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Marshall, M., Lund, P.-E. & Barg, S. (2017). Molecular Mechanisms of V-SNARE Function in Secretory Granule Exocytosis. Paper presented at 58th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical-Society, FEB 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, CA. Biophysical Journal, 112(3), 395A-395A.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Molecular Mechanisms of V-SNARE Function in Secretory Granule Exocytosis
2017 (English)In: Biophysical Journal, ISSN 0006-3495, E-ISSN 1542-0086, Vol. 112, no 3, 395A-395A p.Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CELL PRESS, 2017
National Category
Biophysics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332760 (URN)000402375600962 ()
Conference
58th Annual Meeting of the Biophysical-Society, FEB 15-19, 2014, San Francisco, CA
Available from: 2017-11-06 Created: 2017-11-06 Last updated: 2017-11-06
Marshall, M. R., Pattu, V., Halimani, M., Maier-Peuschel, M., Müller, M.-L., Becherer, U., . . . Rettig, J. (2015). VAMP8-dependent fusion of recycling endosomes with the plasma membrane facilitates T lymphocyte cytotoxicity.. Journal of Cell Biology, 210(1).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>VAMP8-dependent fusion of recycling endosomes with the plasma membrane facilitates T lymphocyte cytotoxicity.
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cell Biology, ISSN 0021-9525, E-ISSN 1540-8140, Vol. 210, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) eliminate infected and neoplastic cells through directed release of cytotoxic granule contents. Although multiple SNARE proteins have been implicated in cytotoxic granule exocytosis, the role of vesicular SNARE proteins, i.e., vesicle-associated membrane proteins (VAMPs), remains enigmatic. VAMP8 was posited to represent the cytotoxic granule vesicular SNARE protein mediating exocytosis in mice. In primary human CTLs, however, VAMP8 colocalized with Rab11a-positive recycling endosomes. Upon stimulation, these endosomes rapidly trafficked to and fused with the plasma membrane, preceding fusion of cytotoxic granules. Knockdown of VAMP8 blocked both recycling endosome and cytotoxic granule fusion at immune synapses, without affecting activating signaling. Mechanistically, VAMP8-dependent recycling endosomes deposited syntaxin-11 at immune synapses, facilitating assembly of plasma membrane SNARE complexes for cytotoxic granule fusion. Hence, cytotoxic granule exocytosis is a sequential, multivesicle fusion process requiring VAMP8-mediated recycling endosome fusion before cytotoxic granule fusion. Our findings imply that secretory granule exocytosis pathways in other cell types may also be more complex than previously appreciated.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Research subject
Immunology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298305 (URN)10.1083/jcb.201411093 (DOI)000357763600013 ()26124288 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Halimani, M., Pattu, V., Marshall, M. R., Chang, H. F., Matti, U., Jung, M., . . . Rettig, J. (2014). Syntaxin11 serves as a t-SNARE for the fusion of lytic granules in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes. European Journal of Immunology, 44(2).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syntaxin11 serves as a t-SNARE for the fusion of lytic granules in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes
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2014 (English)In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 44, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

CTLs kill target cells via fusion of lytic granules (LGs) at the immunological synapse (IS). Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) function as executors of exocytosis. The importance of SNAREs in CTL function is evident in the form of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 4 that is caused by mutations in Syntaxin11 (Stx11), a Qa-SNARE protein. Here, we investigate the molecular mechanism of Stx11 function in primary human effector CTLs with high temporal and spatial resolution. Downregulation of endogenous Stx11 resulted in a complete inhibition of LG fusion that was paralleled by a reduction in LG dwell time at the IS. Dual color evanescent wave imaging suggested a sequential process, in which first Stx11 is transported to the IS through a subpopulation of recycling endosomes. The resulting Stx11 clusters at the IS then serve as a platform to mediate fusion of arriving LGs. We conclude that Stx11 functions as a t-SNARE for the final fusion of LG at the IS, explaining the severe phenotype of familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 4 on a molecular level.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298306 (URN)10.1002/eji.201344011 (DOI)000331901200027 ()24227526 (PubMedID)
Funder
German Research Foundation (DFG), GK1326 SFB894
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Dudenhöffer-Pfeifer, M., Schirra, C., Pattu, V., Halimani, M., Maier-Peuschel, M., Marshall, M. R., . . . Rettig, J. (2013). Different Munc13 isoforms function as priming factors in lytic granule release from murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes.. Traffic: the International Journal of Intracellular Transport, 14(7).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Different Munc13 isoforms function as priming factors in lytic granule release from murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
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2013 (English)In: Traffic: the International Journal of Intracellular Transport, ISSN 1398-9219, E-ISSN 1600-0854, Vol. 14, no 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to fuse lytic granules (LGs) with the plasma membrane at the immunological synapse, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) have to render these LGs fusion-competent through the priming process. In secretory tissues such as brain and neuroendocrine glands, this process is mediated by members of the Munc13 protein family. In human CTLs, mutations in the Munc13-4 gene cause a severe loss in killing efficiency, resulting in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 3, suggesting a similar role of other Munc13 isoforms in the immune system. Here, we investigate the contribution of different Munc13 isoforms to the priming process of murine CTLs at both the mRNA and protein level. We demonstrate that Munc13-1 and Munc13-4 are the only Munc13 isoforms present in mouse CTLs. Both isoforms rescue the drastical secretion defect of CTLs derived from Munc13-4-deficient Jinx mice. Mobility studies using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy indicate that Munc13-4 and Munc13-1 are responsible for the priming process of LGs. Furthermore, the domains of the Munc13 protein, which is responsible for functional fusion, could be identified. We conclude from these data that both isoforms of the Munc13 family, Munc13-1 and Munc13-4, are functionally redundant in murine CTLs.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298307 (URN)10.1111/tra.12074 (DOI)000320180400006 ()23590328 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Pattu, V., Qu, B., Schwarz, E. C., Strauss, B., Weins, L., Bhat, S. S., . . . Hoth, M. (2012). SNARE protein expression and localization in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes.. European Journal of Immunology, 42(2).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SNARE protein expression and localization in human cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
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2012 (English)In: European Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0014-2980, E-ISSN 1521-4141, Vol. 42, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The major function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is to eliminate pathogen-infected and tumorigenic cells. This is mediated mainly through the exocytosis of lytic granules (LGs) containing cytotoxic components, such as perforin and granzymes at the immunological synapse (IS). The soluble NSF attachment receptor (SNARE) protein isoforms are well known to be required for vesicle exocytosis in neuronal synapses, but their potential function in CTLs is only partly understood. Here, we examined the expression of SNARE proteins before and after the activation of primary human CD8(+) T cells and determined their co-localization with LGs and CD3 after IS formation with target cells. We found that several key SNARE proteins in neuronal cells were not expressed in CTLs, such as syntaxin1B2 and SNAP-25. Vti1b, Stx8 and Stx16 had the highest degrees of co-localization with LGs while Stx3, Stx4, Stx6, Stx7, Stx8, Stx13, Vti1b, VAMP3 and VAMP4 co-localized with CD3. Our data provide the first complete expression profile and localization of SNAREs in primary human CD8(+) T cells, laying the groundwork for further understanding their potential role in T-cell function.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298308 (URN)10.1002/eji.201141915 (DOI)000299337800022 ()22120889 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Fu, Y., Westenbroek, R. E., Yu, F. H., Clark, J. P., Marshall, M. R., Scheuer, T. & Catterall, W. A. (2011). Deletion of the distal C terminus of CaV1.2 channels leads to loss of beta-adrenergic regulation and heart failure in vivo. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286(14).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deletion of the distal C terminus of CaV1.2 channels leads to loss of beta-adrenergic regulation and heart failure in vivo
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 286, no 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

L-type calcium currents conducted by CaV1.2 channels initiate excitation-contraction coupling in cardiac and vascular smooth muscle. In the heart, the distal portion of the C terminus (DCT) is proteolytically processed in vivo and serves as a noncovalently associated autoinhibitor of CaV1.2 channel activity. This autoinhibitory complex, with A-kinase anchoring protein-15 (AKAP15) bound to the DCT, is hypothesized to serve as the substrate for β-adrenergic regulation in the fight-or-flight response. Mice expressing CaV1.2 channels with the distal C terminus deleted (DCT-/-) develop cardiac hypertrophy and die prematurely after E15. Cardiac hypertrophy and survival rate were improved by drug treatments that reduce peripheral vascular resistance and hypertension, consistent with the hypothesis that CaV1.2 hyperactivity in vascular smooth muscle causes hypertension, hypertrophy, and premature death. However, in contrast to expectation, L-type Ca2+ currents in cardiac myocytes from DCT-/- mice were dramatically reduced due to decreased cell-surface expression of CaV1.2 protein, and the voltage dependence of activation and the kinetics of inactivation were altered. CaV1.2 channels in DCT-/- myocytes fail to respond to activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin, and the localized expression of AKAP15 is reduced. Therefore, we conclude that the DCT of CaV1.2 channels is required in vivo for normal vascular regulation, cell-surface expression of CaV1.2 channels in cardiac myocytes, and β-adrenergic stimulation of L-type Ca2+ currents in the heart.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298313 (URN)10.1074/jbc.M110.175307 (DOI)000289077500073 ()21216955 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Qu, B., Pattu, V., Junker, C., Schwarz, E. C., Bhat, S. S., Kummerow, C., . . . Hoth, M. (2011). Docking of lytic granules at the immunological synapse in human CTL requires Vti1b-dependent pairing with CD3 endosomes.. Journal of Immunology, 186(12).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Docking of lytic granules at the immunological synapse in human CTL requires Vti1b-dependent pairing with CD3 endosomes.
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Immunology, ISSN 0022-1767, E-ISSN 1550-6606, Vol. 186, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lytic granule (LG)-mediated apoptosis is the main mechanism by which CTL kill virus-infected and tumorigenic target cells. CTL form a tight junction with the target cells, which is called the immunological synapse (IS). To avoid unwanted killing of neighboring cells, exocytosis of lytic granules (LG) is tightly controlled and restricted to the IS. In this study, we show that in activated human primary CD8(+) T cells, docking of LG at the IS requires tethering LG with CD3-containing endosomes (CD3-endo). Combining total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and fast deconvolution microscopy (both in living cells) with confocal microscopy (in fixed cells), we found that LG and CD3-endo tether and are cotransported to the IS. Paired but not single LG are accumulated at the IS. The dwell time of LG at the IS is substantially enhanced by tethering with CD3-endo, resulting in a preferential release of paired LG over single LG. The SNARE protein Vti1b is required for tethering of LG and CD3-endo. Downregulation of Vti1b reduces tethering of LG with CD3-endo. This leads to an impaired accumulation and docking of LG at the IS and a reduction of target cell killing. Therefore, Vti1b-dependent tethering of LG and CD3-endo determines accumulation, docking, and efficient lytic granule secretion at the IS.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298310 (URN)10.4049/jimmunol.1003471 (DOI)000291309700030 ()21562157 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Marshall, M. R., Clark, J. P., Westenbroek, R., Yu, F. H., Scheuer, T. & Catterall, W. A. (2011). Functional roles of a C-terminal signaling complex of CaV1 channels and A-kinase anchoring protein 15 in brain neurons. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 286(14).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional roles of a C-terminal signaling complex of CaV1 channels and A-kinase anchoring protein 15 in brain neurons
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, ISSN 0021-9258, E-ISSN 1083-351X, Vol. 286, no 14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Regulation of CaV1.2 channels in cardiac myocytes by the β-adrenergic pathway requires a signaling complex in which the proteolytically processed distal C-terminal domain acts as an autoinhibitor of channel activity and mediates up-regulation by the β-adrenergic receptor and PKA bound to A-kinase anchoring protein 15 (AKAP15). We examined the significance of this distal C-terminal signaling complex for CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 channels in neurons. AKAP15 co-immunoprecipitates with CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 channels. AKAP15 has overlapping localization with CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 channels in cell bodies and proximal dendrites and is closely co-localized with CaV1.2 channels in punctate clusters. The neuronal AKAP MAP2B, which also interacts with CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 channels, has complementary localization to AKAP15, suggesting different functional roles in calcium channel regulation. Studies with mice that lack the distal C-terminal domain of CaV1.2 channels (CaV1.2ΔDCT) reveal that AKAP15 interacts with neuronal CaV1.2 channels via their C terminus in vivo and is co-localized in punctate clusters of CaV1.2 channels via that interaction. CaV1.2ΔDCT neurons have reduced L-type calcium current, indicating that the distal C-terminal domain is required for normal functional expression in vivo. Deletion of the distal C-terminal domain impairs calcium-dependent signaling from CaV1.2 channels to the nucleus, as shown by reduction in phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein. Our results define AKAP signaling complexes of CaV1.2 and CaV1.3 channels in brain and reveal three previously unrecognized functional roles for the distal C terminus of neuronal CaV1.2 channels in vivo: increased functional expression, anchoring of AKAP15 and PKA, and initiation of excitation-transcription coupling.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298311 (URN)10.1074/jbc.M110.175257 (DOI)000289077500074 ()21224388 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Pattu, V., Qu, B., Marshall, M., Becherer, U., Junker, C., Matti, U., . . . Rettig, J. (2011). Syntaxin7 is required for lytic granule release from cytotoxic T lymphocytes.. Traffic: the International Journal of Intracellular Transport, 12(7).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Syntaxin7 is required for lytic granule release from cytotoxic T lymphocytes.
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2011 (English)In: Traffic: the International Journal of Intracellular Transport, ISSN 1398-9219, E-ISSN 1600-0854, Vol. 12, no 7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

SNARE proteins are essential fusion mediators for many intracellular trafficking events. Here, we investigate the role of Syntaxin7 (Stx7) in the release of lytic granules from cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). We show that Stx7 is expressed in CTLs and is preferentially localized to the region of lytic granule release, the immunological synapse (IS). Interference of Stx7 function by expression of a dominant-negative Stx7 construct or by small interfering RNA leads to a dramatic reduction of CTL-mediated killing of target cells. Real-time visualization of individual lytic granules at the IS by evanescent wave microscopy reveals that lytic granules in Stx7-deprived CTLs not only fail to fuse with the plasma membrane but even fail to accumulate at the IS. Surprisingly, the accumulation defect is not caused by an overall reduction in lytic granule number, but by a defect in the trafficking of T cell receptors (TCRs) through endosomes. Subsequent high-resolution nanoscopy shows that Stx7 colocalizes with Rab7 on late endosomes. We conclude from these data that the accumulation of recycling TCRs at the IS is a SNARE-dependent process and that Stx7-mediated processing of recycling TCRs through endosomes is a prerequisite for the cytolytic function of CTLs.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298309 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0854.2011.01193.x (DOI)000292029600010 ()21438968 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Rowland, N. E., Marshall, M. & Robertson, K. (2001). Anorectic effect of dehydroepiandrosterone combined with dexfenfluramine or thionisoxetine. European Journal of Pharmacology, 419(1).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anorectic effect of dehydroepiandrosterone combined with dexfenfluramine or thionisoxetine
2001 (English)In: European Journal of Pharmacology, ISSN 0014-2999, E-ISSN 1879-0712, Vol. 419, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Free feeding rats given supplementary 1 h access per day to a palatable dessert test meal were tested for the anorectic effect of dehydroepiandrosterone alone or in combination with either the serotonin releasing agent dexfenfluramine or the norepinephrine uptake inhibitor thionisoxetine (LY 368975). Isobolographic analysis showed that the effect of dehydroepiandrosterone combined with either dexfenfluramine or thionisoxetine was within the range predicted for additivity of action.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-298315 (URN)11348631 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-07-01 Created: 2016-07-01 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
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