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Isaksson, R., Lindman, J., Wannberg, J., Sallander, J., Backlund, M., Baraldi, D., . . . Larhed, M. (2019). A Series of Analogues to the AT2R Prototype Antagonist C38 Allow Fine Tuning of the Previously Reported Antagonist Binding Mode. ChemistryOpen, 8(1), 114-125
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Series of Analogues to the AT2R Prototype Antagonist C38 Allow Fine Tuning of the Previously Reported Antagonist Binding Mode
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2019 (English)In: ChemistryOpen, ISSN 2191-1363, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 114-125Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We here report on our continued studies of ligands binding tothe promising drug target angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R). Two series of compounds were synthesized and investigated. The first series explored the effects of adding small substituents to the phenyl ring of the known selective nonpeptide AT2R antagonist C38, generating small but significant shifts in AT2R affinity. One compound in the first series was equipotent to C38 and showed similar kinetic solubility, and stability in both human and mouse liver microsomes. The second series was comprised of new bicyclic derivatives, amongst which one ligand exhibited a five-fold improved affinity to AT2R ascompared to C38. The majority of the compounds in the second series, including the most potent ligand, were inferior to C38 with regard to stability in both human and mouse microsomes. In contrast to our previously reported findings, ligands with shorter carbamate alkyl chains only demonstrated slightly improved stability in microsomes. Based on data presented herein, a more adequate, tentative model of the binding modes of ligand analogues to the prototype AT2R antagonist C38 is proposed, as deduced from docking redefined by molecular dynamic simulations.

National Category
Organic Chemistry Medicinal Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-377050 (URN)10.1002/open.201800282 (DOI)000457433000017 ()30697513 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC)Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Åkerbladh, L., Odell, L. R. & Larhed, M. (2019). Palladium-Catalyzed Molybdenum Hexacarbonyl-Mediated Gas-Free Carbonylative Reactions. Synlett: Accounts and Rapid Communications in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, 30(2), 141-155
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Palladium-Catalyzed Molybdenum Hexacarbonyl-Mediated Gas-Free Carbonylative Reactions
2019 (English)In: Synlett: Accounts and Rapid Communications in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0936-5214, E-ISSN 1437-2096, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 141-155Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This account summarizes Pd(0)-catalyzed Mo(CO) 6-mediated gas-free carbonylative reactions published in the period October 2011 to May 2018. Presented reactions include inter-and intramolecular carbonylations, carbonylative cross-couplings, and carbonylative multicomponent reactions using Mo(CO) 6 as a solid source of CO. The presented methodologies were developed mainly for small-scale applications, avoiding the problematic use of gaseous CO in a standard laboratory. In most cases, the reported Mo(CO) 6-mediated carbonylations were conducted in sealed vials or by using two-chamber solutions. 1 Introduction 2 Recent Developments 2.1 New CO Sources 2.2 Two-Chamber System for ex Situ CO Generation 2.3 Multicomponent Carbonylations 3 Carbonylations with N and O Nucleophiles 4 Carbonylative Cross-Coupling Reactions with Organometallics 5 Carbonylative Cascade Reactions 6 Carbonylative Cascade, Multistep Reactions 7 Summary and Outlook

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG, 2019
Keywords
carbonylation, molybdenum, multicomponent reactions, palladium, catalysis
National Category
Medicinal Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-375233 (URN)10.1055/s-0037-1610294 (DOI)000455224600005 ()
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Adeyemi, A., Wetzel, A., Bergman, J., Brånalt, J. & Larhed, M. (2019). Regio- and Stereoselective Synthesis of Spirooxindoles via Mizoroki-Heck Coupling of Aryl Iodides [Letter to the editor]. Synlett: Accounts and Rapid Communications in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, 30(1), 82-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Regio- and Stereoselective Synthesis of Spirooxindoles via Mizoroki-Heck Coupling of Aryl Iodides
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2019 (English)In: Synlett: Accounts and Rapid Communications in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0936-5214, E-ISSN 1437-2096, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 82-88Article in journal, Letter (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A method for highly regio- and stereoselective intramolecular Mizoroki-Heck 5- exo cyclization of aryl iodides to the corresponding spirooxindoles has been developed. Electron-rich and electron-deficient aryl iodide precursors were selectively ring-closed with high stereoselectivity and good yields. The double-bond position in the cyclopentene ring was controlled by careful choice of reaction conditions. These rare spiro compounds were further functionalized to rigidified unnatural amino acid derivatives by a subsequent gas-free Pd(0)-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation, followed by selective O - and N -deprotections.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
GEORG THIEME VERLAG KG, 2019
Keywords
spirooxindoles, Mizoroki-Heck, cyclization, carbonylation
National Category
Medicinal Chemistry Organic Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372880 (URN)10.1055/s-0037-1611360 (DOI)000453250700013 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607517
Available from: 2019-01-09 Created: 2019-01-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Abouzayed, A., Yim, C.-B., Mitran, B., Rinne, S. S., Tolmachev, V., Larhed, M., . . . Orlova, A. (2019). Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of Radio-Iodinated GRPR/PSMA Bispecific Heterodimers for the Theranostics Application in Prostate Cancer. Pharmaceutics, 11(7), Article ID 358.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of Radio-Iodinated GRPR/PSMA Bispecific Heterodimers for the Theranostics Application in Prostate Cancer
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2019 (English)In: Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1999-4923, E-ISSN 1999-4923, Vol. 11, no 7, article id 358Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are overexpressed in most prostate cancers. GRPR expression is higher in early stages while PSMA expression increases with progression. The possibility of targeting both markers with a single theranostics radiotracer could improve patient management. Three GRPR/PSMA-targeting bispecific heterodimers (urea derivative PSMA-617 and bombesin-based antagonist RM26 linked via X-triazolyl-Tyr-PEG2, X = PEG2 (BO530), (CH2)(8) (BO535), none (BO536)) were synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis. Peptides were radio-iodinated and evaluated in vitro for binding specificity, cellular retention, and affinity. In vivo specificity for all heterodimers was studied in PC-3 (GRPR-positive) and LNCaP (PSMA-positive) xenografts. [I-125]I-BO530 was evaluated in PC-3pip (GRPR/PSMA-positive) xenografts. Micro single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (microSPECT/CT) scans were acquired. The heterodimers were radiolabeled with high radiochemical yields, bound specifically to both targets, and demonstrated high degree of activity retention in PC-3pip cells. Only [I-125]I-BO530 demonstrated in vivo specificity to both targets. A biodistribution study of [I-125]I-BO530 in PC-3pip xenografted mice showed high tumor activity uptake (30%-35%ID/g at 3 h post injection (pi)). Activity uptake in tumors was stable and exceeded all other organs 24 h pi. Activity uptake decreased only two-fold 72 h pi. The GRPR/PSMA-targeting heterodimer [I-125]I-BO530 is a promising agent for theranostics application in prostate cancer.

Keywords
prostate cancer, GRPR, PSMA, bispecific heterodimers, theranostics, radio-iodine
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-393138 (URN)10.3390/pharmaceutics11070358 (DOI)000478995100060 ()31340483 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2015-02509Swedish Research Council, 2015-02353Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2017/425Swedish Cancer Society, CAN2015/350Swedish Cancer Society, CAN 2018/436
Available from: 2019-09-23 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-09-23Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, J., Roy, T., Sawadjoon, S., Bachmann, K., Sköld, C., Larhed, M., . . . Odell, L. R. (2019). Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of the CRTH2 antagonist [11C]MK-7246 as a novel PET tracer and potential surrogate marker for pancreatic beta-cell mass. Nuclear Medicine and Biology, 71, 1-10
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of the CRTH2 antagonist [11C]MK-7246 as a novel PET tracer and potential surrogate marker for pancreatic beta-cell mass
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2019 (English)In: Nuclear Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0969-8051, E-ISSN 1872-9614, Vol. 71, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction: MK-7246 is a potent and selective antagonist for chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2). Within the pancreas CRTH2 is selectively expressed in pancreatic β-cells where it is believed to play a role in insulin release. Reduction in β-cell mass and insufficient insulin secretion in response to elevated blood glucose levels is a hallmark for type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Reported here is the synthesis of [11C]MK-7246 and initial preclinical evaluation towards CRTH2 imaging. The aim is to develop a method to quantify β-cell mass with PET and facilitate non-invasive studies of disease progression in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

Methods: The precursor N-desmethyl-O-methyl MK-7246 was synthesized in seven steps and subjected to methylation with [11C]methyl iodide followed by hydrolysis to obtain [11C]MK-7246 labelled in the N-methyl position. Preclinical evaluation included in vitro radiography and immune-staining performed in human pancreatic biopsies. Biodistribution studies were performed in rat by PET-MRI and in pig by PET-CT imaging. The specific tracer uptake was examined in pig by scanning before and after administration of MK-7246 (1 mg/kg). Predicted dosimetry of [11C]MK-7246 in human males was estimated based on the biodistribution in rat.

Results: [11C]MK-7246 was obtained with activities sufficient for the current investigations (270±120 MBq) and a radiochemical purity of 93±2%. The tracer displayed focal binding in areas with insulin positive islet of Langerhans in human pancreas sections. Baseline uptake in pig was significantly reduced in CRTH2-rich areas after administration of MK-7246; pancreas (66% reduction) and spleen (88% reduction). [11C]MK-7246 exhibited a safe human predicted dosimetry profile as extrapolated from the rat biodistribution data.

Conclusions: Initial preclinical in vitro and in vivo evaluation of [11C]MK-7246 show binding and biodistribution properties suitable for PET imaging of CRTH2. Further studies are warranted to assess its potential in β-cell mass imaging and CRTH2 drug development.

National Category
Organic Chemistry Medicinal Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-381559 (URN)10.1016/j.nucmedbio.2019.04.002 (DOI)000475837000001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2018-05133Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Child Diabetes FoundationGöran Gustafsson Foundation for Research in Natural Sciences and Medicine
Available from: 2019-04-11 Created: 2019-04-11 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Mitran, B., Rinne, S. S., Konijnenberg, M. W., Maina, T., Nock, B. A., Altai, M., . . . Orlova, A. (2019). Trastuzumab cotreatment improves survival of mice with PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts treated with the GRPR antagonist 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26. International Journal of Cancer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Trastuzumab cotreatment improves survival of mice with PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts treated with the GRPR antagonist 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26
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2019 (English)In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Gastrin-releasing peptide receptors (GRPRs) are overexpressed in prostate cancer and are suitable for targeted radionuclidetherapy (TRT). We optimized the bombesin-derived GRPR-antagonist PEG2-RM26 for labeling with 177Lu and further determinedthe effect of treatment with 177Lu-labeled peptide alone or in combination with the anti-HER2 antibody trastuzumab in amurine model. The PEG2-RM26 analog was coupled to NOTA, NODAGA, DOTA and DOTAGA chelators. The peptide-chelatorconjugates were labeled with 177Lu and characterized in vitro and in vivo. A preclinical therapeutic study was performed in PC-3xenografted mice. Mice were treated with intravenous injections (6 cycles) of (A) PBS, (B) DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26, (C) 177LuDOTAGA-PEG2-RM26, (D) trastuzumab or (E) 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 in combination with trastuzumab. 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 demonstrated quantitative labeling yield at high molar activity (450 GBq/μmol), high in vivo stability (5 min pi >98% ofradioligand remained when coinjected with phosphoramidon), high affinity to GRPR (KD = 0.4 0.2 nM), and favorablebiodistribution (1 hr pi tumor uptake was higher than in healthy tissues, including the kidneys). Therapy with 177Lu-DOTAGAPEG2-RM26 induced a significant inhibition of tumor growth. The median survival for control groups was significantly shorterthan for treated groups (Group C 66 days, Group E 74 days). Trastuzumab together with radionuclide therapy significantlyimproved survival. No treatment-related toxicity was observed. In conclusion, based on in vitro and in vivo characterization ofthe four 177Lu-labeled PEG2-RM26 analogs, we concluded that 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 was the most promising analog forTRT. Radiotherapy using 177Lu-DOTAGA-PEG2-RM26 effectively inhibited tumor growth in vivo in a murine prostate cancermodel. Anti-HER2 therapy additionally improved survival.

Keywords
radionuclide therapy, GRPR, HER2, prostate cancer, lutetium-177
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-389561 (URN)10.1002/ijc.32401 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-17 Created: 2019-07-17 Last updated: 2019-08-16Bibliographically approved
Wannberg, J., Isaksson, R., Bremberg, U., Backlund, M., Sävmarker, J., Hallberg, M. & Larhed, M. (2018). A convenient transesterification method for synthesis of AT2 receptor ligands with improved stability in human liver microsomes. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 28(3), 519-522
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A convenient transesterification method for synthesis of AT2 receptor ligands with improved stability in human liver microsomes
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2018 (English)In: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, ISSN 0960-894X, E-ISSN 1090-2120, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 519-522Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A series of AT2R ligands have been synthesized applying a quick, simple, and safetransesterification-type reaction whereby the sulfonyl carbamate alkyl tail ofthe selective AT2R antagonist C38 was varied. Furthermore, a limited number ofcompounds where acyl sulfonamides and sulfonyl ureas served as carboxylic acidbioisosteres were synthesized and evaluated. By reducing the size of the alkylchain of the sulfonyl carbamates, ligands 7a and 7b were identified withsignificantly improved in vitro metabolic stability in both human and mouse livermicrosomes as compared to C38 while retaining the AT2R binding affinity andAT2R/AT1R selectivity. Eight of the compounds synthesized exhibit an improvedstability in human microsomes as compared to C38.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
AT(2)R antagonists, Angiotensin II type 2 receptor antagonists, Liver microsomes, Sulfonyl carbamates, Transesterification
National Category
Organic Chemistry Medicinal Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343592 (URN)10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.11.042 (DOI)000424285600053 ()29279275 (PubMedID)
Funder
Science for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
Available from: 2018-02-28 Created: 2018-02-28 Last updated: 2019-04-04Bibliographically approved
Reddy Vanga, S., Sävmarker, J., Ng, L., Larhed, M., Hallberg, M., Åqvist, J., . . . Gutiérrez-de-Terán, H. (2018). Structural Basis of Inhibition of Human Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase (IRAP) by Aryl Sulfonamides. ACS OMEGA, 3(4), 4509-4521
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Structural Basis of Inhibition of Human Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase (IRAP) by Aryl Sulfonamides
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2018 (English)In: ACS OMEGA, ISSN 2470-1343, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 4509-4521Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is a membrane-bound zinc metallopeptidase with many important regulatory functions. It has been demonstrated that inhibition of IRAP by angiotensin IV (Ang IV) and other peptides, as well as more druglike inhibitors, improves cognition in several rodent models. We recently reported a series of aryl sulfonamides as small-molecule IRAP inhibitors and a promising scaffold for pharmacological intervention. We have now expanded with a number of derivatives, report their stability in liver microsomes, and characterize the activity of the whole series in a new assay performed on recombinant human IRAP. Several compounds, such as the new fluorinated derivative 29, present submicromolar affinity and high metabolic stability. Starting from the two binding modes previously proposed for the sulfonamide scaffold, we systematically performed molecular dynamics simulations and binding affinity estimation with the linear interaction energy method for the full compound series. The significant agreement with experimental affinities suggests one of the binding modes, which was further confirmed by the excellent correlation for binding affinity differences between the selected pair of compounds obtained by rigorous free energy perturbation calculations. The new experimental data and the computationally derived structure-activity relationship of the sulfonamide series provide valuable information for further lead optimization of novel IRAP inhibitors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2018
National Category
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Medicinal Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-358572 (URN)10.1021/acsomega.8b00595 (DOI)000434352800025 ()30023895 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council
Available from: 2018-09-17 Created: 2018-09-17 Last updated: 2018-09-17Bibliographically approved
Adeyemi, A., Bergman, J., Branalt, J., Sävmarker, J. & Larhed, M. (2017). Continuous Flow Synthesis under High-Temperature/High-Pressure Conditions Using a Resistively Heated Flow Reactor. Organic Process Research & Development, 21(7), 947-955
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous Flow Synthesis under High-Temperature/High-Pressure Conditions Using a Resistively Heated Flow Reactor
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2017 (English)In: Organic Process Research & Development, ISSN 1083-6160, E-ISSN 1520-586X, Vol. 21, no 7, p. 947-955Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A cheap, easy-to-build, and effective resistively heated reactor for continuous flow synthesis at high temperature and pressure is herein presented. The reactor is rapidly heated directly using, an electric current and is capable of rapidly delivering temperatures and pressures up to 400 degrees C and 200 bar, respectively. High-temperature and high-pressure applications of this reactor were safely performed and demonstrated by selected transformations such as esterifications, transesterifications, and direct carboxylic acid to nitrile reactions using supercritical ethanol, methanol, and acetonitrile. Reaction temperatures were between 300 and 400 degrees C with excellent conversions and good to excellent isolated product yields. Examples of Diels-Alder reactions were also carried out at temperatures up to 300 degrees C in high yield. No additives or catalysts were used in the reactions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2017
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-333407 (URN)10.1021/acs.oprd.7b00063 (DOI)000406356200003 ()
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 607517
Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
Mitran, B., Thisgaard, H., Rosenström, U., Dam, J. H., Larhed, M., Tolmachev, V. & Orlova, A. (2017). High Contrast PET Imaging of GRPR Expression in Prostate Cancer Using Cobalt-Labeled Bombesin Antagonist RM26. Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging, Article ID UNSP 6873684.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Contrast PET Imaging of GRPR Expression in Prostate Cancer Using Cobalt-Labeled Bombesin Antagonist RM26
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2017 (English)In: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1555-4309, E-ISSN 1555-4317, article id UNSP 6873684Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High gastrin releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) expression is associated with numerous cancers including prostate and breast cancer. The aim of the current study was to develop a Co-55-labeled PET agent based on GRPR antagonist RM26 for visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors. Labeling with Co-57 and Co-55, stability, binding specificity, and in vitro and in vivo characteristics of Co-57-NOTA-PEG(2)-RM26 were studied. NOTA-PEG(2)-RM26 was successfully radiolabeled with Co-57 and Co-55 with high yields and demonstrated high stability. The radiopeptide showed retained binding specificity to GRPR in vitro and in vivo. Co-57-NOTA-PEG(2)-RM26 biodistribution in mice was characterized by rapid clearance of radioactivity from blood and normal non-GRPR-expressing organs and low hepatic uptake. The clearance was predominantly renal with a low degree of radioactivity reabsorption. Tumor-to-blood ratios were approximately 200 (3 h pi) and 1000 (24 h pi). The favorable biodistribution of cobalt-labeled NOTA-PEG(2)-RM26 translated into high contrast preclinical PET/CT (using Co-55) and SPECT/CT (using Co-57) images of PC-3 xenografts. The initial biological results suggest that Co-55-NOTA-PEG(2)-RM26 is a promising tracer for PET visualization of GRPR-expressing tumors.

Keywords
Positron-Emission-Tomography, Receptor-Positive Tumors, In-Vivo Evaluation, Radiolabeled Peptides, Analog; Agonists, Visualization, Proteins, Affinity, Therapy.
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-334114 (URN)10.1155/2017/6873684 (DOI)000408099300001 ()
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society, CAN2014/474; CAN2015/350Swedish Research Council, 2015-02509; 2015-02353Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationScience for Life Laboratory - a national resource center for high-throughput molecular bioscience
Available from: 2017-11-24 Created: 2017-11-24 Last updated: 2019-07-17Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6258-0635

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