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Publications (10 of 13) Show all publications
Åkerlund, L., Emanuelsson, R., Hernández, G., Ruipérez, F., Casado, N., Brandell, D., . . . Sjödin, M. (2019). In situ Investigations of a Proton Trap Material: A PEDOT-Based Copolymer with Hydroquinone and Pyridine Side Groups Having Robust Cyclability in Organic Electrolytes and Ionic Liquids. ACS Applied Energy Materials, 2(6), 4486-4495
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ Investigations of a Proton Trap Material: A PEDOT-Based Copolymer with Hydroquinone and Pyridine Side Groups Having Robust Cyclability in Organic Electrolytes and Ionic Liquids
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2019 (English)In: ACS Applied Energy Materials, ISSN 2574-0962, Vol. 2, no 6, p. 4486-4495Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A conducting redox polymer based on PEDOT with hydroquinone and pyridine pendant groups is reported and characterized as a proton trap material. The proton trap functionality, where protons are transferred from the hydroquinone to the pyridine sites, allows for utilization of the inherently high redox potential of the hydroquinone pendant group (3.3 V versus Li0/+) and sustains this reaction by trapping the protons within the polymer, resulting in proton cycling in an aprotic electrolyte. By disconnecting the cycling ion of the anode from the cathode, the choice of anode and electrolyte can be extensively varied and the proton trap copolymer can be used as cathode material for all-organic or metal-organic batteries. In this study, a stable and nonvolatile ionic liquid was introduced as electrolyte media, leading to enhanced cycling stability of the proton trap compared to cycling in acetonitrile, which is attributed to the decreased basicity of the solvent. Various in situ methods allowed for in-depth characterization of the polymer’s properties based on its electronic transitions (UV–vis), temperature-dependent conductivity (bipotentiostatic CV-measurements), and mass change (EQCM) during the redox cycle. Furthermore, FTIR combined with quantum chemical calculations indicate that hydrogen bonding interactions are present for all the hydroquinone and quinone states, explaining the reversible behavior of the copolymer in aprotic electrolytes, both in three-electrode setup and in battery devices. These results demonstrate the proton trap concept as an interesting strategy for high potential organic energy storage materials.

Keywords
conducting redox polymer, organic electronics, renewable energy storage, proton trap, quinone, in situ
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389514 (URN)10.1021/acsaem.9b00735 (DOI)000473116600063 ()
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy StorageSwedish Energy AgencyCarl Tryggers foundation , CTS 17:414Stiftelsen Olle Engkvist ByggmästareSwedish Research Council Formas, 2018-00744Swedish Research Council Formas, 2016-00838
Available from: 2019-07-16 Created: 2019-07-16 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Åkerlund, L., Emanuelsson, R., Hernández, G., Ruipérez, F., Casado, N., Brandell, D., . . . Sjödin, M. (2019). The proton trap - a new route to organic energy storage. In: Organic Battery Days 2019: . Paper presented at Organic Battery Days 2019. Jena 3-5/6 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The proton trap - a new route to organic energy storage
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2019 (English)In: Organic Battery Days 2019, 2019Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389538 (URN)
Conference
Organic Battery Days 2019. Jena 3-5/6 2019
Available from: 2019-07-17 Created: 2019-07-17 Last updated: 2019-12-10
Åkerlund, L. (2017). Morgondagens organiska batterier. Online: Ciennce.com
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Morgondagens organiska batterier
2017 (Swedish)Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Place, publisher, year, pages
Online: Ciennce.com, 2017. p. 2
Keywords
Miljö, hållbarhet, organisk energilagring, nanoteknik, materialutveckling, förnyelsebara batterier, litiumjonbatterier
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333924 (URN)
Available from: 2017-11-18 Created: 2017-11-18 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Sjödin, M., Emanuelsson, R., Sterby, M., Åkerlund, L., Huang, H., Huang, X., . . . Strömme, M. (2017). Organic Batteries Based on Quinone-Substituted Conducting Polymers. In: : . Paper presented at The 17th IUPAC International Symposium on MacroMolecular Complexes (MMC-17), Tokyo, August 28-31, 2017..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Batteries Based on Quinone-Substituted Conducting Polymers
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334414 (URN)
Conference
The 17th IUPAC International Symposium on MacroMolecular Complexes (MMC-17), Tokyo, August 28-31, 2017.
Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Åkerlund, L., Emanuelsson, R., Renault, S., Huang, H., Brandell, D., Strømme, M. & Sjödin, M. (2017). The Proton Trap Technology: Toward High Potential Quinone-Based Organic Energy Storage. Advanced Energy Materials, 7(20), Article ID 1700259.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Proton Trap Technology: Toward High Potential Quinone-Based Organic Energy Storage
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2017 (English)In: Advanced Energy Materials, ISSN 1614-6840, Vol. 7, no 20, article id 1700259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An organic cathode material based on a copolymer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) containing pyridine and hydroquinone functionalities is described as a proton trap technology. Utilizing the quinone to hydroquinone redox conversion, this technology leads to electrode materials compatible with lithium and sodium cycling chemistries. These materials have high inherent potentials that in combination with lithium give a reversible output voltage of above 3.5 V (vs Li0/+) without relying on lithiation of the material, something that is not showed for quinones previously. Key to success stems from coupling an intrapolymeric proton transfer, realized by an incorporated pyridine proton donor/acceptor functionality, with the hydroquinone redox reactions. Trapping of protons in the cathode material effectively decouples the quinone redox chemistry from the cycling chemistry of the anode, which makes the material insensitive to the nature of the electrolyte cation and hence compatible with several anode materials. Furthermore, the conducting polymer backbone allows assembly without any additives for electronic conductivity. The concept is demonstrated by electrochemical characterization in several electrolytes and finally by employing the proton trap material as the cathode in lithium and sodium batteries. These findings represent a new concept for enabling high potential organic materials for the next generation of energy storage systems.

Keywords
conducting redox polymers, organic batteries, proton trap, quinones, renewable energy storage
National Category
Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328056 (URN)10.1002/aenm.201700259 (DOI)000413695300003 ()
Funder
Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research Swedish Research Council
Note

1700259

Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2018-02-23Bibliographically approved
Åkerlund, L., Emanuelsson, R., Strömme, M. & Martin, S. (2016). Conducting Redox Polymers for Renewable Energy Storage. In: : . Paper presented at ASMCS 2016; Materials for Tomorrow, Gothenburg, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting Redox Polymers for Renewable Energy Storage
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
National Category
Engineering and Technology Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307378 (URN)
Conference
ASMCS 2016; Materials for Tomorrow, Gothenburg, Sweden
Projects
Susbatt
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Available from: 2016-11-14 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2017-01-04Bibliographically approved
Åkerlund, L. (2016). Organic battery materials. In: : . Paper presented at SweGRIDS board meeting, KTH, Stockholm, March 16th, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic battery materials
2016 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
National Category
Nano Technology Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-283408 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
SweGRIDS board meeting, KTH, Stockholm, March 16th, 2016
Projects
SweGRIDSSusbatt
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Available from: 2016-04-12 Created: 2016-04-12 Last updated: 2016-09-09
Åkerlund, L., Emanuelsson, R., Strømme, M. & Sjödin, M. (2016). Organic Polymeric Materials for Renewable Energy Storage. In: : . Paper presented at Gordon Research Conference: Electronic Processes in Organic Materials.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic Polymeric Materials for Renewable Energy Storage
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To solve for future energy needs, the capacity of storing energy will be crucial when energy production from renewables increases. In principle all of today’s batteries are made of metals, which are energy demanding both to extract and recycle, as well as being non-renewable. An example is lithium ion batteries (LIBs), which today are unprofitable to recycle (due to the high temperatures needed), hence remaining deposits will not last for long if we want electric vehicles based on LIBs to replace conventional vehicles. Additionally, an electric car must be charged over 120 times before it even reaches a negative CO2 impact, compared to conventional cars. A solution to this problem is to make batteries with the same or higher charge capacity as conventional batteries, but from renewable sources.

Quinones have high specific capacity and function as charge carriers in natures’ photosynthesis and respiration cycle. When combined with a polymeric backbone, the resulting material has potential of becoming a cheaper, lighter and greener alternative to LIBs.

Conducting redox polymers (CRPs) have been proposed as a renewable alternative for electrode materials. CRPs consist of two parts: a conducting polymeric (CP) backbone, such as polypyrrole (PPy) or Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT); and a redox active side group, such as quinones, attached to the backbone. For the system to function as a battery, the attached redox group must be active in the same potential window as the specific polymer is conducting.

This project aims at finding, synthesizing and characterizing high charge capacity materials and targeting renewable organic batteries for a future of sustainable energy storage.

National Category
Engineering and Technology Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301149 (URN)
External cooperation:
Conference
Gordon Research Conference: Electronic Processes in Organic Materials
Projects
Susbatt
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-08-18 Last updated: 2016-11-30
Åkerlund, L., Emanuelsson, R., Gogoll, A., Strømme, M. & Sjödin, M. (2016). Quinone based Conducting Redox Polymers for Renewable Energy Storage. In: : . Paper presented at 67th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quinone based Conducting Redox Polymers for Renewable Energy Storage
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To meet future energy needs and to minimize CO2-emissions, a higher share of produced electricity must come from renewable resources [1]. Unfortunately, the output of renewable energy sources varies and does not always correlate with the temporal demand for electricity. For this reason, high capacity electrical energy storage (EES) is needed to fully utilize renewable energy sources [2]. Today’s battery technologies primarily rely on metals extracted at large economic and environmental costs [3],and the benefits of converting to carbon based materials are several, e.g. lower weight, flexible materials, and better recycling possibilities. In addition, the total energy consumption in the production chain may be reduced if the high temperatures required for extracting and processing metals can be avoided. Conducting redox polymers (CRPs), i.e. conducting polymers with redox active side groups, are currently investigated as possible organic electrode materials [4]. In this work we focus on finding stable side groups with high charge storage capacity. Quinones, which occur in natural energy conversion systems, i.e. during photosynthesis and respiration, are an attractive side group for CRPs due to their high gravimetric capacity. Importantly, for a functioning battery application the redox group and the polymer backbone must be active in the same potential window and this can be tuned effectively over a wide potential range by substitution on the quinone ring; hence various quinone derivatives could match different polymer backbones. A high potential- and high charge capacity quinone derivative has been synthesized and electrochemically characterized with the aim of producing a novel CRP to function as an organic high charge capacity material, targeting renewable organic batteries for a future of sustainable EES.

 

References

[1]  D. Larcher, J. M. Tarascon,, Nat. Chem. 7 (2015) 19-29.

[2] Z. Yang, J. Zhang, M. C. W. Kintner-Meyer, X. Lu, D. Choi, J. P. Lemmon, J. Liu, Chem. Rev. 111 (2011) 3577–3613.

[3] P. Poizot, F. Dolhem, Energy Environ. Sci. 4 (2011) 2003-2019.

[4] (a) C. Karlsson, H. Huang, M. Stromme, A. Gogoll, M. Sjodin, RSC Adv. 5 (2015) 11309-11316; (b) C. Karlsson, H. Huang, M. Stromme, A. Gogoll, M. Sjodin, Electrochim. Acta 179 (2015) 336-342.

[5] L. Åkerlund, R. Emanuelsson, A. Gogoll, M. Strömme, M. Sjödin, To be submitted.

Keywords
Quinones, renewable energy storage, conducting redox polymers
National Category
Engineering and Technology Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-302054 (URN)
Conference
67th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Electrochemistry
Projects
Susbatt
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Available from: 2016-08-29 Created: 2016-08-29 Last updated: 2016-12-16
Åkerlund, L., Emanuelsson, R., Gogoll, A., Strömme, M. & Sjödin, M. (2016). Quinone based Conducting Redox Polymers for Renewable Energy Storage. In: : . Paper presented at ISPE XV; 15th International Symposium on Polymer Electrolytes, Uppsala, Sweden.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quinone based Conducting Redox Polymers for Renewable Energy Storage
Show others...
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To meet future energy needs and to minimize CO2-emissions, a higher share of produced electricity must come from renewable resources [1]. Unfortunately, the output of renewable energy sources varies and does not always correlate with the temporal demand for electricity. For this reason, high capacity electrical energy storage (EES) is needed to fully utilize renewable energy sources [2]. Today’s battery technologies primarily rely on metals extracted at large economic and environmental costs [3],and the benefits of converting to carbon based materials are several, e.g. lower weight, flexible materials, and better recycling possibilities. In addition, the total energy consumption in the production chain may be reduced if the high temperatures required for extracting and processing metals can be avoided. Conducting redox polymers (CRPs), i.e. conducting polymers with redox active side groups, are currently investigated as possible organic electrode materials [4]. In this work we focus on finding stable side groups with high charge storage capacity. Quinones, which occur in natural energy conversion systems, i.e. during photosynthesis and respiration, are an attractive side group for CRPs due to their high gravimetric capacity. Importantly, for a functioning battery application the redox group and the polymer backbone must be active in the same potential window and this can be tuned effectively over a wide potential range by substitution on the quinone ring; hence various quinone derivatives could match different polymer backbones. A high potential- and high charge capacity quinone derivative has been synthesized and electrochemically characterized with the aim of producing a novel CRP to function as an organic high charge capacity material, targeting renewable organic batteries for a future of sustainable EES.

 

References

[1]  D. Larcher, J. M. Tarascon,, Nat. Chem. 7 (2015) 19-29.

[2] Z. Yang, J. Zhang, M. C. W. Kintner-Meyer, X. Lu, D. Choi, J. P. Lemmon, J. Liu, Chem. Rev. 111 (2011) 3577–3613.

[3] P. Poizot, F. Dolhem, Energy Environ. Sci. 4 (2011) 2003-2019.

[4] (a) C. Karlsson, H. Huang, M. Stromme, A. Gogoll, M. Sjodin, RSC Adv. 5 (2015) 11309-11316; (b) C. Karlsson, H. Huang, M. Stromme, A. Gogoll, M. Sjodin, Electrochim. Acta 179 (2015) 336-342.

[5] L. Åkerlund, R. Emanuelsson, A. Gogoll, M. Strömme, M. Sjödin, To be submitted.

Keywords
Organic energy storage, Quinones
National Category
Engineering and Technology Nano Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Nanotechnology and Functional Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-301144 (URN)
Conference
ISPE XV; 15th International Symposium on Polymer Electrolytes, Uppsala, Sweden
Projects
Susbatt
Funder
SweGRIDS - Swedish Centre for Smart Grids and Energy Storage
Available from: 2016-08-18 Created: 2016-08-18 Last updated: 2018-01-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8801-2983

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