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Publications (10 of 41) Show all publications
Ekblom, A., Shoemaker, A., Gillson, L., Lane, P. & Lindholm, K.-J. (2019). Conservation through Biocultural Heritage-Examples from Sub-Saharan Africa. Land, 8(1), Article ID 5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conservation through Biocultural Heritage-Examples from Sub-Saharan Africa
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2019 (English)In: Land, ISSN 2073-445X, E-ISSN 2073-445X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 5Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, we review the potential of biocultural heritage in biodiversity protection and agricultural innovation in sub-Saharan Africa. We begin by defining the concept of biocultural heritage into four interlinked elements that are revealed through integrated landscape analysis. This concerns the transdisciplinary methods whereby biocultural heritage must be explored, and here we emphasise that reconstructing landscape histories and documenting local heritage values needs to be an integral part of the process. Ecosystem memories relate to the structuring of landscape heterogeneity through such activities as agroforestry and fire management. The positive linkages between living practices, biodiversity and soil nutrients examined here are demonstrative of the concept of ecosystem memories. Landscape memories refer to built or enhanced landscapes linked to specific land-use systems and property rights. Place memories signify practices of protection or use related to a specific place. Customary protection of burial sites and/or abandoned settlements, for example, is a common occurrence across Africa with beneficial outcomes for biodiversity and forest protection. Finally, we discuss stewardship and change. Building on local traditions, inclusivity and equity are essential to promoting the continuation and innovation of practices crucial for local sustainability and biodiversity protection, and also offer new avenues for collaboration in landscape management and conservation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
biocultural heritage, sub-Saharan Africa, traditional ecological knowledge, hotspots, sacred forests, conservation
National Category
Human Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377802 (URN)10.3390/land8010005 (DOI)000458029900005 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasEU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 606879Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2019-02-27 Created: 2019-02-27 Last updated: 2019-02-27Bibliographically approved
van der Plas, G. W., De Cort, G., Petek-Sargeant, N., Wuytack, T., Colombaroli, D., Lane, P. J. & Verschuren, D. (2019). Distinct phases of natural landscape dynamics and intensifying human activity in the central Kenya Rift Valley during the past 1300 years. Quaternary Science Reviews, 218, 91-106
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Distinct phases of natural landscape dynamics and intensifying human activity in the central Kenya Rift Valley during the past 1300 years
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2019 (English)In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 218, p. 91-106Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Socio-ecological stresses currently affecting the semi-arid regions of equatorial East Africa are driving environmental changes that need to be placed in a proper context of long-term human-climate-landscape interaction. Here we present a detailed reconstruction of past human influences on the landscape of the central Kenya Rift Valley, against the backdrop of natural climate-driven ecosystem dynamics over the past 1300 years. Proxy records of vegetation dynamics (pollen), animal husbandry (fungal spores), biomass burning (charcoal) and soil mobilization (clastic mineral influx) extracted from the continuous depositional archive of Lake Bogoria reveal six distinct phases of human activity. From ca 700 to 1430 CE, strong primary response of savanna woodland ecotonal vegetation to climatic moisture-balance variation suggests that anthropogenic influence on regional ecosystem dynamics was limited. The first unambiguous ecological signature of human activities involves a mid-15th century reduction of woodland/forest trees followed by the appearance of cereal pollen, both evidence for mixed farming. From the mid-17th century, animal husbandry became a significant ecological factor and reached near-modern levels by the mid-19th century, after severe early-19th century drought had substantially changed human-landscape interaction. A short-lived peak in biomass burning and evidence for soil mobilization in low-lying areas of the Bogoria catchment likely reflects the known 19th-century establishment of irrigation agriculture, while renewed expansion of forest and woodland trees reflect the return of a wetter climate and abandonment of other farmland. Since the mid-20th century, the principal signature of human activity within the Lake Bogoria catchment is the unprecedented increase in clastic sediment flux, reflecting widespread soil erosion associated with rapidly intensifying land use. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019
Keywords
Anthropocene, Climate-human interaction, Disturbance ecology, East Africa, Kenya Rift Valley, Lake Bogoria, Landscape ecology, Paleoecology, Vegetation dynamics
National Category
Geology Climate Research
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393655 (URN)10.1016/j.quascirev.2019.06.009 (DOI)000480378000007 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 606879
Available from: 2019-09-25 Created: 2019-09-25 Last updated: 2019-09-25Bibliographically approved
Boles, O. J. C., Shoemaker, A., Courtney Mustaphi, C. J., Petek, N., Ekblom, A. & Lane, P. J. (2019). Historical Ecologies of Pastoralist Overgrazing in Kenya: Long-Term Perspectives on Cause and Effect. Human Ecology, 47(3), 419-434
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Historical Ecologies of Pastoralist Overgrazing in Kenya: Long-Term Perspectives on Cause and Effect
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2019 (English)In: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 419-434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The spectre of overgrazing' looms large in historical and political narratives of ecological degradation in savannah ecosystems. While pastoral exploitation is a conspicuous driver of landscape variability and modification, assumptions that such change is inevitable or necessarily negative deserve to be continuously evaluated and challenged. With reference to three case studies from Kenya - the Laikipia Plateau, the Lake Baringo basin, and the Amboseli ecosystem - we argue that the impacts of pastoralism are contingent on the diachronic interactions of locally specific environmental, political, and cultural conditions. The impacts of the compression of rangelands and restrictions on herd mobility driven by misguided conservation and economic policies are emphasised over outdated notions of pastoralist inefficiency. We review the application of overgrazing' in interpretations of the archaeological record and assess its relevance for how we interpret past socio-environmental dynamics. Any discussion of overgrazing, or any form of human-environment interaction, must acknowledge spatio-temporal context and account for historical variability in landscape ontogenies.

Keywords
Historical ecology, Compression effects, Rangeland management, Pastoralist mobility strategies, Eastern Africa, Kenya
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-392058 (URN)10.1007/s10745-019-0072-9 (DOI)000475981900009 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 606879Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasSida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency
Available from: 2019-09-10 Created: 2019-09-10 Last updated: 2019-09-10Bibliographically approved
Mustaphi, C. J. C., Capitani, C., Boles, O., Kariuki, R., Newman, R., Munishi, L., . . . Lane, P. (2019). Integrating evidence of land use and land cover change for land management policy formulation along the Kenya-Tanzania borderlands. Anthropocene, 28, Article ID UNSP 100228.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating evidence of land use and land cover change for land management policy formulation along the Kenya-Tanzania borderlands
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2019 (English)In: Anthropocene, E-ISSN 2213-3054, Vol. 28, article id UNSP 100228Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents an overview of the scientific evidence providing insights into long term ecosystem and social dynamics across the northern Tanzania and southern Kenya borderlands. The data sources covered a range from palaeoenvironmental records and archaeological information to remote sensing and social science studies that examined human-environmental interactions and land use land cover changes (LULCC) in the region. This knowledge map of published LULCC research contributes to current debates about the drivers and dynamics of LULCC. The review aims to facilitate both multidisciplinary LULCC research and evidence-based policy analyses to improve familiarity and engagement between LULCC knowledge producers and end-users and to motivate research integration for land management policy formulation. Improving familiarity among researchers and non-academic stakeholders through the collation and synthesis of the scientific literature is among the challenges hindering policy formulation and land management decision-making by various stakeholders along the Kenya-Tanzania borderlands. Knowledge syntheses are necessary; yet, do not fully bridge the gap between knowledge and policy action. Cooperation across the science-policy interface is fundamental for the co-production of research questions by academics, policy makers and diverse stakeholders aimed at supporting land management decision making. For improved co-development and co-benefitting outcomes, the LULCC scientific community needs to mobilise knowledge for a broader audience and to advance co-development of relevant and meaningful LULCC products. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Landscape, Multidisciplinary, Science-policy interface, Serengeti, Socio-ecological systems, Policy support
National Category
Physical Geography
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-401963 (URN)10.1016/j.ancene.2019.100228 (DOI)000500301900005 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council Formas, 2016-06355
Available from: 2020-01-10 Created: 2020-01-10 Last updated: 2020-01-10Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, O., Ekblom, A., Lane, P., Lennartsson, T. & Lindholm, K.-J. (2018). Concepts for Integrated Research in Historical Ecology. In: Crumley, Carole; Lennartsson,Tommy & Westin, Anna (Ed.), Crumley, Carole L.; Lennartsson, Tommy & Westin, Anna (Ed.), Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology: ThePast and Future of Landscapes and regions: . Paper presented at Meeting on Is there a Future for the Past? - Challenges in the Research and Practice of Historical Ecology, April 16-18, 2013, Odalgården, Sweden. (pp. 145-181). Paper presented at Meeting on Is there a Future for the Past? - Challenges in the Research and Practice of Historical Ecology, April 16-18, 2013, Odalgården, Sweden.. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concepts for Integrated Research in Historical Ecology
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2018 (English)In: Issues and Concepts in Historical Ecology: ThePast and Future of Landscapes and regions / [ed] Crumley, Carole; Lennartsson,Tommy & Westin, Anna, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 145-181Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018
Keywords
Natural Resource Management, Agriculture, Horticulture and forestry, Ecology and Conservation, Life Sciences
National Category
Archaeology Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334865 (URN)10.1017/9781108355780.006 (DOI)000461066400006 ()9781108420983 (ISBN)9781108355780 (ISBN)
Conference
Meeting on Is there a Future for the Past? - Challenges in the Research and Practice of Historical Ecology, April 16-18, 2013, Odalgården, Sweden.
Available from: 2017-11-28 Created: 2017-11-28 Last updated: 2019-08-13Bibliographically approved
Marchant, R., Richer, S., Boles, O., Capitani, C., Courtney Mustaphi, C., Lane, P., . . . Wright, D. (2018). Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present. Earth-Science Reviews, 178, 322-378
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Drivers and trajectories of land cover change in East Africa: Human and environmental interactions from 6000 years ago to present
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2018 (English)In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 178, p. 322-378Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

East African landscapes today are the result of the cumulative effects of climate and land-use change over millennial timescales. In this review, we compile archaeological and palaeoenvironmental data from East Africa to document land-cover change, and environmental, subsistence and land-use transitions, over the past 6000 years. Throughout East Africa there have been a series of relatively rapid and high-magnitude environmental shifts characterised by changing hydrological budgets during the mid- to late Holocene. For example, pronounced environmental shifts that manifested as a marked change in the rainfall amount or seasonality and subsequent hydrological budget throughout East Africa occurred around 4000, 800 and 300 radiocarbon years before present (yr BP). The past 6000 years have also seen numerous shifts in human interactions with East African ecologies. From the mid-Holocene, land use has both diversified and increased exponentially, this has been associated with the arrival of new subsistence systems, crops, migrants and technologies, all giving rise to a sequence of significant phases of land-cover change. The first large-scale human influences began to occur around 4000 yr BP, associated with the introduction of domesticated livestock and the expansion of pastoral communities. The first widespread and intensive forest clearances were associated with the arrival of iron-using early farming communities around 2500 yr BP, particularly in productive and easily-cleared mid-altitudinal areas. Extensive and pervasive land-cover change has been associated with population growth, immigration and movement of people. The expansion of trading routes between the interior and the coast, starting around 1300 years ago and intensifying in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries CE, was one such process. These caravan routes possibly acted as conduits for spreading New World crops such as maize (Zea mays), tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) and tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum), although the processes and timings of their introductions remains poorly documented. The introduction of southeast Asian domesticates, especially banana (Musa spp.), rice (Oryza spp.), taro (Colocasia esculenta), and chicken (Gallus gallus), via transoceanic biological transfers around and across the Indian Ocean, from at least around 1300 yr BP, and potentially significantly earlier, also had profound social and ecological consequences across parts of the region. Through an interdisciplinary synthesis of information and metadatasets, we explore the different drivers and directions of changes in land-cover, and the associated environmental histories and interactions with various cultures, technologies, and subsistence strategies through time and across space in East Africa. This review suggests topics for targeted future research that focus on areas and/or time periods where our understanding of the interactions between people, the environment and land-cover change are most contentious and/or poorly resolved. The review also offers a perspective on how knowledge of regional land-use change can be used to inform and provide perspectives on contemporary issues such as climate and ecosystem change models, conservation strategies, and the achievement of nature-based solutions for development purposes.

Keywords
Archaeology, Iron technology, Pottery, Pastoralism, Agriculture, Livelihoods, Palaeoenvironments, Savannah, LandCover6k, Sustainable Development Goals, Land use
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387469 (URN)10.1016/j.earscirev.2017.12.010 (DOI)000430774000014 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 606879-REALSwedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council FormasEU, European Research Council, ERC-2013-StG-337128-AAREAEU, European Research Council, 313797Wenner-Gren Foundations, 9133
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-06-24Bibliographically approved
Iles, L., Stump, D., Heckmann, M., Lang, C. & Lane, P. (2018). Iron Production in North Pare, Tanzania: Archaeometallurgical and Geoarchaeological Perspectives on Landscape Change. African Archaeological Review, 35(4), 507-530
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Iron Production in North Pare, Tanzania: Archaeometallurgical and Geoarchaeological Perspectives on Landscape Change
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2018 (English)In: African Archaeological Review, ISSN 0263-0338, E-ISSN 1572-9842, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 507-530Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Archaeology, archaeometallurgy and geoarchaeology are combined in this research to examine the chronology and development of iron metallurgy and its environmental repercussions in North Pare, Tanzania. Pare was a prominent centre for iron production from at least the second half of the first millennium AD, and it has been assumed that this technologywith its demand for wood charcoalhad a significant and detrimental effect on local forest cover. This research sought to examine this claim by exploring the spatial, chronological and technological characteristics of iron production in Pare in conjunction with geoarchaeological evidence. Contrary to older assumptions, our results demonstrate that erosion processes were well established in North Pare before the documented intensification of smelting and smithing activity, and that iron production continued despite environmental changes. We suggest that although iron production may well have contributed to deforestation and erosion in Pare, it is unlikely to be the sole causal factor.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2018
Keywords
Tanzania, East Africa, Iron Age, Metallurgy, Iron smelting, Historical ecology
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-373013 (URN)10.1007/s10437-018-9312-4 (DOI)000453223800003 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, FP7-IOF-2012-331419
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Githumbi, E. N., Kariuki, R., Shoemaker, A., Courtney Mustaphi, C., Chuhila, M., Richer, S., . . . Marchant, R. (2018). Pollen, People and Place: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Ecosystem Change at Amboseli, Kenya. Frontiers in Earth Science, 5, 1-26, Article ID 113.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pollen, People and Place: Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Ecosystem Change at Amboseli, Kenya
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2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Earth Science, ISSN 2296-6463, Vol. 5, p. 1-26, article id 113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study presents a multidisciplinary perspective for understanding environmental change and emerging socio-ecological interactions across the Amboseli region of southwestern Kenya. We focus on late Holocene (<5,000 cal yr. BP) changes and continuities reconstructed from sedimentary, archeological, historical records and socio-ecological models. We utilize multi-disciplinary approaches to understand environmental-ecosystem-social interactions over the longue durée and use this to simulate different land use scenarios supporting conservation and sustainable livelihoods using a socio-ecological model. Today the semi-arid Amboseli landscape supports a large livestock and wildlife population, sustained by a wide variety of plants and extensive rangelands regulated by seasonal rainfall and human activity. Our data provide insight into how large-scale and long-term interactions of climate, people, livestock, wildlife and external connections have shaped the ecosystems across the Amboseli landscape. Environmental conditions were dry between ~5,000 and 2,000 cal yr. BP, followed by two wet periods at ~2,100–1,500 and 1,400–800 cal yr. BP with short dry periods; the most recent centuries were characterized by variable climate with alternative dry and wet phases with high spatial heterogeneity. Most evident in paleo and historical records is the changing woody to grass cover ratio, driven by changes in climate and fire regimes entwined with fluctuating elephant, cattle and wild ungulate populations moderated by human activity, including elephant ivory trade intensification. Archeological perspectives on the occupation of different groups (hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and farmers) in Amboseli region and the relationships between them are discussed. An overview of the known history of humans and elephants, expanding networks of trade, and the arrival and integration of metallurgy, livestock and domesticated crops in the wider region is provided. In recent decades, increased runoff and flooding have resulted in the expansion of wetlands and a reduction of woody vegetation, compounding problems created by increased enclosure and privatization of these landscapes. However, most of the wetlands outside of the protected area are drying up because of the intensified water extraction by the communities surrounding the National Park and on the adjacent mountains areas, who have increased in numbers, become sedentary and diversified land use around the wetlands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
Africa, groundwater, land cover, land use, paleovegetation, protected areas, vegetation, wetlands
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-339992 (URN)10.3389/feart.2017.00113 (DOI)000426113500001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSida - Swedish International Development Cooperation AgencySwedish Research Council Formas, 2016-06355
Available from: 2018-01-25 Created: 2018-01-25 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Conolly, J. & Lane, P. (2018). Vulnerability, risk, resilience: an introduction. World archaeology, 50(4), 547-553
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Vulnerability, risk, resilience: an introduction
2018 (English)In: World archaeology, ISSN 0043-8243, E-ISSN 1470-1375, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 547-553Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
National Category
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390238 (URN)10.1080/00438243.2019.1591025 (DOI)000473622300001 ()
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Armstrong, C., Shoemaker, A., McKechnie, I., Ekblom, A., Szabó, P., Lane, P. J., . . . Crumley, C. L. (2017). Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects. PLoS ONE, 12(2), Article ID e0171883.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anthropological contributions to historical ecology: 50 questions, infinite prospects
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2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 2, article id e0171883Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents the results of a consensus-driven process identifying 50 priority research questions for historical ecology obtained through crowdsourcing, literature reviews, and in-person workshopping. A deliberative approach was designed to maximize discussion and debate with defined outcomes. Two in-person workshops (in Sweden and Canada) over the course of two years and online discussions were peer facilitated to define specific key questions for historical ecology from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. The aim of this research is to showcase the variety of questions that reflect the broad scope for historical-ecological research trajectories across scientific disciplines. Historical ecology encompasses research concerned with decadal, centennial, and millennial human-environmental interactions, and the consequences that those relationships have in the formation of contemporary landscapes. Six interrelated themes arose from our consensus-building workshop model: (1) climate and environmental change and variability; (2) multi-scalar, multi-disciplinary; (3) biodiversity and community ecology; (4) resource and environmental management and governance; (5) methods and applications; and (6) communication and policy. The 50 questions represented by these themes highlight meaningful trends in historical ecology that distill the field down to three explicit findings. First, historical ecology is fundamentally an applied research program. Second, this program seeks to understand long-term human-environment interactions with a focus on avoiding, mitigating, and reversing adverse ecological effects. Third, historical ecology is part of convergent trends toward transdisciplinary research science, which erodes scientific boundaries between the cultural and natural.

Keywords
Historical Ecology
National Category
Archaeology
Research subject
Archaeology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-316292 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0171883 (DOI)000394688200037 ()28235093 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2017-02-28 Created: 2017-02-28 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9936-1310

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