Available from: 2015-09-01 Created: 2015-08-31 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6662-6650

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