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Project type/Form of grant
EU grant
Title [sv]
ARCIGS-M
Title [en]
ARCIGS-M
Abstract [en]
Advanced aRchitectures for ultra-thin high-efficiency CIGS solar cells with high Manufacturability, or ARCIGS-M, is an H2020 funded project coordinated by the University of Uppsala. The project gathers thirteen institutions aiming to work on lowering the production cost of thin-film solar cells by developing advanced solar cell architectures.

The project is working on thin film solar cells based on Cu(In,Ga)Se2, or CIGS, because this technology is low weight, low light efficienct, flexibile, has great aesthetics, and has reasonable and competitive production costs. Ultimately, the project main goal is to lower CIGS solar modules production costs to even lower numbers.
Publications (10 of 10) Show all publications
Bose, S., Cunha, J. M., Borme, J., Chen, W.-C., Shariati Nilsson, N., Teixeira, J. P., . . . Salome, P. M. (2019). A morphological and electronic study of ultrathin rear passivated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells. Paper presented at European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE. Thin Solid Films, 671, 77-84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A morphological and electronic study of ultrathin rear passivated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells
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2019 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 671, p. 77-84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of introducing a passivation layer at the rear of ultrathin Copper Indium Gallium di-Selenide Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells is studied. Point contact structures have been created on 25 nm Al2O3 layer using e-beam lithography. Reference solar cells with ultrathin CIGS layers provide devices with average values of light to power conversion efficiency of 8.1% while for passivated cells values reached 9.5%. Electronic properties of passivated cells have been studied before, but the influence of growing the CIGS on Al2O3 with point contacts was still unknown from a structural and morphological point of view. Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements were performed. These measurements revealed no significant morphological or structural differences in the CIGS layer for the passivated samples compared with reference samples. These results are in agreement with the similar values of carrier density (~8 x 1016 cm-3) and depletion region (~160 nm) extracted using electrical measurements. A detailed comparison between both sample types in terms of current-voltage, external quantum efficiency and photoluminescence measurements show very different optoelectronic behaviour which is indicative of a successful passivation. SCAPS simulations are done to explain the observed results in view of passivation of the rear interface.

Keywords
Passivation, Copper indium gallium di-selenide, Solar cells, Ultrathin, Absorber, Thin film
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-375804 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2018.12.028 (DOI)000455998000013 ()
Conference
European-Materials-Research-Society (EMRS) Spring Meeting / Sympsium A on Thin Film Chalcogenide Photovoltaic Materials (ChalcogenidePV), JUN 18-22, 2018, Strasbourg, FRANCE
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
Donzel-Gargand, O., Thersleff, T., Keller, J., Törndahl, T., Larsson, F., Wallin, E., . . . Edoff, M. (2018). Deep surface Cu depletion induced by K in high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell absorbers. Progress in Photovoltaics, 26(9), 730-739
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deep surface Cu depletion induced by K in high-efficiency Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell absorbers
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2018 (English)In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 730-739Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, we used K‐rich glass substrates to provide potassium during the coevaporation of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) absorber layers. Subsequently, we applied a postdeposition treatment (PDT) using KF or RbF to some of the grown absorbers. It was found that the presence of K during the growth of the CIGS layer led to cell effi- ciencies beyond 17%, and the addition of a PDT pushed it beyond 18%. The major finding of this work is the observation of discontinuous 100‐ to 200‐nm‐deep Cu‐ depleted patches in the vicinity of the CdS buffer layer, correlated with the presence of K during the growth of the absorber layer. The PDT had no influence on the forma- tion of these patches. A second finding concerns the composition of the Cu‐depleted areas, where an anticorrelation between Cu and both In and K was measured using scanning transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, a steeper Ga/(In+Ga) ratio gradient was measured for the absorbers grown with the presence of K, suggesting that K hinders the group III element interdiffusion. Finally, no Cd in‐diffusion to the CIGS layer could be detected. This indicates that if CdCu substitution occurs, either their concentration is below our instrumental detection limit or its presence is contained within the first 6 nm from the CdS/CIGS interface.

Keywords
CIGS, Cu depletion, EELS, OVC, Raman, solar cell, TEM
National Category
Other Materials Engineering Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357120 (URN)10.1002/pip.3010 (DOI)000442501000004 ()
Funder
Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Energy AgencyEU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2018-08-12 Created: 2018-08-12 Last updated: 2018-11-13Bibliographically approved
Ledinek, D., Donzel-Gargand, O., Sköld, M., Keller, J. & Edoff, M. (2018). Effect of different Na supply methods on thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with Al2O3 rear passivation layers. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 187(1), 160-169
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of different Na supply methods on thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cells with Al2O3 rear passivation layers
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2018 (English)In: Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, ISSN 0927-0248, E-ISSN 1879-3398, Vol. 187, no 1, p. 160-169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, rear-contact passivated Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells were fabricated without any intentional contact openings between the CIGS and Mo layers. The investigated samples were either Na free or one of two Na supply methods was used, i) a NaF precursor on top of the Al2O3 rear passivation layer or ii) an in situ post- deposition treatment with NaF after co-evaporation of the CIGS layer. The thickness of the ALD-Al2O3 passi- vation layer was also varied in order to find an optimal combination of Na supply and passivation layer thickness. Our results from electrical characterization show remarkably different solar cell behavior for different Na supplies. For up to 1nm thick Al2O3 layers an electronically good contact could be confirmed independently of Na deposition method and content. When the Al2O3 thickness exceeded 1 nm, the current was blocked on all samples except on the samples with the NaF precursor. On these samples the current was not blocked up to an Al2O3 layer thickness of about 6 nm, the maximum thickness we could achieve without the CIGS peeling off the Al2O3 layer. Transmission electron microscopy reveals a porous passivation layer for the samples with a NaF precursor. An analysis of the dependence of the open circuit voltage on temperature (JVT) indicates that a thicker NaF precursor layer lowers the height of the hole barrier at the rear contact for the passivated cells. This energy barrier is also lower for the passivated sample, compared to an unpassivated sample, when both samples have been post-deposition treated.

Keywords
Alkali, Back contact, CIGS, Passivation, Thin films, Rear contact, Tunneling
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Energy Systems Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-357123 (URN)10.1016/j.solmat.2018.07.017 (DOI)000445308300019 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 43523-1StandUpEU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2018-08-12 Created: 2018-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-08Bibliographically approved
Cunha, J. M., Fernandes, P. A., Hultqvist, A., Teixeira, J. P., Bose, S., Vermang, B., . . . Salome, P. M. (2018). Insulator Materials for Interface Passivation of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Films. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 8(5), 1313-1319
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Insulator Materials for Interface Passivation of Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 Thin Films
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2018 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 1313-1319Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, metal-insulator-semiconductor structures were fabricated in order to study different types of insulators, namely, aluminum oxide (Al2O3), silicon nitride, and silicon oxide (SiOx) to be used as passivation layers in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) thin-film solar cells. The investigated stacks consisted of SLG/Mo/CIGS/insulator/Al. Raman scattering and photoluminescence measurements were done to verify the insulator deposition influence on the CIGS surface. In order to study the electrical properties of the CIGS-insulator interface, capacitance versus conductance and voltage (C-G-V) measurements were done to estimate the number and polarity of fixed insulator charges (Q(f)). The density of interface defects (D-it) was estimated from capacitance versus conductance and frequency (C-G-f) measurements. This study evidences that the deposition of the insulators at high temperatures (300 degrees C) and the use of a sputtering technique cause surface modification on the CIGS surface. We found that, by varying the SiOx deposition parameters, it is possible to have opposite charges inside the insulator, which would allow its use in different device architectures. The material with lower Dit values was Al2O3 when deposited by sputtering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2018
Keywords
Chemical passivation, Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 (CIGS), field-effect passivation, interface, passivation, solar cells, thin films
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362107 (URN)10.1109/JPHOTOV.2018.2846674 (DOI)000442366400021 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887EU, Horizon 2020, 715027
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Bose, S., Cunha, J. M. ., Suresh, S., De Wild, J., Lopes, T. S., Barbosa, J. R. S., . . . Salome, P. M. P. (2018). Optical Lithography Patterning of SiO2 Layers for Interface Passivation of Thin Film Solar Cells. SOLAR RRL, 2(12), Article ID 1800212.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical Lithography Patterning of SiO2 Layers for Interface Passivation of Thin Film Solar Cells
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2018 (English)In: SOLAR RRL, ISSN 2367-198X, Vol. 2, no 12, article id 1800212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ultrathin Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 solar cells are a promising way to reduce costs and to increase the electrical performance of thin film solar cells. An optical lithography process that can produce sub-micrometer contacts in a SiO2 passivation layer at the CIGS rear contact is developed in this work. Furthermore, an optimization of the patterning dimensions reveals constrains over the features sizes. High passivation areas of the rear contact are needed to passivate the CIGS interface so that high performing solar cells can be obtained. However, these dimensions should not be achieved by using long distances between the contacts as they lead to poor electrical performance due to poor carrier extraction. This study expands the choice of passivation materials already known for ultrathin solar cells and its fabrication techniques.

Keywords
Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 (CIGS), defects passivation, optoelectronics, semiconductors, thin film solar cells
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-372770 (URN)10.1002/solr.201800212 (DOI)000452302800015 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 715027EU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2019-01-14 Created: 2019-01-14 Last updated: 2019-03-11Bibliographically approved
Salome, P. M. P., Vermang, B., Ribeiro-Andrade, R., Teixeira, J. P., Cunha, J. M. V., Mendes, M. J., . . . Sadewasser, S. (2018). Passivation of Interfaces in Thin Film Solar Cells: Understanding the Effects of a Nanostructured Rear Point Contact Layer. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 5(2), Article ID 1701101.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Passivation of Interfaces in Thin Film Solar Cells: Understanding the Effects of a Nanostructured Rear Point Contact Layer
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 1701101Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Thin film solar cells based in Cu(In,Ga)Se-2 (CIGS) are among the most efficient polycrystalline solar cells, surpassing CdTe and even polycrystalline silicon solar cells. For further developments, the CIGS technology has to start incorporating different solar cell architectures and strategies that allow for very low interface recombination. In this work, ultrathin 350 nm CIGS solar cells with a rear interface passivation strategy are studied and characterized. The rear passivation is achieved using an Al2O3 nanopatterned point structure. Using the cell results, photoluminescence measurements, and detailed optical simulations based on the experimental results, it is shown that by including the nanopatterned point contact structure, the interface defect concentration lowers, which ultimately leads to an increase of solar cell electrical performance mostly by increase of the open circuit voltage. Gains to the short circuit current are distributed between an increased rear optical reflection and also due to electrical effects. The approach of mixing several techniques allows us to make a discussion considering the different passivation gains, which has not been done in detail in previous works. A solar cell with a nanopatterned rear contact and a 350 nm thick CIGS absorber provides an average power conversion efficiency close to 10%.

Keywords
Cu(In, Ga)Se-2 (CIGS), nanofabrication, passivation, photovoltaics, semiconductors, thin film solar cells
National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-343670 (URN)10.1002/admi.201701101 (DOI)000423173800013 ()
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887EU, European Research Council, 715027
Available from: 2018-03-07 Created: 2018-03-07 Last updated: 2018-07-05Bibliographically approved
Kotipalli, R., Poncelet, O., Li, G., Zeng, Y., Francis, L., Vermang, B. & Flandre, D. (2017). Addressing the impact of rear surface passivation mechanisms on ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell performances using SCAPS 1-D model. Solar Energy, 157, 603-613, Article ID 1708055.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Addressing the impact of rear surface passivation mechanisms on ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell performances using SCAPS 1-D model
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2017 (English)In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 157, p. 603-613, article id 1708055Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a (1-D) SCAPS device model to address the following: (i) the surface passivation mechanisms (i.e.field-effect and chemical), (ii) their impact on the CIGS solar cell performance for varying CIGS absorberthickness, (iii) the importance of fixed charge type (+/−) and densities of fixed and interface trap charges, and(iv) the reasons for discrete gains in the experimental cell efficiencies (previously reported) for varying CIGSabsorber thickness. First, to obtain a reliable device model, the proposed set of parameters is validated for bothfield-effect (due to fixed charges) and chemical passivation (due to interface traps) using a simple M-I-S teststructure and experimentally extracted values (previously reported) into the SCAPS simulator. Next, we providefigures of merits without any significant loss in the solar cell performances for minimum net −Qf and maximumacceptable limit for Dit, found to be ∼5 × 1012 cm−2 and ∼1 × 1013 cm−2 eV−1 respectively. We next showthat the influence of negative fixed charges in the rear passivation layer (i.e. field-effect passivation) is morepredominant than that of the positive fixed charges (i.e. counter-field effect) especially while considering ultrathin(<0.5 μm) absorber layers. Furthermore, we show the importance of rear reflectance on the short-circuitphotocurrent densities while scaling down the CIGS absorber layers below 0.5 μm under interface chemical andfield-effect passivation mechanisms. Finally, we provide the optimal rear passivation layer parameters for efficienciesgreater than 20% with ultra-thin CIGS absorber thickness (<0.5 μm). Based on these simulation results,we confirm that a negatively charged rear surface passivation with nano-point contact approach is efficient forthe enhancement of cell performances, especially while scaling down the absorber thickness below 0.5 μm.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Research subject
Physics with specialization in Global Energy Resources
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355664 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2017.08.055 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2018-07-04 Created: 2018-07-04 Last updated: 2019-05-09Bibliographically approved
Goffard, J., Colin, C., Mollica, F., Cattoni, A., Sauvan, C., Lalanne, P., . . . Collin, S. (2017). Light Trapping in Ultrathin CIGS Solar Cells withNanostructured Back Mirrors. IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, 7(5), 1433-1441
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Light Trapping in Ultrathin CIGS Solar Cells withNanostructured Back Mirrors
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2017 (English)In: IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics, ISSN 2156-3381, E-ISSN 2156-3403, Vol. 7, no 5, p. 1433-1441Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Novel architectures for light trapping in ultrathinCu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells are proposed and numericallyinvestigated. They are composed of a flat CIGS layer withnanostructured back mirrors made of highly reflective metals.Multi-resonant absorption is obtained for two different patternsof nanostructured mirrors. It leads to a dramatic increase in theshort-circuit current predicted for solar cells with very thin CIGSlayers. We analyze the resonance phenomena and the density ofphotogenerated carriers in the absorber. We discuss the impactof the material used for the buffer layer (CdS and ZnS) and theback mirror (Mo, Cu, Au, and Ag). We investigate various CIGSthicknesses from 100 to 500 nm, and we compare our numericalresults with experimental data taken from the literature. Wepredict a short-circuit current of Jsc = 33.6 mA/cm2 for a realisticsolar cell made of a 200-nm-thick CIGS absorber with a coppernanostructured mirror. It opens a way toward ultrathin CIGSsolar cells with potential conversion efficiencies up to 20%.

Keywords
Absorption, Cu(In, Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe thin-film solar cells, modeling, nanophotonics, nanostructures, photovoltaic cells.
National Category
Physical Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355880 (URN)10.1109/JPHOTOV.2017.2726566 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2018-07-10 Created: 2018-07-10 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Poncelet, O., Kotipalli, R., Vermang, B., Macleod, A., Francis, L. A. & Flandre, D. (2017). Optimisation of rear reflectance in ultra-thin CIGS solar cells towards>20% efficiency. Solar Energy, 146, 443-452
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimisation of rear reflectance in ultra-thin CIGS solar cells towards>20% efficiency
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2017 (English)In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 146, p. 443-452Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to decrease their cost and the use of rare metal elements, thin film solar cell thicknesses are con-tinuously reduced at the expense of their efficiency, due to a lack of absorption for long wavelengths.Optimisation of cells rear reflectance (Rb) thus becomes meaningful to provide non-absorbed light a sec-ond chance to be harvested by the active cell layer. In this sense, we present a way to keep the rear reflec-tance in advanced Cu(In, Ga) Se2(CIGS) cell as high as possible while keeping in mind the progressalready done regarding the rear passivation techniques. We show that introducing a stack of thin Al2O3 and aluminium between the CIGS layer and the rear molybdenum electrode increases Rbup to92% in the long wavelength 800–1100 nm range. Several other stacks, using MgF2, SiO2or TiO2, are opti-mised in order to investigate the best trade-off between passivation, material consumption and perfor-mances, resulting in Rbranging from 42% (moderate case) to 99% in the best case. Those CIGS rearinterface reflectance optimisations were performed by using a standard transfer matrix method (TMM)in the long wavelength range. Seven interesting stacks are then analysed for solar cell performances usingSCAPS simulation software to understand the impact of rear reflectance on short circuit current density(Jsc) and eventually on the cell efficiency (g), for ultra-thin CIGS absorber thicknesses (<1 lm). Based onthese results, we propose Rboptimisation to achieve Jsc> 40 mA/cm2and g > 20% with a 500 nm-thickCIGS absorber film using CIGS-Al2O3-Mo stack, where the Al2O3thickness can be chosen in between104 and 139 nm. This way, we can ensure good rear reflectance (Rb= 65%) and reduced interface recom-bination while being industrially feasible with present technologies.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Nano Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-355253 (URN)10.1016/j.solener.2017.03.001 (DOI)
Funder
EU, Horizon 2020, 720887
Available from: 2018-06-27 Created: 2018-06-27 Last updated: 2019-05-09
Ledinek, D., Vermang, B. & Edoff, M. (2014). Thickness and Ga content variations in co-evaporated CIGS solar cells with a flat Ga profile: an electrical characteriyation. In: EU PVSEC 2014 Proceedings Papers: . Paper presented at 29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam (pp. 1832-1836). Munchen
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thickness and Ga content variations in co-evaporated CIGS solar cells with a flat Ga profile: an electrical characteriyation
2014 (English)In: EU PVSEC 2014 Proceedings Papers, Munchen, 2014, p. 1832-1836Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In this work an extensive experimental series has been carried out by co-evaporating CIGS layers with varying thickness (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 µm) and varying Ga content (Ga/(Ga+In)=0.15, 0.30, 0.45 and 0.60). In all CIGS layers the Cu concentration has been held constant at Cu/(In+Ga)=0.85. The cells have been characterized with dark and light current voltage measurements, external quantum efficiency measurements and apparent quantum efficiency measurements at negative bias. In agreement with the literature, we observe a distinctively shorter collection length for high Ga concentrations and voltage dependent photo current collection for all cells. Voltage dependent current collection however cannot alone explain our data and the cells need to be described with an illumination dependent diode current or photo current. The generation dependent diode or photo current increase the slope of the light JV curve at negative bias voltage for all solar cells and dominates the slope in cells with 0.5 µm thin absorbers regardless of Ga content. We propose that this behavior is connected to the recombination at the back contact, as it is smaller in the cells with thick absorber layers and since we do not observe the same behavior in back side passivated cells. Keywords: Cu(InGa)Se2, Modelling, Electrical Characterization, Shunting, Ga content, thin absorbers, superposition principle, shifting approximation

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Munchen: , 2014
Keywords
CIGS; CIGSe; Thin film solar cells; GGI; Ga content; electrical characterization;
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Research subject
Engineering Science with specialization in Electronics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-390309 (URN)4812656362 (ISBN)
Conference
29th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Amsterdam
Available from: 2019-08-08 Created: 2019-08-08 Last updated: 2019-08-08
Principal InvestigatorEdoff, Marika
Co-InvestigatorFlandre, Denis
Co-InvestigatorGordon, Ivan
Co-InvestigatorCollin, Stéphane
Co-InvestigatorSalomé, Pedro
Co-InvestigatorNiemi, Esko
Co-InvestigatorBolt, Pieter
Co-InvestigatorGusak, Viktoria
Co-InvestigatorKrc, Janez
Co-InvestigatorZhou PERSSON, Ye
Co-InvestigatorJubalt, Marie
Co-InvestigatorKotipalli, Ratan
Co-InvestigatorVignal, Renaud
Coordinating organisation
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Electronics
Period
2016-12-01 - 2019-11-30
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information EngineeringNano Technology
Identifiers
DiVA, id: project:2Project, id: 720887_EU