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Bohlin, Gunilla
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Publications (10 of 64) Show all publications
Frick, M. A., Forslund, T., Fransson, M., Johansson, M., Bohlin, G. & Brocki, K. C. (2018). The role of sustained attention, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament in the development of early self-regulation. British Journal of Psychology, 109(2), 277-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of sustained attention, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament in the development of early self-regulation
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2018 (English)In: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 277-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated infant predictors of early cognitive and emotional self-regulation from an intrinsic and caregiving environmental perspective. Sustained attention, reactive aspects of infant temperament, and maternal sensitivity were assessed at 10months (n=124) and early self-regulation (including executive functions, EF, and emotion regulation) was assessed at 18months. The results indicated that sustained attention predicted early EF, which provide empirical support for the hierarchical framework of EF development, advocating early attention as a foundation for the development of cognitive self-regulation. Maternal sensitivity and surgency predicted emotion regulation, in that infants of sensitive mothers showed more regulatory behaviours and a longer latency to distress, whereas high levels of surgency predicted low emotion regulation, suggesting both the caregiving environment and temperament as important in the development of self-regulation. Interaction effects suggested high sustained attention to be a protective factor for children of insensitive mothers, in relation to emotion regulation. In addition, high levels of maternal sensitivity seemed to foster development of emotion regulation among children with low to medium levels of sustained attention and/or surgency. In all, our findings point to the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in infant development of self-regulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
emotion regulation, executive functions, infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, self-regulation, sustained attention
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352572 (URN)10.1111/bjop.12266 (DOI)000429702400007 ()28895129 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 421-2012-1222
Available from: 2018-08-07 Created: 2018-08-07 Last updated: 2018-08-07Bibliographically approved
Thorell, L. B., Sjowall, D., Diamatopoulou, S., Rydell, A.-M. & Bohlin, G. (2017). Emotional functioning, ADHD symptoms, and peer problems: A longitudinal investigation of children age 6-9.5years. Infant and Child Development, 26(4), Article ID e2008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Emotional functioning, ADHD symptoms, and peer problems: A longitudinal investigation of children age 6-9.5years
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2017 (English)In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 26, no 4, article id e2008Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to investigate the interplay between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and emotional functioning in relation to peer problems. Parent ratings of ADHD symptoms and regulation/reactivity with regard to four emotions (anger, sadness, fear, and happiness/exuberance) at age six were investigated in relation to sociometric peer nominations 3years later in a non-clinical sample (n=91). Reactivity and regulation were only modestly correlated, and these two aspects of emotional functioning did not show the same relation to peer problems. The main finding was that, it was primarily children with high levels of ADHD symptoms in combination with either high dysregulation or low reactivity with regard to happiness/exuberance who received many negative peer nominations. In addition, high levels of ADHD symptoms in combination with high reactivity with regard to anger were associated with nominations of physical aggression. The modest relation between reactivity and regulation emphasizes the importance of separating these two constructs. The fact that it was primarily happiness/exuberance, as opposed to negative emotions, that was associated with negative peer nominations suggests that future studies are needed to clarify the role of specific emotions in relation to the functional impairments associated with ADHD symptoms. Highlights The present study aimed to investigate the interplay between ADHD symptoms and emotional functioning in relation to peer problems using a longitudinal design (age 6-9 years). Ratings of ADHD symptoms and emotional functioning were investigated in relation to sociometric peer nominations and results showed that it was primarily children with high levels of ADHD symptoms in combination with either high dysregulation or low reactivity with regard to happiness/exuberance who received many negative peer nominations. The fact that it was primarily happiness/exuberance, as opposed to negative emotions, that was associated with negative peer nominations suggests that future studies are needed to clarify the role of specific emotions in relation to the functional impairments associated with ADHD symptoms.

Keywords
ADHD symptoms, emotion regulation, emotional reactivity, peer problems, sociometry
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333531 (URN)10.1002/icd.2008 (DOI)000407253000007 ()
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
Sjöwall, D., Bohlin, G., Rydell, A.-M. & Thorell, L. B. (2017). Neuropsychological deficits in preschool as predictors of ADHD symptoms and academic achievement in late adolescence. Child Neuropsychology, 23(1), 111-128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuropsychological deficits in preschool as predictors of ADHD symptoms and academic achievement in late adolescence
2017 (English)In: Child Neuropsychology, ISSN 0929-7049, E-ISSN 1744-4136, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 111-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High levels of ADHD symptoms are related to severe negative outcomes, which underscore the importance of identifying early markers of these behavior problems. The main aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether neuropsychological deficits in preschool are related to later ADHD symptoms and academic achievement, over and above the influence of early ADHD symptom levels. The present study is unique because it includes a broader range of predictors compared to previous studies and the participants are followed over time for as long as 13 years (i.e., ages 5 – 18 years). Preschool data included measures of executive functioning and reaction time variability as well as emotional reactivity and emotion regulation of both positive and negative emotions. When controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, working memory, reaction time variability, and regula- tion of happiness/exuberance were significantly related to inattention whereas regulation of happiness/ exuberance and anger reactivity were significantly related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Furthermore, working memory and reaction time variability in preschool were significantly related to academic achievement in late adolescence beyond the influence of early ADHD symptoms. These findings could suggest that it is possible to screen for early neuropsychological deficits and thereby identify children who are at risk of negative outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that interventions need to look beyond executive functioning deficits in ADHD and also target the role of emotional functioning and reaction time variability. The importance of including both the positive and negative aspects of emotional functioning and distinguishing between emotion regulation and emotional reactivity was also demonstrated.

Keywords
ADHD, Executive function, Emotion regulation, Academic achievement, Longitudinal
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-293545 (URN)10.1080/09297049.2015.1063595 (DOI)000394360700006 ()26212755 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-05-13 Created: 2016-05-13 Last updated: 2017-04-18Bibliographically approved
Salari, R., Bohlin, G., Rydell, A.-M. & Thorell, L. (2017). Neuropsychological functioning and attachment representations in early school age as predictors of ADHD symptoms in late adolescence. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 48(3), 370-384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuropsychological functioning and attachment representations in early school age as predictors of ADHD symptoms in late adolescence
2017 (English)In: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 48, no 3, p. 370-384Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study aimed to examine relations between parent and child attachment representations and neuropsychological functions at age 8, as well as relations between these constructs and ADHD symptoms over a 10-year period. A community-based sample of 105 children (52 boys) participated. Measures of attachment representations and a range of neuropsychological functions were collected at age 8. Parents rated emotion dysregulation and ADHD symptoms at age 8 and ADHD symptoms again at age 18. Significant, although modest, relations were found between disorganized attachment and some aspects of neuropsychological functioning in childhood. When studying outcomes in late adolescence and controlling for early ADHD symptom levels, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment remained significant in relation to both ADHD symptom domains, and one measure of inhibition remained significant for hyperactivity/impulsivity. When examining independent effects, spatial working memory and disorganized attachment were related to inattention, whereas spatial working memory and dysregulation of happiness/exuberance were related to hyperactivity/impulsivity. Our findings showing that disorganized attachment is longitudinally related to ADHD symptoms over and above the influence of both neuropsychological functioning and early ADHD symptom levels highlights the importance of including measures of attachment representations when trying to understand the development of ADHD symptoms. If replicated in more “at-risk” samples, these findings could also suggest that parent–child attachment should be taken into consideration when children are referred for assessment and treatment of ADHD.

National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303710 (URN)10.1007/s10578-016-0664-1 (DOI)000400070900002 ()27349655 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2016-09-22 Created: 2016-09-22 Last updated: 2017-06-09Bibliographically approved
Johansson, M., Marciszko, C., Brocki, K. C. & Bohlin, G. (2016). Individual differences in early executive functions: A longitudinal study from 12 to 36 months. Infant and Child Development, 25(6), 533-549
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Individual differences in early executive functions: A longitudinal study from 12 to 36 months
2016 (English)In: Infant and Child Development, ISSN 1522-7227, E-ISSN 1522-7219, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 533-549Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It has been proposed that executive functions develop in a hierarchical fashion, such that early, simple abilities seen already during the first year of life become increasingly coordinated with development, thereby enabling the emergence of more complex abilities. Although this hierarchical model has received support from empirical studies comparing executive function task performance across age groups, necessary support from longitudinal studies taking an individual differences perspective on development is missing. In addition, the model stresses the importance of attention in executive function development, but we do not know in what way attention contributes to the continued development once the earliest forms of simple functions have emerged. Using a longitudinal design, the present study investigated the relations between individual differences in simpler forms of executive functions as well as sustained attention at age 12months and more complex executive functions at 24 and 36months. The results indicated partial support for the hierarchical model, with infant inhibition being predictive of working memory in toddlerhood. In addition, at 12months, sustained attention contributed to the development of toddler executive functions via the simple executive functions. This suggests that by this age, sustained attention has become an integrated part of early, simple executive functions.

Keywords
Executive functions, Sustained attention, Infancy, Hierarchical development
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-263509 (URN)10.1002/icd.1952 (DOI)000389953800005 ()
Available from: 2015-10-01 Created: 2015-10-01 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Fransson, M., Granqvist, P., Marciszko, C., Hagekull, B. & Bohlin, G. (2016). Is middle childhood attachment related to social functioning in young adulthood?. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 57(2), 108-116
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is middle childhood attachment related to social functioning in young adulthood?
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2016 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study (N = 69) was to examine whether middle childhood attachment, measured using the Separation Anxiety Test (Slough, Goyette & Greenberg, 1988), predicts aspects of social functioning (social initiative, prosocial orientation, social anxiety, loneliness) in young adulthood. Insecurity-avoidance at age 8.5 years was, as expected, negatively related to social initiative and prosocial orientation, and was also positively related to social anxiety and loneliness at age 21 years. In addition, insecurity-avoidance contributed to developmental change in social anxiety from middle childhood to young adulthood. Contrary to our expectations, the two security scales were generally unrelated to future social functioning. Taken together, these results extend previous research by showing that insecurity-avoidance is related to social functioning also beyond childhood and adolescence, and that it contributes to developmental change in social functioning over time. The scarcity of prospective links for the attachment security scales points to the need for future studies addressing when and why attachment does not contribute to future social functioning.

National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280478 (URN)DOI: 10.1111/sjop.12276 (DOI)000372356600002 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilRiksbankens Jubileumsfond
Available from: 2016-03-10 Created: 2016-03-10 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Frick, M. A., Forslund, T., Bohlin, G. & Brocki, K. C. (2016). Maternal Sensitivity, Infant Temperament, and Inhibition, as Interactive and Independent Predictors of Early ADHD Symptoms. In: : . Paper presented at 4th Eunethydis International Conference on ADHD, Berlin, Germany, 16th-19th October 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maternal Sensitivity, Infant Temperament, and Inhibition, as Interactive and Independent Predictors of Early ADHD Symptoms
2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-314230 (URN)
Conference
4th Eunethydis International Conference on ADHD, Berlin, Germany, 16th-19th October 2016
Available from: 2017-01-31 Created: 2017-01-31 Last updated: 2017-02-01Bibliographically approved
Granqvist, P., Hesse, E., Fransson, M., Main, M., Hagekull, B. & Bohlin, G. (2016). Prior participation in the strange situation and overstress jointly facilitate disorganized behaviours: implications for theory, research and practice. Attachment & Human Development, 18(3), 235-249
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prior participation in the strange situation and overstress jointly facilitate disorganized behaviours: implications for theory, research and practice
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2016 (English)In: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 235-249Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We seek to understand why a relatively high percentage (39%; vs the meta-analytic average, 15-18%) of disorganized/disoriented (D) classifications has accrued in the low-risk Uppsala Longitudinal Study (ULS) study, using experienced D coders. Prior research indicates that D behaviours do not always indicate attachment disorganization stemming from a history of frightening caregiving. We examined the role of two other presumed factors: participation in a previous strange situation and overstress. Our findings indicate that both factors were highly prevalent in the ULS sample and that they jointly predicted higher rates of D. First, participation in a previous strange situation was associated with significantly higher distress displays during the second visit than occurred among previously untested children, suggesting that prior participation in the strange situation had a sensitizing effect on child distress during the second visit. Second, unless separations were cut short in lieu of high distress during the second visit, re-tested children were disproportionately likely (ca 60%) to be classified D. We argue that these findings have important implications for theory, research, and practice. In particular, we conclude that practitioners must refrain from misattributing the appearance of any D behaviors observed to a history of maltreatment.

Keywords
strange situation; equifinality; measurement; disorganized/disoriented; Attachment
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-280482 (URN)10.1080/14616734.2016.1151061 (DOI)000372197400002 ()26982875 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-03-10 Created: 2016-03-10 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Johansson, M., Marciszko, C., Gredebäck, G., Nyström, P. & Bohlin, G. (2015). Sustained attention in infancy as a longitudinal predictor of self-regulatory functions. Infant Behavior and Development, 41, 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustained attention in infancy as a longitudinal predictor of self-regulatory functions
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2015 (English)In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 41, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous literature suggests that attention processes such as sustained attention would con-stitute a developmental foundation for the self-regulatory functions executive functioningand effortful control (e.g., Garon, Bryson, & Smith, 2008; Rothbart, Derryberry, & Posner,1994). Our main aim was to test this hypothesis by studying whether sustained attentionat age 1 year can predict individual differences in self-regulatory functions at age 2 years.Longitudinal data from 66 infants and their parents were included in the study. Sustainedattention was assessed during free play at age 1 year; executive functioning, measured usingan eye-tracking version of the A-not-B task, and effortful control, measured using parentalratings, were assessed at both age 1 and age 2 years. The results did support a longitudinalprediction of individual differences in 2-year-olds’ self-regulatory functions as a function ofsustained attention at age 1 year. We also found significant improvement in both executivefunctioning and effortful control over time, and the two self-regulatory constructs wererelated in toddlerhood but not in infancy. The study helps increase our understanding ofthe early development of self-regulatory functions necessary for identifying developmentalrisks and, in the future, for developing new interventions.

Keywords
Attention, Self-regulation, Executive functioning, Effortful control, Infancy
National Category
Social Sciences
Research subject
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-263508 (URN)10.1016/j.infbeh.2015.07.001 (DOI)000365375100001 ()26241679 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-10-01 Created: 2015-10-01 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Scholtens, S., Rydell, A.-M., Bohlin, G. & Thorell, L. B. (2014). ADHD Symptoms and Attachment Representations: Considering the Role of Conduct Problems, Cognitive Deficits and Narrative Responses in Non-Attachment-Related Story Stems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42(6), 1033-1042
Open this publication in new window or tab >>ADHD Symptoms and Attachment Representations: Considering the Role of Conduct Problems, Cognitive Deficits and Narrative Responses in Non-Attachment-Related Story Stems
2014 (English)In: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, ISSN 0091-0627, E-ISSN 1573-2835, Vol. 42, no 6, p. 1033-1042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The overall aim of the present study was to investigate ADHD symptoms in relation to attachment representations. We used both attachment- and non-attachment-related story stems, which allowed us to investigate whether problems with narrative production can explain the relation between ADHD symptoms and attachment representations. We also investigated the role of cognitive deficits and conduct problems in these relations. The sample consisted of 89 children (27 % girls) between 6 and 10 years old, with an oversampling of children with high levels of ADHD symptoms. ADHD symptoms and conduct problems were rated by parents and teachers. Cognitive functioning was investigated using laboratory tests of inhibition, working memory and sustained attention. Attachment representations were coded as secure, organized insecure and disorganized categories. Narrative responses to non-attachment-related story stems were coded for incoherence and negative content. Results showed that children in the disorganized attachment category had significantly higher levels of ADHD symptoms compared to those in the secure category. Both ADHD symptoms and disorganized attachment were related to incoherence and negative content. Attachment representations were not associated with ADHD symptoms when controlling for negative content in response to non-attachment-related story stems. These results suggest that the associations between attachment security and ADHD are yet to be fully understood. Importantly, a propensity to envisage negative events seems to characterize children with high levels of ADHD symptoms.

Keywords
ADHD symptoms, Attachment representations, Cognitive deficits, Narrative, Incoherence, Negative content
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-230072 (URN)10.1007/s10802-014-9854-0 (DOI)000339331100013 ()24562639 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-09-03 Created: 2014-08-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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