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Kesidis, G., Budd, G. & Jensen, S. (2019). An intermittent mode of formation for the trace fossil Cruziana as a serial repetition of Rusophycus: the case of Cruziana tenella (Linnarsson). Lethaia: an international journal of palaeontology and stratigraphy, 52(1), 133-148
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An intermittent mode of formation for the trace fossil Cruziana as a serial repetition of Rusophycus: the case of Cruziana tenella (Linnarsson)
2019 (English)In: Lethaia: an international journal of palaeontology and stratigraphy, ISSN 0024-1164, E-ISSN 1502-3931, Vol. 52, no 1, p. 133-148Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cruziana is one of the most recognizable trace fossils ascribed to arthropods. It ranges throughout the Phanerozoic and encompasses a diverse set of morphologies. The distinct features of Cruziana have incited fierce debate regarding its mode of formation. Here, we discuss critical aspects of trace fossil formation, namely epibenthic versus endobenthic origin and the ethology of the producer. Cruziana has largely been interpreted as a continuous ploughing trace fossil. It has been suggested, however, that at least some Cruziana could be structures resulting from the concatenation of Rusophycus-type elements, although this claim remains unexplored. Cruziana tenella from the lower Cambrian of south-central Sweden illustrates this intermittent mode of formation with a series of Rusophycus eutendorfensis leading into vertically undulating Cruziana that, at end stages of development, reflect a relatively equal depth distribution throughout the trace fossil and a great number of intergrading morphologies. In this study, a morphological evaluation of the intergrading morphologies of Cruziana tenella and Rusophycus eutendorfensis and a short morphometric analysis of the elements comprising Cruziana tenella suggests that at least in some cases Cruziana could be formed in intervals, as the serial overlap of distinct shallow Rusophycus could produce an apparently continuous cruzianaeform morphology. A comparison with possible evidence of intermittent formation on Cruziana semiplicata is made to illustrate the possibility of extending this mode of formation to larger Cruziana. An argument for the rise in the early Cambrian of a primitively intermittent mode of formation is made on the basis of energy efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
Cruziana, mode of formation, Palaeozoic, Rusophycus, trace fossils
National Category
Geology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372882 (URN)10.1111/let.12303 (DOI)000452626900010 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 317172
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Högvall, M., Vellutini, B. C., Martin-Duran, J. M., Hejnol, A., Budd, G. & Janssen, R. (2019). Embryonic expression of priapulid Wnt genes. Development, Genes and Evolution, 229(4), 125-135
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Embryonic expression of priapulid Wnt genes
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2019 (English)In: Development, Genes and Evolution, ISSN 0949-944X, E-ISSN 1432-041X, Vol. 229, no 4, p. 125-135Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Posterior elongation of the developing embryo is a common feature of animal development. One group of genes that is involved in posterior elongation is represented by the Wnt genes, secreted glycoprotein ligands that signal to specific receptors on neighbouring cells and thereby establish cell-to-cell communication. In segmented animals such as annelids and arthropods, Wnt signalling is also likely involved in segment border formation and regionalisation of the segments. Priapulids represent unsegmented worms that are distantly related to arthropods. Despite their interesting phylogenetic position and their importance for the understanding of ecdysozoan evolution, priapulids still represent a highly underinvestigated group of animals. Here, we study the embryonic expression patterns of the complete sets of Wnt genes in the priapulids Priapulus caudatus and Halicryptus spinulosus. We find that both priapulids possess a complete set of 12 Wnt genes. At least in Priapulus, most of these genes are expressed in and around the posterior-located blastopore and thus likely play a role in posterior elongation. Together with previous work on the expression of other genetic factors such as caudal and even-skipped, this suggests that posterior elongation in priapulids is under control of the same (or very similar) conserved gene regulatory network as in arthropods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2019
Keywords
Ecdysozoan ancestor, Wnt signalling, Evolution, Penis worm, Posterior elongation
National Category
Developmental Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-391026 (URN)10.1007/s00427-019-00636-6 (DOI)000475624600003 ()31273439 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2011-4703
Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2019-08-19Bibliographically approved
Budd, G. E. & Mann, R. P. (2019). Modeling durophagous predation and mortality rates from the fossil record of gastropods. Paleobiology, 45(2), 246-264
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling durophagous predation and mortality rates from the fossil record of gastropods
2019 (English)In: Paleobiology, ISSN 0094-8373, E-ISSN 1938-5331, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 246-264Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gastropods often show signs of unsuccessful attacks by durophagous predators in the form of healed scars in their shells. As such, fossil gastropods can be taken as providing a record of predation through geological time. However, interpreting the number of such scars has proved to be problematic-Would a low number of scars mean a low rate of attack or a high rate of success, for example? Here we develop a model of population dynamics among individuals exposed to predation, including both lethal and nonlethal attacks. Using this model, we calculate the equilibrium distributions of ages and healed scars in the population and among fossilized specimens, based on the assumption that predation is independent of age or scar number. Based on these results, we formally show that the rates of attack and success cannot be disambiguated without further information about population structure. Nevertheless, by making the assumptions that the non-durophagous predatory death rate is both constant and low, we show that it is possible to use relatively small assemblages of gastropods to produce accurate estimates of both attack and success rates, if the overall death rate can be estimated. We consider likely violations of the assumptions in our model and what sort of information would be required to solve this problem in these more general cases. However, it is not easy to extract the relevant information from the fossil record: a variety of important biases are likely to intervene to obscure the data that gastropod assemblages may yield. Nonetheless, the model provides a theoretical framework for interpreting summary data, including for comparison between different assemblages.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2019
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387555 (URN)10.1017/pab.2019.2 (DOI)000466564100003 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2011-4703
Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-06-25Bibliographically approved
Panara, V., Budd, G. & Janssen, R. (2019). Phylogenetic analysis and embryonic expression of panarthropod Dmrt genes. Frontiers in Zoology, 16, Article ID 23.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phylogenetic analysis and embryonic expression of panarthropod Dmrt genes
2019 (English)In: Frontiers in Zoology, ISSN 1742-9994, E-ISSN 1742-9994, Vol. 16, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: One set of the developmentally important Doublesex and Male-abnormal-3 Related Transcription factors (Dmrt) is subject of intense research, because of their role in sex-determination and sexual differentiation. This likely non-monophyletic group of Dmrt genes is represented by the Drosophila melanogaster gene Doublesex (Dsx), the Caenorhabditis elegans Male-abnormal-3 (Mab-3) gene, and vertebrate Dmrt1 genes. However, other members of the Dmrt family are much less well studied, and in arthropods, including the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, data on these genes are virtually absent with respect to their embryonic expression and function.

Results: Here we investigate the complete set of Dmrt genes in members of all main groups of Arthropoda and a member of Onychophora, extending our data to Panarthropoda as a whole. We confirm the presence of at least four families of Dmrt genes (including Dsx-like genes) in Panarthropoda and study their expression profiles during embryogenesis. Our work shows that the expression patterns of Dmrt11E, Dmrt93B, and Dmrt99B orthologs are highly conserved among panarthropods. Embryonic expression of Dsx-like genes, however, is more derived, likely as a result of neo-functionalization after duplication.

Conclusions: Our data suggest deep homology of most of the panarthropod Dmrt genes with respect to their function that likely dates back to their last common ancestor. The function of Dsx and Dsx-like genes which are critical for sexual differentiation in animals, however, appears to be much less conserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMC, 2019
Keywords
Doublesex, Sexual differentiation, DMRT, Arthropoda, Panarthropoda, Onychophora, Tribolium, Parasteatoda, Glomeris, Euperipatoides, Neo-functionalization
National Category
Developmental Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-391021 (URN)10.1186/s12983-019-0322-0 (DOI)000474357500001 ()31303887 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2011-4703
Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Lamsdell, J. C., Lagebro, L., Edgecombe, G. D., Budd, G. & Gueriau, P. (2019). Stylonurine eurypterids from the Strud locality (Upper Devonian, Belgium): new insights into the ecology of freshwater sea scorpions. Geological Magazine, 156(10), 1708-1714
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stylonurine eurypterids from the Strud locality (Upper Devonian, Belgium): new insights into the ecology of freshwater sea scorpions
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2019 (English)In: Geological Magazine, ISSN 0016-7568, E-ISSN 1469-5081, Vol. 156, no 10, p. 1708-1714Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Upper Famennian (Upper Devonian) Strud locality has yielded very abundant and diversified flora as well as vertebrate and arthropod faunas. The arthropod fauna, mostly recovered from fine shales deposited in a calm, confined floodplain habitat including temporary pools, has delivered a putative insect and various crustaceans including eumalacostracans and notostracan, spinicaudatan and anostracan branchiopods. Here we present the Strud eurypterids, consisting of semi-articulated juvenile specimens assigned to Hardieopteridae recovered from the pool and floodplain deposits, as well as larger isolated fragments of potential adults recovered from stratigraphically lower, coarser dark sandy layers indicative of a higher-energy fluvial environment. The Strud fossils strongly suggest that, as proposed for some Carboniferous eurypterids, juvenile freshwater eurypterids inhabited sheltered nursery pools and migrated to higher-energy river systems as they matured.

Keywords
Famennian, Hardieopteridae, floodplain habitats, temporary pools, juvenile eurypterids, nursery
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-396659 (URN)10.1017/S0016756818000936 (DOI)000488964700005 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR: 621-2011-4703
Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Ortega-Hernandez, J., Janssen, R. & Budd, G. (2019). The last common ancestor of Ecdysozoa had an adult terminal mouth. Arthropod structure & development, 49, 155-158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The last common ancestor of Ecdysozoa had an adult terminal mouth
2019 (English)In: Arthropod structure & development, ISSN 1467-8039, E-ISSN 1873-5495, Vol. 49, p. 155-158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Ecdysozoa is a major animal Glade whose main uniting feature is a distinctive growth strategy that requires the periodical moulting of the external cuticle. The staggering diversity within Ecdysozoa has prompted substantial efforts to reconstruct their origin and early evolution. Based on palaentological and developmental data, we proposed a scenario for the early evolution of the ecdysozoan clade Panarthropoda (Onychophora, Tardigrada, Euarthropoda), and postulated that a terminal mouth is ancestral for this lineage. In light of the accompanying comment by Claus Nielsen, we take this opportunity to clarify the significance of our argumentation for Panarthropoda in the phylogenetic context of Ecdysozoa, and Bilateria more broadly. We conclude that the ancestral ecdysozoan most likely had an adult terminal mouth, and that the last common ancestors of all the phyla that constitute Ecdysozoa almost certainly also had an adult terminal mouth. The occurrence of a ventral-facing mouth in various adult ecdysozoans - particularly panarthropods - is the result of convergence. Despite the paucity of embryological data on fossil taxa, we contemplate the likelihood that a developmentally early ventral mouth opening could be ancestral for Ecdysozoa, and if so, then this would represent a symplesiomorphy of Bilateria as a whole.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019
Keywords
Panarthropoda, Cambrian, Bilateria, Evolution, Lobopodian
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387230 (URN)10.1016/j.asd.2018.11.003 (DOI)000466452200014 ()30458236 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2011-4703
Available from: 2019-06-20 Created: 2019-06-20 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Hogvall, M., Budd, G. & Janssen, R. (2018). Gene expression analysis of potential morphogen signalling modifying factors in Panarthropoda. EvoDevo, 9, Article ID 20.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene expression analysis of potential morphogen signalling modifying factors in Panarthropoda
2018 (English)In: EvoDevo, ISSN 2041-9139, E-ISSN 2041-9139, Vol. 9, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Morphogen signalling represents a key mechanism of developmental processes during animal development. Previously, several evolutionary conserved morphogen signalling pathways have been identified, and their players such as the morphogen receptors, morphogen modulating factors (MMFs) and the morphogens themselves have been studied. MMFs are factors that regulate morphogen distribution and activity. The interactions of MMFs with different morphogen signalling pathways such as Wnt signalling, Hedgehog (Hh) signalling and Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signalling are complex because some of the MMFs have been shown to interact with more than one signalling pathway, and depending on genetic context, to have different, biphasic or even opposing function. This complicates the interpretation of expression data and functional data of MMFs and may be one reason why data on MMFs in other arthropods than Drosophila are scarce or totally lacking.

Results: As a first step to a better understanding of the potential roles of MMFs in arthropod development, we investigate here the embryonic expression patterns of division abnormally delayed (dally), dally-like protein (dlp), shifted (shf) and secreted frizzled-related protein 125 (sFRP125) and sFRP34 in the beetle Tribolium castaneum, the spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum, the millipede Glomeris marginata and the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis. This pioneer study represents the first comprehensive comparative data set of these genes in panarthropods.

Conclusions: Expression profiles reveal a high degree of diversity, suggesting that MMFs may represent highly evolvable nodes in otherwise conserved gene regulatory networks. Conserved aspects of MMF expression, however, appear to concern function in segmentation and limb development, two of the key topics of evolutionary developmental research.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMC, 2018
Keywords
Gene regulatory networks, Development, Evolution, Arthropoda, Panarthropoda, Onychophora
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368102 (URN)10.1186/s13227-018-0109-y (DOI)000446515200001 ()30288252 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2011-4703
Available from: 2018-12-03 Created: 2018-12-03 Last updated: 2018-12-03Bibliographically approved
Budd, G. & Mann, R. P. (2018). History is written by the victors: The effect of the push of the past on the fossil record. Evolution, 72(11), 2276-2291
Open this publication in new window or tab >>History is written by the victors: The effect of the push of the past on the fossil record
2018 (English)In: Evolution, ISSN 0014-3820, E-ISSN 1558-5646, Vol. 72, no 11, p. 2276-2291Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Survivorship biases can generate remarkable apparent rate heterogeneities through time in otherwise homogeneous birth-death models of phylogenies. They are a potential explanation for many striking patterns seen in the fossil record and molecular phylogenies. One such bias is the "push of the past": clades that survived a substantial length of time are likely to have experienced a high rate of early diversification. This creates the illusion of a secular rate slow-down through time that is, rather, a reversion to the mean. An extra effect increasing early rates of lineage generation is also seen in large clades. These biases are important but relatively neglected influences on many aspects of diversification patterns in the fossil record and elsewhere, such as diversification spikes after mass extinctions and at the origins of clades; they also influence rates of fossilization, changes in rates of phenotypic evolution and even molecular clocks. These inevitable features of surviving and/or large clades should thus not be generalized to the diversification process as a whole without additional study of small and extinct clades, and raise questions about many of the traditional explanations of the patterns seen in the fossil record.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
Crown groups, diversification rates, mass extinctions, molecular clocks, push of the past, survivorship bias
National Category
Evolutionary Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371092 (URN)10.1111/evo.13593 (DOI)000449670700001 ()30257040 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-12-19 Created: 2018-12-19 Last updated: 2019-01-07Bibliographically approved
Slater, B., Willman, S., Budd, G. E. & Peel, J. S. (2018). Widespread preservation of small carbonaceous fossils (SCFs) in the early Cambrian of North Greenland. Geology, 46(2), 107-110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Widespread preservation of small carbonaceous fossils (SCFs) in the early Cambrian of North Greenland
2018 (English)In: Geology, ISSN 0091-7613, E-ISSN 1943-2682, Vol. 46, no 2, p. 107-110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The early Cambrian (ca. 518 Ma) Sirius Passet Lagerstätte of North Greenland is one of the most celebrated sites bearing fossils of soft-bodied organisms, and provides key insights into the Cambrian explosion of animal life. Unlike the younger Burgess Shale (508 Ma), the Sirius Passet biota does not preserve original carbonaceous material because of its history of metamorphic heating. Nearby sediments from within the same formation, however, have escaped the worst effects of thermal alteration. We report an entirely new diversity of metazoan remains preserved in a Burgess Shale–type fashion from sediments throughout the Buen Formation, in the form of small carbonaceous fossils (SCFs). The assemblages include the oldest known pterobranch hemichordates, diverse cuticular spines of scalidophoran worms, demineralized trilobite cuticle, bivalved arthropods (Spinospitella-like and Isoxys-like forms), protoconodonts, and a variety of less phylogenetically constrained metazoan and protistan forms. Together these SCFs capture exceptional microanatomical details of early Cambrian metazoans and offer new insights into taphonomic pathways at Sirius Passet and the nature of Burgess Shale–type preservation.

Keywords
Cambrian, small carbonaceous fossils, Burgess Shale-type preservation, Greenland
National Category
Geology Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-337294 (URN)10.1130/G39788.1 (DOI)000427093900005 ()
Available from: 2018-01-15 Created: 2018-01-15 Last updated: 2019-04-24Bibliographically approved
Altenburger, A., Martinez, P., Budd, G. E. & Holmer, L. E. (2017). Gene Expression Patterns in Brachiopod Larvae Refute the "€œBrachiopod-Fold"€ Hypothesis. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 5, 1-3, Article ID 74.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene Expression Patterns in Brachiopod Larvae Refute the "€œBrachiopod-Fold"€ Hypothesis
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, Vol. 5, p. 1-3, article id 74Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Keywords
Brachiopoda, body plan, evolution, brachiopod fold, gene expression, ontogeny
National Category
Biological Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Historical Geology and Palaeontology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328337 (URN)10.3389/fcell.2017.00074 (DOI)000455238900074 ()28879180 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2012-1658
Available from: 2017-08-22 Created: 2017-08-22 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9007-4369

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