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Samuelsson, C. R., Elmgren, M., Xie, C. & Haglund, J. (2019). Going through a phase: Infrared cameras in a teaching sequence on evaporation and condensation. American Journal of Physics, 87(7), 577-582
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Going through a phase: Infrared cameras in a teaching sequence on evaporation and condensation
2019 (English)In: American Journal of Physics, ISSN 0002-9505, E-ISSN 1943-2909, Vol. 87, no 7, p. 577-582Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Phase transitions are everyday occurring phenomena, but students often find them difficult to comprehend, not least in terms of the principles of thermal physics. To be able to explain phase transitions in primary school, teachers need to understand various concepts and phenomena, such as condensation, evaporation, energy and temperature. As energy is absorbed or released during phase transitions, changes in temperature can occur. Infrared (IR) cameras can thus be utilized to visually observe and explore surface phenomena such as condensation and evaporation. In line with the resources framework, we have designed a teaching sequence which involves both everyday experiences and observations through IR cameras, and which is designed to encourage students to leverage common resources associated with evaporation and condensation. In testing our teaching sequence, we presented three thermal phenomena to a group of pre-service teacher students. Two of these phenomena, namely walking out of a shower and sitting in a sauna, were anchored in embodied experiences to hopefully activate the students’ resources and to make the students pay attention to the thermally relevant aspects. The third phenomenon was less familiar, involving the condensation of water on a piece of paper. The result shows that the students managed to carry out the sequence with the three phenomena and applied an explanatory model across all three to consistently explain evaporation. However, the lack of a more general model of chemical bonding and an overreliance on the second law of thermodynamics seem to have acted as barriers for the students’ forming of a coherent understanding of both evaporation and condensation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AIP Publishing, 2019
Keywords
Physics Education Research, IR cameras, Phase transition, Teaching sequence, Thermal science, Energy, Teacher education, Coherence, Variation, Fysikdidaktik, Didaktik, Värmekamera, Fasövergång, Värmelära, Lärarutbildning, Lärandesekvens, Instruktion, Variation, Koherens
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-387445 (URN)10.1119/1.5110665 (DOI)000480387000009 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2016-04113
Available from: 2019-06-24 Created: 2019-06-24 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, R., Elmgren, M. & Haglund, J. (2019). Hot vision: Affordances of infrared cameras in investigating thermal phenomena. Designs for Learning, 11(1), 1-15
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hot vision: Affordances of infrared cameras in investigating thermal phenomena
2019 (English)In: Designs for Learning, ISSN 1654-7608, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lab activities typically involve phenomena that are invisible to the naked eye. For example, in thermodynamics transfer of heat and temperature changes are perceived by the sense of touch or indirectly observed by the use of thermometers. New tools can be introduced to increase the opportunities for talking science. In this paper, we explore affordances and semiotic resources related to infrared (IR) cameras, including color imaging, numerical values and the form of the tool itself, as used by undergraduate students and instructors in chemistry, representing a scientific community at two different levels of expertise, in investigation of a thermal phenomenon. The participants come to attend to thermal aspects of what happens when a salt (sodium hydroxide) is exposed to air, with and without the use of IR cameras. Video data were gathered and transcribed multimodally. Results show that the IR cameras afford a focus on the disciplinarily relevant thermal aspects of the phenomenon in both groups of participants, but that the students’ discussion, coordinated by their embodied engagement with the IR cameras, was limited to cumulative talk, where they do not challenge each other, and static use of the technology. This is contrasted with the instructors who shared their knowledge with each other and explored the phenomenon both spatially with the IR cameras, and verbally through exploratory talk. We suggest that this difference in the use of novel technology may be due to differences in experience of lab work and understanding of the studied phenomena, and that a shift between cumulative and exploratory talk may be an indicator of learning.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2019
Keywords
IR cameras, multimodality, social semiotics, physics education research, chemistry education research, laboratory practice
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383971 (URN)10.16993/dfl.94 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR 2016-04113
Note

Part of a special issue on multimodality and science education

Available from: 2019-05-27 Created: 2019-05-27 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Nygren, T., Haglund, J., Samuelsson, R., af Geijerstam, Å. & Prytz, J. (2018). Critical thinking in national tests across four subjects in Swedish compulsory school. Education Inquiry
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Critical thinking in national tests across four subjects in Swedish compulsory school
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2018 (English)In: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Critical thinking is brought to the fore as a central competence in today’s society and in school curricula, but what may be emphasised as a general skill may also differ across school subjects. Using a mixed methods approach we identify general formulations regarding critical thinking in the Swedish curriculum of school year nine and seven more subject-specific categories of critical thinking in the syllabi and national tests in history, physics, mathematics and Swedish. By analysing 76 individual students’ critical thinking as expressed in national tests we find that a student that thinks critically in one subjects does not necessarily do so in other subjects. We find that students’ grades in different subjects are closely linked to their abilities to answer questions designed to test critical thinking in the subjects. We also find that the same formulations of critical thinking in two subjects may mean very different things when translated into assessments. Our findings suggest that critical thinking among students comprise different, subject-specific skills. The complexity of our findings highlights a need for future research to help clarify to students and researchers what it means to think critically in school.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
critical thinking; history; mathematics; Swedish; physics; national tests; mixed method; explorative factor analysis
National Category
Educational Sciences
Research subject
Curriculum Studies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-351731 (URN)10.1080/20004508.2018.1475200 (DOI)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, KAW 2015.0271
Available from: 2018-05-30 Created: 2018-05-30 Last updated: 2018-05-30Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, R., Elmgren, M. & Haglund, J. (2018). Going Through a Phase. In: : . Paper presented at The Gordon Research Seminar on Physics Research and Education, Smithfield, June 9-10, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Going Through a Phase
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Students have difficulties understanding energy transformations involved in phase changes in physics and chemistry education. For example, with a predict-observe-explain set-up, we have found that students tend to intuit that when table salt is poured onto ice, the ice will melt and the temperature increase. They are surprised to see that although the ice melts (due to freezing-point depression), the temperature actually decreases. In this study, we explore how infrared cameras as a visualization technology can help students come to terms with such challenges.

We have designed a teaching sequence for in-service science teachers on the topic of phase changes, with a focus on the central idea that it requires energy to break bonds between particles. In group discussions, students are encouraged to use this idea to explain how the temperature of water can be constant during phase change from solid to liquid, and from liquid to gas, and draw on their experiences that it feels cold when they walk out of the shower but hot when water is poured onto the stove in a sauna. With the help of an infrared camera, students can see how the temperature decreases as water evaporates from their body. With this technology, they can also see that the temperature of a piece of paper increases as moist air condenses on its surface, and that the temperature decreases when the water evaporates away in dry air. Through video analysis, we study students’ interactions with each other and the types of talk they engage in during the exercises. Early findings in a pilot study with secondary school students indicate that they tend to interpret condensation as release of energy due to particles colliding with a surface, rather than bond formation.

Keywords
Physics Education Research, Thermodynamics, Infrared Cameras, Teaching Sequence, Teacher Training, Thermodynamics Education Research, Science Education
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-356314 (URN)
Conference
The Gordon Research Seminar on Physics Research and Education, Smithfield, June 9-10, 2018
Note

Presented both orally and as a poster.

Available from: 2018-07-24 Created: 2018-07-24 Last updated: 2018-11-01Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, R., Elmgren, M. & Haglund, J. (2018). Phasing the invisible. In: : . Paper presented at Forskning i Naturvetenskapernas Didaktik, Malmö, November 7-8, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phasing the invisible
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Students have difficulties understanding phase transition (Coştu, Ayas, & Niaz, 2012; Gopal, Kleinsmidt, Case, & Musonge, 2004). In the Swedish curriculum (Skolverket, 2011), phase transition is first introduced in physics during year 1-3 in primary school. The concept of, and transfer of energy is introduced in year 4-6. However, IR cameras can make the non-perceivable perceivable and thus afford the students an arena for mutual orientation and shared attention.

The purpose of this study is to explore the affordances of IR cameras for teacher students that, in their profession, introduces the concepts of energy, phases, phase transition and energy transfer for their own students. We propose a teaching sequence in which the group will get to study four different phenomena involving phase transition and energy transfer. The proposed phenomena are: condensation of water on skin in a sauna, evaporation of water from the skin after a shower, condensation of water on a paper and salt on ice.

Each stage of the sequence involves a prediction, an observation and an explanation part (White & Gunstone, 1992). The prediction will be done without access to IR cameras and the observation and explanation will be carried out with the cameras. When later phenomena are introduced, the new predictions are based on the experience and understanding from the earlier stages.

From a previous study (Samuelsson, Haglund & Elmgren, 2016), we know that the last phenomenon is difficult to understand, but by starting out in a phenomenon familiar to the students and iteratively working through the three parts in predict-observe-explain, the students may succeed in giving a satisfactory explanation at the end of the sequence.

The teaching sequence will be implemented in two physics classes for pre-service year 4-6 teachers during the autumn, and the interactions will be video recorded for analysis within the project.

National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-365273 (URN)
Conference
Forskning i Naturvetenskapernas Didaktik, Malmö, November 7-8, 2018
Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-03-13Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, C. R. & Haglund, J. (2018). Using infrared cameras in physics and chemistry education. In: : . Paper presented at Gordon Research Conference - Physics Research and Education, Bryant University, Smithfield, RI, US, 10 - 15 July 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using infrared cameras in physics and chemistry education
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Students have difficulties understanding energy transformations involved in phase changes in physics and chemistry education. For example, with a predict-observe-explain set-up, we have found that students tend to intuit that when table salt is poured onto ice, the ice will melt and the temperature increase. They are surprised to see that although the ice melts (due to freezing-point depression), the temperature actually decreases. In this study, we explore how infrared cameras as a visualization technology can help students come to terms with such challenges. We have designed a teaching sequence for in-service science teachers on the topic of phase changes, with a focus on the central idea that it requires energy to break bonds between particles. In group discussions, students are encouraged to use this idea to explain how the temperature of water can be constant during phase change from solid to liquid, and from liquid to gas, and draw on their experiences that it feels cold when they walk out of the shower but hot when water is poured onto the stove in a sauna. With the help of an infrared camera, students can see how the temperature decreases as water evaporates from their body. With this technology, they can also see that the temperature of a piece of paper increases as moist air condenses on its surface, and that the temperature decreases when the water evaporates away in dry air. Through video analysis, we study students’ interactions with each other and the types of talk they engage in during the exercises. Early findings in a pilot study with secondary school students indicate that they tend to interpret condensation as release of energy due to particles colliding with a surface, rather than bond formation.

Keywords
IR cameras, Physics Education Research, Chemistry Education Research
National Category
Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-371270 (URN)
Conference
Gordon Research Conference - Physics Research and Education, Bryant University, Smithfield, RI, US, 10 - 15 July 2018
Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, C. R., Haglund, J. & Elmgren, M. (2017). Looking for solutions: University chemistry and physics students interacting with infrared cameras. In: : . Paper presented at ESERA 2017, Dublin City University, Ireland, 21-25 August.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Looking for solutions: University chemistry and physics students interacting with infrared cameras
2017 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Infrared (IR) cameras can be used to support the learning and understanding of thermodynamics. Previous research shows that the technology enables university physics students to observe otherwise invisible thermal phenomena. In the present study, the focus is extended to the use of IR cameras in an educational chemistry laboratory setting with a comparison to the physics labs. Depending on the communicative actions made to interact with the cameras, different affordances of the IR cameras are accessed. For example, some students compare what they see with the IR camera with their sense of touch. The kinds of actions students make depend on aspects like their disciplinary experience and the discipline of study. Predict-Observe-Explain is used to probe students’ potential actions for interaction with the IR camera. Data is collected by video recording and iterative transcription to find contrasting or shared patterns of interaction across the groups. A multimodal approach to conversation analysis is used to find these patterns. The result shows that the physics and chemistry students use the technology to confirm or disconfirm predictions made, but differ in the coordination of actions to achieve that goal. The physics students move around and use the sense of touch together with IR-camera observations, while the chemistry students focus on IR-camera observations from one perspective alone.

Keywords
laboratory practice, infrared cameras, affordance
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-328406 (URN)
Conference
ESERA 2017, Dublin City University, Ireland, 21-25 August
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2016-04113
Available from: 2017-08-23 Created: 2017-08-23 Last updated: 2017-08-23Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, R., Haglund, J. & Elmgren, M. (2016). Användning av värmekameror vid öppna laborationer. In: : . Paper presented at Forskning i Naturvetenskapernas Didaktik, November 9-10, 2016, Falun.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Användning av värmekameror vid öppna laborationer
2016 (Swedish)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Värmerelaterade fenomen och studiet av dem i termodynamik framstår ofta som abstrakta för studenter. Undervisningen bygger typiskt på algebraisk problemlösning och studenter har svårt att se kopplingen till fenomenen. Värmekameror ger dock en möjlighet att se sådana fenomen, som vi tidigare har närmat oss med vårt trubbiga känselsinne, och lämpar sig därigenom väl för undersökande arbetssätt vid laborationer. Mot bakgrund av ett utvecklingsarbete att designa om en inledande universitetskurs i kemi i riktning mot mer studentaktivt lärande och öppnare laborationer utgår vi från följande forskningsfråga: Hur kan kemistudenter använda värmekameror vid öppna laborationer om lösningsentalpi? Studenternas laborationsuppgift var att mäta temperaturändringar då natriumnitrat, respektive natriumhydroxid löses i vatten, en exoterm och en endoterm process, och beräkna salternas lösningsentalpi. Som metod för datainsamling videofilmades studenter då de arbetade parvis med laborationen, och deras laborationsanteckningar fotograferades.  Några par valdes ut för att studera samma reaktioner med hjälp av en värmekamera, och tunnare plastkoppar, vilket gör att stora lokala temperaturändringar kan uppstå där salterna reagerar med vattnet. De utvalda studenterna observerade dessutom med värmekameror vad som sker då koksalt strös på en isbit. Prelimära resultat visar att studenterna med värmekameran kunde se en temperaturökning på uppemot 50 °C på utsidan av koppen lokalt där natriumhydroxid reagerar med vatten. De diskuterade detta i termer av en felkälla för sina kalorimetriska beräkningar. De hade hypotesen att lösning av natriumnitrat i en tunn plastkopp skulle leda till en mindre temperaturminskning än då de själva använde en tjockare frigolitkopp, med fokus på lösningens temperatur, mer än på temperaturen på utsidan av koppen. Studenterna förutspådde att isen skulle smälta då den beströddes med koksalt och att temperaturen skulle öka eller vara konstant. De var förvånade över att istället se en kraftig temperaturminskning, och varierade i djup i sina förklaringar av denna endoterma process.

Keywords
Värmekameror i undervisning, didaktik, öppna laborationer
National Category
Didactics Other Physics Topics
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Physics Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-307411 (URN)
Conference
Forskning i Naturvetenskapernas Didaktik, November 9-10, 2016, Falun
Available from: 2016-11-15 Created: 2016-11-15 Last updated: 2017-01-16Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3070-567x

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