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Hong, Y., Maessen, S. E., Dong, G., Huang, K., Wu, W., Liang, L., . . . Fu, J. (2019). Associations between maternal age at menarche and anthropometric and metabolic parameters in the adolescent offspring. Clinical Endocrinology, 90(5), 702-710
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Associations between maternal age at menarche and anthropometric and metabolic parameters in the adolescent offspring
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2019 (English)In: Clinical Endocrinology, ISSN 0300-0664, E-ISSN 1365-2265, Vol. 90, no 5, p. 702-710Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: We examined the associations between maternal age at menarche and anthropometry and metabolism in adolescent offspring.

Methods: Anthropometric, metabolic and blood pressure data were obtained from 304 girls and 190 boys aged 11-16 years attending school in Hangzhou (China). Age at menarche for both mothers and daughters was self-reported. Fasting blood samples were obtained and all participants underwent clinical examinations. Obesity was defined as BMI >= 95th percentile for age and sex.

Results: Older maternal age at menarche was associated with older age of their daughters at menarche (r = 0.21; P < 0.001). Mother's age at menarche was not associated with anthropometry or metabolism of daughters. However, younger maternal age at menarche was associated with increased hip and waist circumferences, and BMI SDS of their sons. Boys whose mothers were <= 13 years at menarche had an adjusted relative risk of obesity 3-fold greater than sons of mothers with a later menarcheal onset (2.96; 95% CI 1.49, 5.87). Among daughters, every 1-year increase in their age at menarche was associated with a 0.34 SDS reduction in BMI. Increasing age at menarche was also associated with reduced waist and hip circumferences (-1.5 and -1.8 cm/y, respectively) and waist-to-height ratio (-0.008 per year). Girls in the youngest menarcheal age tertile (8.8-11.6 years) had diastolic blood pressure 2.2 mm Hg higher than other girls (P = 0.029).

Conclusions: Younger maternal age at menarche is associated with increased obesity risk in their sons, but not daughters. However, girls who experience menarche earlier have a less favourable anthropometric profile.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2019
Keywords
age, boy, daughter, girl, menarche, mother, obesity, offspring, son
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-383159 (URN)10.1111/cen.13948 (DOI)000465108600007 ()30739355 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-05-10Bibliographically approved
Derraik, J. G. B., Miles, H. L., Chiavaroli, V., Hofman, P. L. & Cutfield, W. S. (2019). Idiopathic short stature and growth hormone sensitivity in prepubertal children. Clinical Endocrinology, 91(1), 110-117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Idiopathic short stature and growth hormone sensitivity in prepubertal children
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2019 (English)In: Clinical Endocrinology, ISSN 0300-0664, E-ISSN 1365-2265, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 110-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: We compared growth hormone sensitivity to an insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) generation test in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and of normal stature (NS) across the birthweight range.

Methods: Forty-six prepubertal children (~7.1 years) born at term were studied: ISS (n = 23; 74% boys) and NS (n = 23; 57% boys). Children underwent a modified IGF-I generation test with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH; 0.05 mg/kg/d) over four consecutive days. Hormonal concentrations were measured at baseline and day 5.

Results: Children with idiopathic short stature were 1.90 SDS lighter (P < 0.0001) but had 4.5% more body fat (P = 0.0007) than NS children. Overall, decreasing birthweight SDS across the normal range (-1.9 to +1.5 SDS) was associated with lower percentage IGF-I response to rhGH stimulation in univariable (r = 0.45; P = 0.002) and multivariable models (β = 24.6; P = 0.006). Plasma IGF-I concentrations rose in both groups with rhGH stimulation (P < 0.0001). GHBP levels (P = 0.002) were suppressed in ISS children (-19%; P = 0.029) but increased among NS children (+18%; P = 0.028), with contrasting responses also observed for leptin and IGFBP-1. Further, the increase in insulin concentrations in response to rhGH stimulation was ~3-fold greater in NS children (142% vs 50%; P = 0.006).

Conclusions: A progressive decrease in birthweight SDS was associated with a reduction in GH sensitivity in both NS and ISS children. Thus, the lower IGF-I response to rhGH stimulation in association with decreasing birthweight indicates that the ISS children at the lower end of the birthweight spectrum may have partial GH resistance, which may contribute to their poorer growth.

Keywords
growth hormone binding globulin, height, insulin-like growth factor I, recombinant human growth hormone, sensitivity
National Category
Pediatrics Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-388758 (URN)10.1111/cen.13976 (DOI)000471601200014 ()30908679 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-08-14 Created: 2019-08-14 Last updated: 2019-08-14Bibliographically approved
Maessen, S. E., Ahlsson, F., Lundgren, M., Cutfield, W. S. & Derraik, J. G. B. (2019). Maternal smoking early in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of short stature and obesity in adult daughters. Scientific Reports, 9, Article ID 4290.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Maternal smoking early in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of short stature and obesity in adult daughters
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2019 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 4290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We assessed anthropometry in 22,421 adult daughters in association with their mothers' tobacco smoking early in pregnancy (at their first antenatal visit) in Sweden, particularly their risk of short stature and obesity. Adult daughters were grouped by maternal smoking levels during pregnancy: Nonsmokers (58.5%), Light smokers (24.1%; smoked 1-9 cigarettes/day), and Heavier smokers (17.4%; smoked >= 10 cigarettes/day). Anthropometry was recorded on the adult daughters at approximately 26.0 years of age. Obesity was defined as BMI >= 30 kg/m(2), and short stature as height more than two standard deviations below the population mean. Daughters whose mothers were Light and Heavier smokers in early pregnancy were 0.8 cm and 1.0cm shorter, 2.3 kg and 2.6 kg heavier, and had BMI 0.84 kg/m(2) and 1.15 kg/m(2) greater, respectively, than daughters of Non-smokers. The adjusted relative risk of short stature was 55% higher in women born to smokers, irrespectively of smoking levels. Maternal smoking had a dose-dependent association with obesity risk, with offspring of Heavier smokers 61% and of Light smokers 37% more likely to be obese than the daughters of Non-smokers. In conclusion, maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of short stature and obesity in their adult daughters.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380451 (URN)10.1038/s41598-019-39006-7 (DOI)000460924100030 ()30862963 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-03-28Bibliographically approved
Glover, M., Wong, S. F., Taylor, R. W., Derraik, J. G. B., Fa'alili-Fidow, J., Morton, S. M. & Cutfield, W. S. (2019). The Complexity of Food Provisioning Decisions by Mori Caregivers to Ensure the Happiness and Health of Their Children. Nutrients, 11(5), Article ID 994.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Complexity of Food Provisioning Decisions by Mori Caregivers to Ensure the Happiness and Health of Their Children
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2019 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 994Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Obesity in children is a global health concern. In New Zealand, one in three school entrant children are overweight or obese. Mori, the indigenous people, are disproportionately represented among the lowest economic group and have a disproportionately high incidence of obesity. This study explored Mori parents' and caregivers' views of the relative importance of weight to health, and the facilitators and barriers to a healthy weight in children aged 6 months to 5 years. Using a grounded qualitative method, in-depth information was collected in focus groups with mostly urban parents and other caregivers. A general inductive thematic analysis (content driven) was used. Insufficient money was an overriding food provisioning factor, but cost interacted with the lack of time, the number of people to feed, their appetites, and allergies. Other factors included ideologies about healthy food, cultural values relating to food selection, serving, and eating, nutrition literacy, availability of food, cooking skills, and lack of help. Childhood obesity was not a priority concern for participants, though they supported interventions providing education on how to grow vegetables, how to plan and cook cheaper meals. Holistic interventions to reduce the negative effects of the economic and social determinants on child health more broadly were recommended.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
Indigenous, nutrition, childhood obesity, social determinants of health, Mori health
National Category
Nutrition and Dietetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389872 (URN)10.3390/nu11050994 (DOI)000471021600054 ()31052332 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-31 Created: 2019-07-31 Last updated: 2019-07-31Bibliographically approved
Derraik, J. G. B., Cutfield, W. S., Maessen, S. E., Hofman, P. L., Kenealy, T., Gunn, A. J. & Jefferies, C. A. (2018). A brief campaign to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus: The NO-DKA Study. Pediatric Diabetes, 19(7), 1257-1262
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A brief campaign to prevent diabetic ketoacidosis in children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus: The NO-DKA Study
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2018 (English)In: Pediatric Diabetes, ISSN 1399-543X, E-ISSN 1399-5448, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 1257-1262Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective New-onset diabetic ketoacidosis (NO-DKA) is entirely preventable with early recognition of the symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). In this study, we aimed to assess whether a simple and easily delivered educational campaign could reduce the risk of DKA. Methods A poster highlighting key features of new-onset T1D was delivered once a year over 2 years to mailboxes of over 460000 individual residential households in the Auckland region (New Zealand). In the first year, the campaign poster was also delivered to all general practices in the region. Families of all newly diagnosed cases of T1D in children answered a brief questionnaire to ascertain whether the campaign reached them. Results Over the 24-month period covered by this study, 132 new cases of T1D were diagnosed in children and adolescents in Auckland. There were 38 cases (28.8%) of DKA, which is similar to the average over the previous 5-year period (27.0%). The caregivers of three children reported both seeing the campaign poster and seeking medical attention as a result. None of these three children were in DKA at diagnosis; they were aged 6.3 to 9.7 years, and of New Zealand European ethnicity. Conclusions A non-targeted campaign to raise awareness of diabetes symptoms in youth led only a few caregivers to seek timely medical attention. Overall, this once-yearly untargeted campaign to raise awareness of diabetes symptoms in youth had limited impact. More effective strategies are required, possibly involving sustained targeted education of medical practitioners.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
campaign, diabetic ketoacidosis, education, poster, prevention
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364548 (URN)10.1111/pedi.12722 (DOI)000446564900016 ()30014558 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-11-09 Created: 2018-11-09 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Leong, K. S. W., Derraik, J. G. B., Hofman, P. L. & Cutfield, W. S. (2018). Antibiotics, gut microbiome and obesity. Clinical Endocrinology, 88(2), 185-200
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Antibiotics, gut microbiome and obesity
2018 (English)In: Clinical Endocrinology, ISSN 0300-0664, E-ISSN 1365-2265, Vol. 88, no 2, p. 185-200Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Antibiotics have been hailed by many as "miracle drugs" that have been effectively treating infectious diseases for over a century, leading to a marked reduction in morbidity and mortality. However, with the increasing use of antibiotics, we are now faced not only with the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance, but also with a rising concern about potential long-term effects of antibiotics on human health, including the development of obesity. The obesity pandemic continues to increase, a problem that affects both adults and children alike. Disruptions to the gut microbiome have been linked to a multitude of adverse conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, anxiety, autism, allergies, and autoimmune diseases. This review focuses on the association between antibiotics and obesity, and the role of the gut microbiome. There is strong evidence supporting the role of antibiotics in the development of obesity in well-controlled animal models. However, evidence for this link in humans is still inconclusive, and we need further well-designed clinical trials to clarify this association.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2018
Keywords
animal models, antibiotics, bacteria, childhood, gut microbiome, obesity
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357189 (URN)10.1111/cen.13495 (DOI)000429404400002 ()29023853 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-13 Created: 2018-08-13 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Yuan, J., Derraik, J. G. B., Fu, J., Dong, G., Cutfield, W. S., Wu, W., . . . Chen, X. (2018). Beta-Cell Function in Chinese Youngsters with Type 1 Diabetes and Assessment of Surrogate Markers of Severe Insulin Deficiency. Hormone Research in Paediatrics, 90, 644-644
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Beta-Cell Function in Chinese Youngsters with Type 1 Diabetes and Assessment of Surrogate Markers of Severe Insulin Deficiency
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2018 (English)In: Hormone Research in Paediatrics, ISSN 1663-2818, E-ISSN 1663-2826, Vol. 90, p. 644-644Article in journal, Meeting abstract (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2018
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-368678 (URN)000445204104267 ()
Available from: 2018-12-06 Created: 2018-12-06 Last updated: 2018-12-06Bibliographically approved
Butler, E. M., Derraik, J. G. B., Taylor, R. W. & Cutfield, W. S. (2018). Childhood obesity: how long should we wait to predict weight?. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism (JPEM), 31(5), 497-501
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Childhood obesity: how long should we wait to predict weight?
2018 (English)In: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism (JPEM), ISSN 0334-018X, E-ISSN 2191-0251, Vol. 31, no 5, p. 497-501Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Obesity is highly prevalent in children under the age of 5 years, although its identification in infants under 2 years remains difficult. Several clinical prediction models have been developed for obesity risk in early childhood, using a number of different predictors. The predictive capacity (sensitivity and specificity) of these models varies greatly, and there is no agreed risk threshold for the prediction of early childhood obesity. Of the existing models, only two have been practically utilized, but neither have been particularly successful. This commentary suggests how future research may successfully utilize existing early childhood obesity prediction models for intervention. We also consider the need for such models, and how targeted obesity intervention may be more effective than population-based intervention.

Keywords
intervention, model, obese, overweight, prediction, prevention, risk
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357655 (URN)10.1515/jpem-2018-0110 (DOI)000431124900002 ()29668465 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-08-28 Created: 2018-08-28 Last updated: 2018-08-28Bibliographically approved
Murali, M., Hofman, P. L., Derraik, J. G. B., Cutfield, W. S., Hornung, T. & Gusso, S. (2018). Exercise capacity and cardiac function in adolescents born post-term. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 12963.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise capacity and cardiac function in adolescents born post-term
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 12963Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is some evidence that children born post-term (>= 42 weeks of gestation) have metabolic abnormalities that may be associated with an increased risk of adverse health outcomes in adulthood. However, there are no data as to whether adolescents born post-term display alterations in aerobic capacity or cardiovascular function. We studied 48 adolescents (56% males) in Auckland (New Zealand) with a mean age of 14.3 years (SD = 1.7): 25 born post-term and 23 born at term (37-41 weeks of gestation). Assessments included metabolic markers in blood, whole body DXA scans, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, maximal exercise capacity, as well as cardiac MRI scan at rest and during submaximal exercise. Exercise capacity was lower in the post-term than in control participants (44.5 vs 47.8 ml/kgffm/min; p = 0.04). There were no differences in left ventricular volumes at rest and during exercise between groups. The 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring also showed no differences between the two groups. Being born post-term was associated with reduced exercise capacity, but with no observed differences in central cardiac function. We speculate that the reduction in exercise capacity may be due to changes in the peripheral vascular system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362491 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-31343-3 (DOI)000442917500035 ()30154437 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-10-10 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2018-10-10Bibliographically approved
Chiavaroli, V., Hopkins, S. A., Derraik, J. G. B., Biggs, J. B., Rodrigues, R. O., Brennan, C. H., . . . Hofman, P. L. (2018). Exercise in pregnancy: 1-year and 7-year follow-ups of mothers and offspring after a randomized controlled trial. Scientific Reports, 8, Article ID 12915.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise in pregnancy: 1-year and 7-year follow-ups of mothers and offspring after a randomized controlled trial
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2018 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 12915Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There are limited data on long-term outcomes of mothers or their offspring following exercise interventions during pregnancy. We assessed long-term effects of an exercise intervention (home-based stationary cycling) between 20-36 weeks of gestation on anthropometry and body composition in mothers and offspring after 1 and 7 years. 84 women were randomised to intervention or usual activity, with follow-up data available for 61 mother-child pairs (38 exercisers) at 1 year and 57 (33 exercisers) at 7 years. At 1 year, there were no observed differences in measured outcomes between mothers and offspring in the two groups. At the 7-year follow-up, mothers were mostly similar, except that exercisers had lower systolic blood pressure (-6.2 mmHg; p = 0.049). However, offspring of mothers who exercised during pregnancy had increased total body fat (+3.2%; p = 0.034) and greater abdominal (+4.1% android fat; p = 0.040) and gynoid (+3.5% gynoid fat; p = 0.042) adiposity compared with controls. Exercise interventions beginning during pregnancy may be beneficial to long-term maternal health. However, the initiation of exercise during pregnancy amongst sedentary mothers may be associated with adverse effects in the offspring during childhood. Larger follow-up studies are required to investigate long-term effects of exercise in pregnancy.

National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology General Practice
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-364044 (URN)10.1038/s41598-018-30925-5 (DOI)000442870300093 ()30150651 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2018-12-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-1226-1956

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