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Aalto, Aino-Maija
Publications (3 of 3) Show all publications
Aalto, A.-M., Mörk, E., Sjögren, A. & Svaleryd, H. (2018). Childcare - A safety net for children? . Uppsala: Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childcare - A safety net for children?
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We analyze how access to childcare affects health outcomes of children with unemployed parents using a reform that increased childcare access in some Swedish municipalities. For 4–5 year olds, we find an immediate increase in infection-related hospitalization, when these children first get access to childcare. We find no effect on younger children. When children are 10–11 years of age, children who did not have access to childcare when parents were unemployed are more likely to take medication for respiratory conditions. Taken together, our results thus suggest that access to childcare exposes children to risks for infections, but that need for medication in school age is lower for children who had access.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Nationalekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, 2018. p. 45
Series
Working paper / Department of Economics, Uppsala University (Online), ISSN 1653-6975 ; 2018:11
Keywords
Childcare; Child health; Unemployment; Quasi-experiment
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-359832 (URN)
Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2022-03-08Bibliographically approved
Aalto, A.-M. (2018). Incentives and Inequalities in Family and Working Life. (Doctoral dissertation). Uppsala: Department of Economics, Uppsala University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Incentives and Inequalities in Family and Working Life
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Essay I: Same-gender teachers may affect educational preferences by acting as role models for their students. I study the importance of the gender composition of teachers in math and science during lower secondary school on the likelihood to continue in math-intensive tracks in the next levels of education. I use population wide register data from Sweden and control for family fixed effects to account for sorting into schools. According to my results, the gender gap in graduating with a math-intensive track in upper secondary school would decrease by 16 percent if the share of female math and science teachers would be changed from none to all at lower secondary school. The gap in math-related university degrees would decrease by 22 percent from the same treatment. The performance is not affected by the higher share of female science teachers, only the likelihood to choose science, suggesting that the effects arise because female teachers serve as role models for female students.

Abstract [en]

Essay II: (With Eva Mörk, Anna Sjögren and Helena Svaleryd) We analyze how access to childcare affects health outcomes of children with unemployed parents using a reform that increased childcare access in some Swedish municipalities. For 4–5 year olds, we find an immediate increase in infection-related hospitalization, when these children first get access to childcare. We find no effect on younger children. When children are 10–11 years of age, children who did not have access to childcare when parents were unemployed are more likely to take medication for respiratory conditions. Taken together, our results thus suggest that access to childcare exposes children to risks for infections, but that need for medication in school age is lower for children who had access.

Abstract [en]

Essay III: This paper studies the effects of financial incentive to return to work between births on labour supply and fertility in Finland. Using a policy change which decreased the financial incentive to return to work between births I estimate the causal effect on labour market attachment of mothers. The reduced incentive lowered labour market participation between births, but there are no lasting effects after 5–8 years. This impact is strongest among middle-income mothers. Overall, the reform appears to have achieved its initial goal of increasing the allowance for families with short spacing between children without persistent effects on the labour market outcomes of mothers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Department of Economics, Uppsala University, 2018. p. 131
Series
Economic studies, ISSN 0283-7668 ; 176
Keywords
Career Choices, Role Models, STEM, Childcare, Child Health, Unemployment, Quasi-Experiment, Parental Leave Reform, Labour Market Participation
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-359726 (URN)978-91-506-2722-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-10-26, Hörsal 2, Ekonomikum, Kyrkogårdsgatan 10, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2018-10-03
Aalto, A.-M. (2017). The (in)effectiveness of financial incentive on fertility behaviour: Childcare –a safety net for children?. (Licentiate dissertation). Uppsala: Uppsala universitet
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The (in)effectiveness of financial incentive on fertility behaviour: Childcare –a safety net for children?
2017 (English)Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Is childcare a safety net for vulnerable children? This paper investigates the role of childcare for the health outcomes of children whose parents are unemployed. Exploiting time variation in childcare access resulting from a reform requiring Swedish municipalities to provide childcare also for children with unemployed parents, we estimate causal effects on health, as measured by register data on hospitalizations. We find that access to childcare reduced hospitalizations for infections among toddlers, especially among boys. Among children in preschool age access to childcare caused a temporary increase in hospitalization for infections the year they got access to childcare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Uppsala universitet, 2017. p. 50
Keywords
Childcare, Health of children, Unemployment, Quasi-experiment
National Category
Economics
Research subject
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-322730 (URN)
Presentation
2017-05-29, F433, Ekonomikum, Kyrkogårdsgatan 10 B, Uppsala, 10:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2017-06-14 Created: 2017-05-29 Last updated: 2017-06-14Bibliographically approved
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