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Salles, A., Evers, K. & Farisco, M. (2019). Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project. Neuroethics, 12(2), 201-211
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroethics and Philosophy in Responsible Research and Innovation: The Case of the Human Brain Project
2019 (English)In: Neuroethics, ISSN 1874-5490, E-ISSN 1874-5504, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 201-211Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is an important ethical, legal, and political theme for the European Commission. Although variously defined, it is generally understood as an interactive process that engages social actors, researchers, and innovators who must be mutually responsive and work towards the ethical permissibility of the relevant research and its products. The framework of RRI calls for contextually addressing not just research and innovation impact but also the background research process, specially the societal visions underlying it and the norms and priorities that shape scientific agendas. This requires the integration of anticipatory, inclusive, and responsive dimensions, and the nurturing of a certain type of reflexivity among a variety of stakeholders, from scientists to funders. In this paper, we do not address potential limitations but focus on the potential contribution of philosophical reflection to RRI in the context of the Ethics and Society subproject of the Human Brain Project (HBP). We show how the type of conceptual analysis provided by philosophically oriented approaches theoretically and ethically broadens research and innovation within the HBP. We further suggest that overt inclusion of philosophical reflection can promote the aims and objectives of RRI.

Keywords
RRI, Human Identity, Consciousness, Poverty, Brain, Neuroethics, Reflexivity, Conceptual analysis
National Category
Ethics Philosophy Medical Ethics
Research subject
Bioethics; Neuroscience
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-354023 (URN)10.1007/s12152-018-9372-9 (DOI)000478000000006 ()
Projects
Human Brain Project
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720270 (HBP SGA1)EU, Horizon 2020, 785907 (HBP SGA2)
Available from: 2018-06-18 Created: 2018-06-18 Last updated: 2019-09-26Bibliographically approved
Salles, A., Bjaalie, J., Evers, K., Farisco, M., Fothergill, T., Guerrero, M., . . . Amunts, K. (2019). The Human Brain Project: Responsible Brain Research for the Benefit of Society. Neuron, 101(3), 380-384
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Human Brain Project: Responsible Brain Research for the Benefit of Society
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2019 (English)In: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 101, no 3, p. 380-384Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Keywords
neuroethics, brain research, consciousness, dual use
National Category
Neurosciences
Research subject
Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376703 (URN)DOI:10.1016/j.neuron.2019.01.005 (DOI)000457856700010 ()30731062 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 785907
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-28Bibliographically approved
Salles, A., Evers, K. & Farisco, M. (2019). The Need for a Conceptual Expansion of Neuroethics [Letter to the editor]. AJOB Neuroscience, 10(3), 126-128
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Need for a Conceptual Expansion of Neuroethics
2019 (English)In: AJOB Neuroscience, ISSN 2150-7740, E-ISSN 2150-7759, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 126-128Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In “Neuroethics at 15: The Current and Future Environment for Neuroethics” the Emerging Issues Task Force of the INS provides an overview of the current and future topics for neuroethics and the foreseeable challenges that the field will face. The authors note that these challenges, emerging both at individual, societal, and often global levels, are importantly connected to increasing knowledge of the brain and neurotechnical capabilities, to increasing awareness of value diversity and of the need to attend to a global landscape, and to novel applications (commercial, military, governmental) of neuroscientific findings. The overarching theme, the authors note, is expansion. In this commentary we focus on the fourth needed expansion: an expansion in how neuroethics and its methodologies are conceived and how neuroethical issues should be approached. Accordingly, we explore the key role that  conceptual analysis plays in normative discussions, in refining our empirical knowledge, and in fostering a clearer and more reliable vision on how to respond the many philosophical issues raised by neuroscientific knowledge and neurotechnologies

National Category
Ethics Neurosciences
Research subject
Ethics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389755 (URN)10.1080/21507740.2019.1632972 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, SGA785907
Available from: 2019-07-23 Created: 2019-07-23 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Farisco, M., Salles, A. & Evers, K. (2018). Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, 27(4), 717-727
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroethics: A Conceptual Approach
2018 (English)In: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics, ISSN 0963-1801, E-ISSN 1469-2147, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 717-727Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this article, we begin by identifying three main neuroethical approaches: neurobioethics, empirical neuroethics, and conceptual neuroethics. Our focus is on conceptual approaches that generally emphasize the need to develop and use a methodological modus operandi for effectively linking scientific (i.e., neuroscience) and philosophical (i.e., ethics) interpretations. We explain and assess the value of conceptual neuroethics approaches and explain and defend one such approach that we propose as being particularly fruitful for addressing the various issues raised by neuroscience: fundamental neuroethics.

Keywords
neuroethics, ethics, philosophy, neuroscience
National Category
Ethics Philosophy Neurology
Research subject
Ethics; Bioethics; Neuroscience; Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-360367 (URN)10.1017/S0963180118000208 (DOI)000457483600018 ()30198472 (PubMedID)
Projects
The human brain project
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720270
Available from: 2018-09-12 Created: 2018-09-12 Last updated: 2019-03-18Bibliographically approved
Salles, A. (2018). Neuroethics in Context: The Development of the Discipline in Argentina. In: Johnson S. Rommelfanger K (Ed.), The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics: . Routledge
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroethics in Context: The Development of the Discipline in Argentina
2018 (English)In: The Routledge Handbook of Neuroethics / [ed] Johnson S. Rommelfanger K, Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

At present, the impact of scientific research and the effects of neurotechnology on human beings not only as biological beings but also as moral beings is increasingly felt in medicine and the humanities. It is reasonable to think that the future will bring even more ways of knowing, modifying, healing, and possibly enhancing the brain thus challenging our intuitions about who we are and how we act - or should act. Neuroethics attempts to both offer a collective response to the ethical issues that rapidly developing science raises, and to find new answers to age-old philosophical questions. This discipline is not as established in Argentina as it is in the United States and some European nations, but the unique historic-cultural and academic landscape of Argentina suggests promises for neuroethics to deliver original results if/when this development occurs. Here, I  briefly explain some of the neuroethical concerns that attract more attention locally and I make explicit some of the salient topics and challenges shaping neuroethics in Argentina. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
National Category
Humanities
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-317429 (URN)9781138898295 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-03-14 Created: 2017-03-14 Last updated: 2017-04-24
Delegates, G. N., Rommelfanger, K. S., Jeong, S.-J., Ema, A., Fukushi, T., Kasai, K., . . . Singh, I. (2018). Neuroethics Questions to Guide Ethical Research in the International Brain Initiatives. Neuron, 100(1), 19-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neuroethics Questions to Guide Ethical Research in the International Brain Initiatives
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2018 (English)In: Neuron, ISSN 0896-6273, E-ISSN 1097-4199, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 19-36Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increasingly, national governments across the globe are prioritizing investments in neuroscience. Currently, seven active or in-development national-level brain research initiatives exist, spanning four continents. Engaging with the underlying values and ethical concerns that drive brain research across cultural and continental divides is critical to future research. Culture influences what kinds of science are supported and where science can be conducted through ethical frameworks and evaluations of risk. Neuroscientists and philosophers alike have found themselves together encountering perennial questions; these questions are engaged by the field of neuroethics, related to the nature of understanding the self and identity, the existence and meaning of free will, defining the role of reason in human behavior, and more. With this Perspective article, we aim to prioritize and advance to the foreground a list of neuroethics questions for neuroscientists operating in the context of these international brain initiatives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CELL PRESS, 2018
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-369056 (URN)10.1016/j.neuron.2018.09.021 (DOI)000446862000008 ()30308169 (PubMedID)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 785907Wellcome trust
Available from: 2018-12-14 Created: 2018-12-14 Last updated: 2018-12-14Bibliographically approved
Salles, A., Stahl, B., Bjaalie, J., Domingo-Ferrer, J., Rose, N., Rainey, S. & Spranger, T. (2017). Opinion and Action Plan on 'Data Protection and Privacy'. Copenhagen: Danish Board of Technology Foundation
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Opinion and Action Plan on 'Data Protection and Privacy'
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2017 (English)Other (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

A fuller understanding of the human brain, better diagnoses and treatment of brain disorders, as well as the development of new brain-like technologies are all goals of the Human Brain Project. Realizing these goals requires the collection, storage, curation, and analysis of data of various sorts over extended periods of time.

Securing privacy interests and advancing data protection measures are key concerns of the Human Brain Project. Their importance was recognized during the proposal development, taken up by the Ethics and Society Subproject (SP12) and reinforced by the Ethics Review in Jan 2015. The HBP needs to comply with national and European data protection legislation. But it is clear that the HBP must go beyond existing legal protections and show not only that it is ethically sensitive to privacy concerns even when such concerns fall outside regulatory frameworks, but also that it makes appropriate use of data and is able to identify and respond to new, unanticipated threats to privacy as they emerge. This document expresses the opinion concerning data protection and privacy by those involved in the Ethics and Society section of the HBP. This includes the members of the sub-project on Ethics and Society (SP12), members of the Ethics Advisory Board and the Ethics Rapporteurs. We identify some of the main privacy-related concerns within HBP, articulate the basic ethical principles that should guide examination of the issues, and present a brief review of the history of data protection and regulation in Europe, focusing on the current state of such regulation. While aware that misuse of the information must be prevented, we are mindful that a form of privacy protection that would prohibit use of any medical or other records for research would stifle medical and scientific progress making it impossible to achieve expected benefits to health that are in the public interest. Therefore, we offer final recommendations that are intended to minimize potential risks while securing the public benefit anticipated from HBP research.

Finally, it is worth noting that there is a more general context to current debates on data protection and privacy. A variety of well publicised events have revealed the extent to which the security apparatuses of different national states acquire covert access to data stored on the internet and mine it in various ways in the course of their work. These revelations influence how citizens think about and how policymakers legislate data protection.

The structure of the the Opinion is as follows: it starts with a description of some of the key privacy challenges and concerns raised by the HBP. The Opinion then describes conceptual and empirical research on privacy and data protection undertaken in the context of the HBP. It outlines technical options and the regulatory environment within which the HBP operates. The Opinion concludes with a set of recommendations to the HBP.

Place, publisher, year, pages
Copenhagen: Danish Board of Technology Foundation, 2017. p. 36
Keywords
data protection, consent, privacy, GPDR
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-376732 (URN)
Available from: 2019-02-08 Created: 2019-02-08 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
Salles, A. (2017). Proactive Epigenesis and Ethics [Letter to the editor]. EMBO Reports, 18(8), 1271
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Proactive Epigenesis and Ethics
2017 (English)In: EMBO Reports, ISSN 1469-221X, E-ISSN 1469-3178, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1271-Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

A recent article by Kathinka Evers and Jean Pierre Changeux offers a new approach to the issue of moral change. They propose proactive epigenesis as a tool to communicate and establish social and ethical norms in education and upbringing so as to build better societies. In this short commentary I explain their view and then identify and explain some of the normative issues raised by their proposal. In particular, I  focus on some moral claims they make that raise deep questions about justification and frameworks and thus require further discussion. Based on my analysis, I propose that the authors themselves further develop their views and elaborate on the specifically moral issues raised by their proposal and hope that their joint work on this issue inspires empirical and theoretical research from disciplines such as moral philosophy, pedagogy, and social science to further examine proactive epigenesis and the possibilities it opens for addressing moral improvement.

Keywords
ethics, normativity, neural epigenesis
National Category
Humanities and the Arts
Research subject
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334550 (URN)10.15252/embr.201744697 (DOI)000406716000003 ()
Projects
Human Brain Project
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020
Available from: 2017-11-23 Created: 2017-11-23 Last updated: 2018-02-16Bibliographically approved
Salles, A. (2017). Salud reproductiva, legislación y opciones de maternidad [Review]. International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, 10(1), 248-251
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Salud reproductiva, legislación y opciones de maternidad
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Feminist Approaches to Bioethics, ISSN 1937-4585, E-ISSN 1937-4577, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 248-251Article, book review (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
UNIV TORONTO PRESS INC, 2017
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-321565 (URN)000398812500013 ()
Note

Title in WoS: Reproductive health, legislation and motherhood options

Available from: 2017-05-08 Created: 2017-05-08 Last updated: 2017-05-08Bibliographically approved
Salles, A. & Evers, K. (2017). Social Neuroscience and Neuroethics: A Fruitful Synergy. In: A. Ibáñez et al. (eds.) (Ed.), Neuroscience and Social Science: The Missing Link: (pp. 531-546). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Social Neuroscience and Neuroethics: A Fruitful Synergy
2017 (English)In: Neuroscience and Social Science: The Missing Link / [ed] A. Ibáñez et al. (eds.), Springer, 2017, p. 531-546Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Social neuroscience is shedding new light on the relationship between the brain and its environments. In the process, and despite criticism from the social sciences, the field is contributing to the discussion of long-standing controversies concerning, for example, the "nature-nurture" distinction and the relationships between social and neurobiological structures.

In this chapter, we argue that in this endeavor social neuroscience would benefit from partnering with neuroethics insofar as their respective areas and methods of explanation are complementary rather than in competition. We provide a richer account of neuroethics than the one given in social neuroscientists' common descriptions of that field and suggest that, when understood in this richer (and in our view more adequate) fashion, neuroethics may open up productive avenues for research and play a key role in allowing us to determine social neuroscience's contribution to unveiling important epistemological as well as ontological notions. Accordingly, social neuroscience and neuroethics may form a constructive partnership.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2017
National Category
Neurology Social Psychology
Research subject
Philosophy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334288 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-68421-5_22 (DOI)978-3-319-68420-8 (ISBN)978-3-319-68421-5 (ISBN)
Available from: 2017-11-22 Created: 2017-11-22 Last updated: 2017-11-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1397-7932

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