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Publications (10 of 12) Show all publications
Hennessey, J. (2019). A Colonial Trans-Pacific Partnership: William Smith Clark, David Pearce Penhallow and Japanese Settler Colonialism in Hokkaido. Settler Colonial Studies
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Colonial Trans-Pacific Partnership: William Smith Clark, David Pearce Penhallow and Japanese Settler Colonialism in Hokkaido
2019 (English)In: Settler Colonial Studies, ISSN 2201-473X, E-ISSN 1838-0743Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

Immediately following the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the new, Western-oriented Japanese government decided to make the colonization of the adjacent northern island of Hokkaido a showcase of and economic engine for Japanese modernity. In so doing, Japanese leaders consciously modelled Japanese settler colonialism there on American models, particularly in the treatment of the indigenous Ainu. As part of this project, a large number of American advisors were hired, including three American professors from Massachusetts Agricultural College who were to found a similar institution in Sapporo. Although the story of these professors is well-known in Japan, their connections to Japanese settler colonialism have never been properly investigated. I argue that these professors, most importantly William Smith Clark and David Pearce Penhallow, served as important conduits of colonial knowledge, spreading both American technologies of settler colonialism to Japan and a positive image of Japanese imperialism in the United States after their return. Most significantly, they spread new, ‘scientific’ understandings of the Ainu that conformed to classic Western colonial tropes and contributed to their systematic dispossession. In these ways, these American ‘brokers of imperialism’ worked in tandem with their Japanese employers to both physically and discursively reform Hokkaido into an American-style ‘frontier’.

Keywords
Kaitakushi, settler colonialism, Hokkaido, Ainu, William Smith Clark, David Pearce Penhallow, Sapporo Agricultural College, scientific racism, colonial propaganda
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-385128 (URN)
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-06-11
Hennessey, J. (2019). Anomalous Aryans?: Western Scientific Racism and the Ainu as a "Lost White Race," 1868-1941. In: : . Paper presented at Space and Frontiers: Teknik- och vetenskapshistoriska dagar 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anomalous Aryans?: Western Scientific Racism and the Ainu as a "Lost White Race," 1868-1941
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

How did academics operating within the framework of scientific racism respond to what appeared to be a direct challenge to the very basis of their theories of racial hierarchy? This project will take anthropological, archaeological and race biological studies of the Ainu as a case study for understanding knowledge production within scientific racism during the period 1868-1941. Starting in the 1870s, European and American scientists became increasingly interested the Ainu, a people indigenous to the Okhotsk region in Northeast Asia that challenged many of their assumptions about race and “civilization.” The Ainu appeared to them to both be “Aryan” or “white” and a “primitive,” “dying race” that was being displaced by Japanese colonization, potentially challenging established notions of “white” racial superiority. Did the Ainu provoke a reevaluation of race biological classifications or were they construed so as to conform to or even strengthen theories of racial hierarchy? This project will chart Western racialized scientific debates about the Ainu in order to better understand how knowledge was produced and legitimized within scientific racism in the decades around the turn of the twentieth century. The results will be compared with existing studies of racial depictions of other groups that were sometimes considered “white,” especially the Sámi and Māori. This project will offer valuable insights into the contingent ways in which scientific knowledge is created in a specific cultural and political context.

Keywords
scientific racism, Ainu, race biology, whiteness
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380407 (URN)
Conference
Space and Frontiers: Teknik- och vetenskapshistoriska dagar 2019
Available from: 2019-03-27 Created: 2019-03-27 Last updated: 2019-03-27
Hennessey, J. (2019). Assimilation, Association and French Advice to Japan on how to Rule Taiwan. French Colonial History
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assimilation, Association and French Advice to Japan on how to Rule Taiwan
2019 (English)In: French Colonial History, ISSN 1539-3402, E-ISSN 1543-7787Article in journal (Refereed) Accepted
Abstract [en]

What trans-imperial connections existed between the French and Japanese Empires? One example that is frequently recounted in Japanese colonial historiography involves the 1895 advice of French legal expert Michel Revon over what administrative system Japan should adopt in Taiwan. According to these accounts, Revon advocated a French assimilationist system for the island in a policy brief that would strongly influence future Japanese Prime Minister Hara Takashi. This article demonstrates that this account is not entirely accurate, offering a new analysis of the primary source material in the context of the prevailing French colonial theories of the 1890s. It argues that Revon was in fact an advocate of association and that Hara Takashi’s program of colonial assimilation was only superficially influenced by French models.

Keywords
Assimilation, Association, Michel Revon, Hara Takashi, Hara Kei, Taiwan
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376629 (URN)
Available from: 2019-02-07 Created: 2019-02-07 Last updated: 2019-02-07
Hennessey, J. (2019). By Jingo!: Methods for Researching Popular Imperialism. History Compass, 17(5), Article ID e12531.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>By Jingo!: Methods for Researching Popular Imperialism
2019 (English)In: History Compass, ISSN 1478-0542, E-ISSN 1478-0542, Vol. 17, no 5, article id e12531Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The study of popular imperialism, or the extent to which the ordinary citizens of an imperial metropole were aware of and supported their country’s imperial expansion, provides a crucial empirical basis for evaluating the causes of and responsibility for colonial aggression. Nevertheless, this topic has received considerably less attention than comparable topics like fascism, genocide or nationalism, and a comparative conversation between scholars of different empires is largely lacking. Together with a companion article, “Imperial Ardor or Apathy? A Comparative International Historiography of Popular Imperialism,” this article will provide inspiration for future studies by summarizing different approaches to and methodological problems involved in the study of popular imperialism, drawing on a wide range of research on several empires.

Keywords
popular imperialism, jingoism, propaganda, audience reception, Orientalism, historical methodology
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377793 (URN)10.1111/hic3.12531 (DOI)000467320200003 ()
Available from: 2019-02-26 Created: 2019-02-26 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Hennessey, J. (2019). Cosmopolitan Colonialists?: American Authors and the Inter-Imperial Exchange of Ideas. In: : . Paper presented at Svenska historikermötet.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cosmopolitan Colonialists?: American Authors and the Inter-Imperial Exchange of Ideas
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This paper will contribute to the emerging historiographical movement of trans-imperial history through the presentation of two now-forgotten Americans who acted as important inter-imperial conduits of colonial knowledge in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: Alleyne Ireland and Poultney Bigelow. Both traveled widely in European, American and Japanese colonies and wrote extensively on comparative colonial administration, bringing the world’s empires into a common framework, but Ireland wrote for an academic audience and Bigelow for a popular one. A comparative analysis of their published works, supplemented by unpublished archival materials, sheds light on the circulation of knowledge in both academic and popular channels that underpinned trans-imperial cooperation and mutual emulation. At present, existing trans-imperial historical studies have focused almost exclusively on high politics. This paper makes an important contribution to the field by expanding the research focus to how trans-imperially circulating colonial knowledge was presented to academic and popular audiences. The last of these is particularly important at a time when Europe and the United States’ colonial legacy is increasingly contested and more empirical data about the how the common citizens of imperial powers were informed about and participated in their country’s colonial expansionism is sorely needed.

Keywords
Alleyne Ireland, Poultney Bigelow, colonial policy studies, trans-imperial history, popular imperialism
National Category
History
Research subject
History; History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383084 (URN)
Conference
Svenska historikermötet
Funder
Åke Wiberg Foundation, H17-0137
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-05-09
Hennessey, J. (2019). Imperial Ardor or Apathy?: A Comparative International Historiography of Popular Imperialism. History Compass, 17(5), Article ID e12546.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Imperial Ardor or Apathy?: A Comparative International Historiography of Popular Imperialism
2019 (English)In: History Compass, ISSN 1478-0542, E-ISSN 1478-0542, Vol. 17, no 5, article id e12546Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Were the ordinary citizens of imperial metropoles during the 19th and 20th centuries arduous supporters or apathetic observers of their country's colonial expansionism,or did their relationship to empire fall somewhere in between? Although this is a central question for understanding the how and why of modern imperialism and evaluating responsibility for colonial wrongs, scholars in the only loosely knit field of popular imperialism have arrived at widely divergent answers. Complementing its companion article, “By Jingo! Methods for Researching Popular Imperialism,” this article will present an overviewof the conclusions of existing studies and present ways that future studies can become more theoretically and methodologically sophisticated through inspiration from comparativeand transnational history, nationalism studies, and genocide studies.

Keywords
popular imperialism, historiography, genocide studies, nationalism studies, transnational history, trans-imperial history
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383083 (URN)10.1111/hic3.12546 (DOI)000467320200001 ()
Available from: 2019-05-09 Created: 2019-05-09 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Hennessey, J. L. (2019). Placing Empire: Travel and the Social Imagination in Imperial Japan [Review]. Journal of Tourism History, 11(2), 213-215
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Placing Empire: Travel and the Social Imagination in Imperial Japan
2019 (English)In: Journal of Tourism History, ISSN 1755-182X, E-ISSN 1755-1838, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 213-215Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Keywords
tourism, Japanese empire, imperialism, Kate McDonald
National Category
History
Research subject
History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-385126 (URN)10.1080/1755182X.2019.1616404 (DOI)000476774100009 ()
Available from: 2019-06-11 Created: 2019-06-11 Last updated: 2019-09-20Bibliographically approved
Hennessey, J. (2018). Engineering Japanese Settler Colonialism in Hokkaido: A Postcolonial Reevaluation of William Wheeler's Work for the Kaitakushi. Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, 6, 2-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Engineering Japanese Settler Colonialism in Hokkaido: A Postcolonial Reevaluation of William Wheeler's Work for the Kaitakushi
2018 (English)In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, Vol. 6, p. 2-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In 1876, the Kaitakushi, the Japanese government agency responsible for the settlement of the northern island of Hokkaido, hired three Americans from Massachusetts Agricultural College: William Smith Clark, William Wheeler and David Pearce Penhallow. Their task was to establish a comparable institution in Hokkaido, Sapporo Agricultural College, that would spread American-style scientific agriculture among new settlers. Although recent historical research has highlighted the colonial nature of the modern settlement of Hokkaido and other American advisors’ role in transmitting modern technologies of settler colonialism, the tenure of these three professors has never been examined from a postcolonial perspective. This article will investigate the writings of engineer William Wheeler, who served as president of the new college for several years and advised the Kaitakushi on numerous infrastructure projects, to look for clues about his attitudes towards and role in Japanese settler colonialism in Hokkaido. Textual evidence reveals Wheeler’s awareness of and complicity in this undertaking.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies, 2018
Keywords
William Wheeler, Sapporo Agricultural College, Hokkaido, settler colonialism, Kaitakushi, Kaitakushi, oyatoi gaikokujin
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372796 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-07-03Bibliographically approved
Hennessey, J. (2018). Rule by Association: Japan in the Global Trans-Imperial Culture, 1868-1912. (Doctoral dissertation). Växjö: Linnaeus University Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Rule by Association: Japan in the Global Trans-Imperial Culture, 1868-1912
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Criticizing one-empire approaches, calls to apply much-needed transnational perspectives and methodologies to colonial history have recently emerged. This groundbreaking scholarship has already revealed that the competition between different European empires after 1850 has typically been overemphasized; in fact, a transnational perspective reveals extensive cooperation between the “great powers” of the age, along with myriad examples of exchanges and transfers of colonial knowledge. In this dissertation, I argue that during the height of the New Imperialism during the latter half of the long nineteenth century, one can go even further and describe the co-production of a “global trans-imperial culture” by all of the colonial powers of the age, facilitated by a common “knowledge infrastructure,” including international congresses, trans-imperial scholarly exchange and expositions. I contend that Japan was an important member of this “colonial club” that was deeply engaged with evolving global colonial discourse and practice throughout this period. Emerging trans-imperial historiography has largely neglected Japan, while historians of Japan have tended to exaggerate its uniqueness in global imperial history and often missed important global trends in colonial policy that explain many characteristics of Japanese expansionism. Furthermore, an oversimplified description of Meiji expansionism as “mimetic imperialism” shared by some Japan scholars and global imperial historians ignores the degree to which all imperial powers imitated each other during this period and the great extent to which Japan was involved in multidirectional inter-imperial exchanges.

The dissertation has three interrelated aims. First, it applies cutting-edge theories of inter-imperial exchanges and cooperation to the Japanese Empire, arguing that Japan took part in a developing global trans-imperial culture throughout the Meiji period. Focusing on connections rather than comparison, it traces how and when different examples of Western colonial knowledge came to Japan and ways in which Japan influenced other empires, investigating trans-imperial conduits like foreign consultants, scholarly texts and international expositions. Secondly, it works to dismantle persistent notions of Japan as a marginal latecomer to this community of imperial powers by demonstrating that Japan engaged with inter-imperially circulating discourses and practices from as early as 1868 and contributed to the development of the culture as a whole. The dissertation joins a growing body of critical work that argues that Meiji-era Hokkaidō is best understood as a colony in which modern technologies of settler colonialism were systematically employed starting directly after the Meiji Restoration.

Finally, it employs theories of colonial association as a kind of overarching case-study to illustrate how ideas and practices of colonial governance circulated over imperial boundaries and concurrently influenced all empires of the time. During the second half of the nineteenth century, the strategy of assimilating colonized peoples became increasingly discredited among the colonial policy elite worldwide. New notions of how best to rule a colonial territory based on Social Darwinism and British and Dutch experiments in indirect rule, later collectively referred to as the “association” of colonizer and colonized with minimal cultural interchange, became correspondingly influential. Although assimilation and association are frequently treated as unchanging traits of specific empires (with France and Japan typically identified as assimilationist and Britain and the Netherlands as associationist), this dissertation contends that shifts between assimilation and association happened concurrently in different empires around the world, providing important evidence of a common trans-imperial culture. I will demonstrate that Japanese colonial elites engaged with these ideas at the same time as their counterparts in Western empires, with Japan’s famous radical assimilation campaign coming only in the final years of its empire. Revealing the strong influence of associationist thought among Meiji leaders helps to illuminate the consistency and “timeliness” of Japanese colonial discourse and practice and challenges anachronistic notions of the Japanese Empire always being characterized by a unique form of colonial assimilationism.

The empirical “body” of the dissertation is divided into three large, thematic sections. Part I investigates the trans-imperial linkages between Japan and the United States during Japan’s colonization of Hokkaidō around the 1870s. Chapters 1 - 3 consider the role of three American professors, William Smith Clark, William Wheeler and David Pearce Penhallow, who were hired to establish an agricultural college as part of the colonial development of Hokkaidō. I argue that these American professors contributed to Japan’s colonial expansionism in at least three ways: by helping the Kaitakushi physically transform Hokkaidō into a Japanese settler colony, by spreading a colonial worldview according to which the Ainu were portrayed as a primitive, dying race similar to Native Americans, and finally by acting as propagandists for Japanese expansionism after their return. Chapter 4 considers continuing links to American technologies of settler colonialism in the next generation through the writings of Satō Shōsuke on Hokkaidō’s colonial status. Satō graduated in Sapporo Agricultural College’s first class and later studied land policy in America before returning and becoming president of his alma mater.

Part II investigates Japan’s early colonization of Taiwan and the debates over its colonial status, which remained highly ambiguous for more than a decade after its acquisition by Japan in 1895. Chapter 5 considers the opinions of three Western colonial consultants from France, Britain and the United States who were engaged by the Japanese government in 1895 from the perspective of assimilation and association. I contend that contrary to previous assertions, all three individuals should be understood as proponents of globally fashionable theories of colonial association rather than as advocates of different national colonial cultures. Chapter 6 is devoted to the writings of Takekoshi Yosaburō, a prominent Japanese proponent of association. I argue that the position of his 1905 book Japanese Rule in Formosa in the domestic political debate over Taiwan’s status has not been fully appreciated and that its 1907 English translation played a crucial role in linking Japan into the trans-imperial academic field of colonial policy studies. Thanks to the efforts of Takekoshi and other propagandists, Taiwan came to be seen as a model colony in the West, especially in the United States where it was widely considered to be a good example for the Philippines, raising Japan’s status among world colonial powers.

Part III shifts focus from colonial territories to expositions, which Japan used to present its empire to a mass public in Japan, its colonies and the West. I argue that expositions were one of the most important sites at which the global trans-imperial culture was created and maintained. Chapter 7 investigates how the Japanese Empire was presented to a Western public at the 1910 Japan-British Exhibition in London, where it displayed its various colonial territories in detail for the first time outside of Japan. Chapter 8 analyzes presentations of the constituent parts of the Japanese Empire at the Takushoku hakurankai or Colonization Exposition that was held in Tokyo two years later.

Based on the above case studies, this dissertation concludes that contrary to common assertions, colonial assimilation was not a salient characteristic of Meiji imperialism, and that Japanese leaders did not emulate specific French assimilationist models as is commonly asserted. Instead, leading colonialists in both France and Japan, as well as other empires, were concurrently influenced by new, anti-assimilationist ideas of colonial association, including conserving resources by allowing indigenous laws and customs to be maintained as much as possible, making colonies financially self-sufficient and endowing a separate colonial administration with vast discretionary power. This is not to say that assimilation did not have proponents in Japan and that it did not sometimes inform Japanese colonial policy, but rather that it did not form the dominant mode of Japanese colonialism at this time. While examples of assimilationism can be found in Meiji Japan, I contend that these have been anachronistically exaggerated by later historians as a result of their greater familiarity of Japan’s later radical assimilation drive. The ideas that would later be collectively known as association so dominated the global trans-imperial discourse of colonial administration at this time that countries like Japan that aspired to influence and respect by the world’s “great powers” could hardly afford to ignore them. Assimilation was widely censured as a failed policy by inept “Latin” colonizers like Spain and could therefore only be advocated by Japanese politicians in a domestic context. Even then, opponents of assimilation had a powerful tool at their disposal in the ostensibly scientific arguments of numerous well-known Western theorists. Though not always completely successful, Japanese overseas propaganda still managed to use presentations of Taiwan’s efficient management along associationist lines to convince many Westerners of Japan’s aptitude for colonization, allowing it to participate in many of the key institutions of the global trans-imperial culture and even, at times, to serve as an inspiration to other empires.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2018. p. 344
Keywords
global trans-imperial culture, association, assimilation, Hokkaido, Taiwan, expositions, Japanese colonialism, Japanese Empire, colonial history, colonial administration
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372802 (URN)978-91-88761-31-6 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-03-09, Homeros, Växjö, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note

Research funded by the Linnaeus University Centre for Concurrences in Colonial and Postcolonial Studies and Forskarskolan i historiska studier (Lund University)

Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Hennessey, J. (2015). Creating a Colonial Consciousness?: Reflections on Audience Reception at the Tokyo Colonization Exposition of 1912. Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers (2), 15-24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Creating a Colonial Consciousness?: Reflections on Audience Reception at the Tokyo Colonization Exposition of 1912
2015 (English)In: Asia in Focus: A Nordic journal on Asia by early career researchers, ISSN 2446-0001, no 2, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

It is well-recognized in historical scholarship that in both Japan and the West, expositions were an important site for the dissemination of colonial propaganda in the decades surrounding the turn of the twentieth century. Nevertheless, the question of how colonial themes were perceived and understood by visitors to these events remains largely unanswered in this literature. This essay reflects on the question of audience reception, or how media texts both influence and are interpreted by their consumers, through an examination of the Colonization Exposition [Takushoku hakurankai] that was held in Tokyo in 1912. Using a previously unexamined contemporary magazine article that describes visitor reactions, it argues that the messages that the organizers of this exposition intended to send were interpreted in diverse ways by the viewing public, ranging from acceptance to rejection. The discussion centers on notions of dignified public education, human exhibits and the methodological difficulties involved in determining media reception from historical documents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Copenhagen, Denmark: NIAS Press, 2015
Keywords
Takushoku hakurankai, expositions, Japanese colonialism, reception, popular imperialism, historical methodology
National Category
History
Research subject
Humanities, History
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372793 (URN)
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-07-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-4041-6150

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