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Projekttyp/Bidragsform
Projektbidrag
Titel [sv]
Att välja våld? Orsakerna till valrelaterat våld i Afrika
Titel [en]
Electing Violence? The Causes of Electoral Violence in Africa
Abstract [en]
This project studies the circumstances under which electoral contestation leads to violence. The project advances the knowledge on electoral violence in two significant ways. First, it uses new conflict event data from the Uppsala Conflict Data Program to conduct the first comprehensive analysis of the frequency and determinants of political violence in association with elections in Africa in the 1989 to 2008 period. Second, it will carry out a qualitative analysis of African countries, including Kenya and South Africa.

To understand electoral violence, the project will develop theories related to:

-the functioning of informal institutions for creating incentives for violent electoral contest (especially the implication of politics ordered by hierarchical patron-client relationship)
-weak formal institutions, which encourages electoral violence through the manipulation of democratic institutions.

The relevance of the research pertains both to the advancement of knowledge on the democracy-violence nexus and to policy for how to address the causes of electoral violence. Electoral violence has a number of negative influences on individuals and on societies. It threatens to undermine the democratic system by defying the very notion of democratic norms based on tolerance and non-violence. It is associated with corruption and underdevelopment. In some countries, election-related violence has served as a training ground for civil war. In essence, electoral violence hampers individual safety and wealth.

Related publications:

-Höglund, Kristine, and Anna K. Jarstad, 2010. ‘Strategies to Prevent and Manage Electoral Violence: Considerations for Policy.’ Policy and Practice Brief, ACCORD, no. 1. Available online www.accord.org.za.
-Höglund, Kristine, 2009. ‘Electoral Violence: Causes, Concepts and Consequences’. Terrorism and Political Violence 21 (3): 412-427.
-Höglund, Kristine, and Anton Piyarathne. 2009. ‘Paying the Price of Patronage: Electoral Violence in Sri Lanka’. Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 47 (3): 287-307.
-Höglund, Kristine, 2009. ‘Elections and Violence in Sri Lanka: Understanding Variation across Three Parliamentary Elections,’ in Swain, Ashok, Rames Amer, and Joakim Öjendahl, eds., The Democratization Project: Opportunities and Challenges, London: Anthem Press
-Höglund, Kristine, 2008. ‘Violence in War-to-Democracy Transitions’, in Anna Jarstad & Timothy D. Sisk, eds., War-to-Democracy Transitions: Dilemmas of Peacebuilding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
-Fjelde, Hanne. “Patronage politics and Non-state Conflict in Africa: A Sub-national Study of Nigeria”. Unpublished manuscript, Department of Peace and Conflict Research, Uppsala University.
Publikationer (10 of 10) Visa alla publikationer
Brosché, J. & Höglund, K. (2016). Crisis of governance in South Sudan: electoral politics and violence in the world's newest nation. Journal of Modern African Studies, 54(1), 67-90
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Crisis of governance in South Sudan: electoral politics and violence in the world's newest nation
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Modern African Studies, ISSN 0022-278X, E-ISSN 1469-7777, Vol. 54, nr 1, s. 67-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Since mid-December 2013, thousands of people have been killed in armed conflict in South Sudan. The fighting is entrenched in a power struggle between the main political contenders ahead of elections which were scheduled for 2015. This article examines the violence in South Sudan since the North-South war ended with a focus on the consequences of the introduction of electoral politics. Our research contributes to the literature on state-building and peace-building in war-torn societies, by exploring how the extreme levels of violence are linked to three groups of factors. First, the stakes involved in being part of the government are extremely high, since it is the only way to secure political and economic influence. Second, the actors involved in political life are dominated by individuals who held positions within the rebel groups, which increases the risk of political differences turning violent. Third, the institutions important for a legitimate electoral process, and which work to prevent violence, are weak or non-existent.

Nyckelord
South Sudan, elections, violence, conflict
Nationell ämneskategori
Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-276272 (URN)10.1017/S0022278X15000828 (DOI)000370862400003 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-10 Skapad: 2016-02-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-06-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Fjelde, H. & Höglund, K. (2016). Electoral Institutions and Electoral Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa. British Journal of Political Science, 46(2), 297-320
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Electoral Institutions and Electoral Violence in Sub-Saharan Africa
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: British Journal of Political Science, ISSN 0007-1234, E-ISSN 1469-2112, Vol. 46, nr 2, s. 297-320Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Political violence remains a pervasive feature of electoral dynamics in many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, even where multiparty elections have become the dominant mode of regulating access to political power. With cross-national data on electoral violence in Sub-Saharan African elections between 1990 and 2010, this article develops and tests a theory that links the use of violent electoral tactics to the high stakes put in place by majoritarian electoral institutions. It is found that electoral violence is more likely in countries that employ majoritarian voting rules and elect fewer legislators from each district. Majoritarian institutions are, as predicted by theory, particularly likely to provoke violence where large ethno-political groups are excluded from power and significant economic inequalities exist.

Nyckelord
violence, elections, Africa
Nationell ämneskategori
Statsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-281929 (URN)10.1017/S0007123414000179 (DOI)000373392700004 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 421/2010/1515
Tillgänglig från: 2016-03-31 Skapad: 2016-03-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-06-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Fjelde, H. & Höglund, K. (2016). Electoral Violence: The Emergence of a Research Field. APSA Comparative Democratization Newsletter, 14(2)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Electoral Violence: The Emergence of a Research Field
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: APSA Comparative Democratization Newsletter, Vol. 14, nr 2Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Published
Nyckelord
elections, violence, conflict, democratization, institutions
Nationell ämneskategori
Samhällsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303982 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-28 Skapad: 2016-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-01-29
Fjelde, H. & Höglund, K. (2016). Here's One Way to Prevent Electoral Violence. Monkey Cage; The Washington Post
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Here's One Way to Prevent Electoral Violence
2016 (Engelska)Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
Ort, förlag, år, sidor
Monkey Cage; The Washington Post, 2016
Nyckelord
elections, violence, Africa, electoral institutions
Nationell ämneskategori
Statsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332574 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-30 Skapad: 2017-10-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-06-26
Fjelde, H. (2016). När val leder till konflikt. In: Jenny Björkman & Arne Jarrick (Ed.), Krig Fred: RJ:s årsbok 2016/2017 (pp. 59-66). Göteborg/Stockholm: Makadam Förlag
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>När val leder till konflikt
2016 (Svenska)Ingår i: Krig Fred: RJ:s årsbok 2016/2017 / [ed] Jenny Björkman & Arne Jarrick, Göteborg/Stockholm: Makadam Förlag, 2016, s. 59-66Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Göteborg/Stockholm: Makadam Förlag, 2016
Nyckelord
peace, conflict, violence, elections, war, democratisation
Nationell ämneskategori
Samhällsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-303979 (URN)978-91-7061-206-0 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-09-28 Skapad: 2016-09-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-06-26
Fjelde, H. & Höglund, K. (2016). Våld vid valurnorna - vad beror det på?. Mänsklig säkerhet
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Våld vid valurnorna - vad beror det på?
2016 (Svenska)Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
Ort, förlag, år, sidor
Mänsklig säkerhet, 2016
Nyckelord
val, våld, Afrika, valsystem
Nationell ämneskategori
Statsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-332577 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-10-30 Skapad: 2017-10-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-01-29
Jarstad, A. K. & Höglund, K. (2015). Local violence and politics in KwaZulu-Natal: perceptions of agency in a post-conflict society. Third World Quarterly, 36(5), 967-984
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Local violence and politics in KwaZulu-Natal: perceptions of agency in a post-conflict society
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Third World Quarterly, ISSN 0143-6597, E-ISSN 1360-2241, Vol. 36, nr 5, s. 967-984Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This article analyses the narratives of survivors of violence in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, and addresses the relationship between local violence, politics and agency in a post-conflict setting. In particular, the study advances an understanding of how local political violence serves to increase or decrease agency. In line with previous research on emotions and agency, our study suggests that fear and anxiety encourage risk avoidance and have a pacifying effect on survivors of violence. It also indicates that anger and enthusiasm are emotions experienced by those who have a strong sense of agency and have become politically mobilised after violence. The study contributes to the debate on local capacity for peacebuilding and democracy by showing how local agency is affected by violence and how survivors of violence can become agents of change through politics.

Nyckelord
agency, local violence, peacebuilding, South Africa, post-conflict societies
Nationell ämneskategori
Statsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-257030 (URN)10.1080/01436597.2015.1030385 (DOI)000355794100010 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
VetenskapsrådetRiksbankens Jubileumsfond
Tillgänglig från: 2015-06-30 Skapad: 2015-06-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-06-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Höglund, K. & Fjelde, H. (2013). Fredslobotomi eller hållbar demokrati?: Kenyas framtid osäker trots fredliga val. Internationella Studier (2), 10-12
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Fredslobotomi eller hållbar demokrati?: Kenyas framtid osäker trots fredliga val
2013 (Svenska)Ingår i: Internationella Studier, ISSN 0020-952X, nr 2, s. 10-12Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm)) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Utrikespolitiska Institutet, 2013
Nyckelord
Kenya, fred, konflikt, val
Nationell ämneskategori
Annan samhällsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-201663 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2013-06-13 Skapad: 2013-06-13 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-06-26
Opitz, C., Fjelde, H. & Höglund, K. (2013). Including Peace: The Influence of Electoral Management Bodies on Electoral Violence. Journal of Eastern African Studies, 7(4), 713-731
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Including Peace: The Influence of Electoral Management Bodies on Electoral Violence
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Eastern African Studies, ISSN 1753-1055, E-ISSN 1753-1063, Vol. 7, nr 4, s. 713-731Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

What accounts for the difference between peaceful and violent elections in semi-authoritarian countries? This article analyses the influence of electoral management bodies (EMBs) on the likelihood of widespread violence triggered by opposition protest during election times. It is argued that by establishing inclusive and collaborative relationships through which political actors can jointly negotiate important electoral issues, EMBs influence the incentive structure of the major stakeholders in favour of non-violent strategies. The relationship is explored by comparing elections in Malawi (2004), Ethiopia (2005) and Zanzibar (2005). The analysis supports the idea that inclusive EMBs, rather than legal independence, are critical to guarantee the influence of the opposition in order to address both their interests and their mistrust of electoral politics.

Nyckelord
elections, violence, Africa, electoral manangement bodies
Nationell ämneskategori
Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-212885 (URN)10.1080/17531055.2013.841024 (DOI)000327513100008 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2013-12-16 Skapad: 2013-12-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-06-26Bibliografiskt granskad
Höglund, K. (2011). Priset för demokrati får inte bli våldsamma val. Tvärsnitt: Humanistisk och samhällsvetenskaplig forskning (3-4), 32-35
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Priset för demokrati får inte bli våldsamma val
2011 (Svenska)Ingår i: Tvärsnitt: Humanistisk och samhällsvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-7997, nr 3-4, s. 32-35Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm)) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet, 2011
Nyckelord
elections, conflict, violence, democracy
Nationell ämneskategori
Tvärvetenskapliga studier inom samhällsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Freds- och konfliktforskning
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-162818 (URN)
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet
Tillgänglig från: 2011-12-05 Skapad: 2011-12-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2020-06-26
ProjektledareHöglund, Kristine
ProjektmedarbetareFjelde, Hanne
Koordinerande organisation
Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för freds- och konfliktforskning
Forskningsfinansiär
Tidsperiod
2011-01-01 - 2016-12-31
Nationell ämneskategori
Statsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
DiVA, id: project:2007Projekt id: 2010-01515

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