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Adolescent Gaming and Gambling in Relation to Negative Social Consequences and Health
Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås.
2015 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The aims of the thesis were to study relationships between the effects of online gaming and gambling and negative social consequences and ill health among adolescents and to determine whether gaming and gambling activities occur together.

The papers in this thesis used epidemiological methods to obtain self-report information from Swedish adolescents aged 13–18 years. Time spent in online gaming was associated with negative social consequences, and this relationship was explained by online gaming motives. Gaming for fun and social motives was associated with a reduced risk of negative social consequences, whereas gaming to escape problems, gain status, or meet demands from others was associated with an increased risk.

Increased online gaming time on weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, or psychosomatic symptoms, and was related to online gaming motives. The probability of ill health was low in those who reported gaming for fun or social motives. Adolescents with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were more sensitive to gambling frequency and to developing a gambling problem. However, among those identified as susceptible, adolescents with ADHD were equally affected compared with other susceptible participants in terms of their gambling frequency.

Boys had a higher probability than girls of participating in online gambling in association with online gaming. Having at least one parent born outside Scandinavia was associated with a higher probability of online gambling, especially among girls. The effect of alcohol use as a factor contributing to online gambling was greater among boys than among girls.

The results of this thesis contribute new knowledge about sex differences in online gaming and gambling behaviours and add to the limited research on online gaming and online gambling behaviours among adolescent girls. Gaming motives may be helpful for identifying online gamers needing support to reduce their unhealthy gaming behaviour. Information about factors related to gaming and gambling problems may be of interest to clinicians in psychiatry, psychology and social work, as well as to policymakers, parents and teachers involved in adolescent health and development. Effect preventive strategies should consider the sex differences in gaming and gambling behaviour in adolescents.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2015. , s. 80
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 1131
Nyckelord [en]
Adolescents, Depression, Gambling, Gaming, Health, Musculoskeletal symptoms, Negative social consequences, Psychosomatic Symptoms.
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Forskningsämne
Allmänmedicin
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261156ISBN: 978-91-554-9316-5 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-261156DiVA, id: diva2:849759
Disputation
2015-10-16, Samlingssalen Ingång 29, Västmanlands sjukhus, Västerås, 13:15 (Svenska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2015-09-25 Skapad: 2015-08-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-10-01
Delarbeten
1. Influences of motives to play and time spent gaming on the negative consequences of adolescent online computer gaming
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Influences of motives to play and time spent gaming on the negative consequences of adolescent online computer gaming
2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: Computers in human behavior, ISSN 0747-5632, E-ISSN 1873-7692, Vol. 28, nr 4, s. 1379-1387Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study we examined the relation between gaming-time, motives to play, and negative consequences due to playing MMORPGs. A total of 7757 Swedish adolescents (3872 boys and 3885 girls) between 13 and 18 years of age completed a questionnaire during class hours. Results indicated that time spent on gaming was associated with negative consequences. This relation was further explained by motives to play. Gaming for fun and social motives were associated with a reduced risk whereas gaming to escape, to gain status, or due to demands from others were associated with an increased risk of negative consequences. Motives to play should be considered as a prime indicator for negative consequences, even more than time spent gaming. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

Nyckelord
Adolescent, Behaviour problems, Computer games, Consequences, Motivation, Videogames
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-178561 (URN)10.1016/j.chb.2012.02.023 (DOI)000304518000033 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2012-07-31 Skapad: 2012-07-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-07Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Effects of adolescent online gaming time and motives on depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effects of adolescent online gaming time and motives on depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, nr 4, s. 263-275Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim. To investigate whether adolescent online gaming time and the additive effect of gaming motives were associated with depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. The hypothesis was that adolescents who engage in online gaming with escape motives and increased online gaming time have higher probability for depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms compared to adolescents with other online gaming motives and/or less online gaming time.

Method. An anonymous and voluntary questionnaire was completed during class hours by 7,757 Swedish adolescents aged 13-18 years. The questionnaire included demographic background, gaming habits, and depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms.Results. It was found that increased online gaming time during weekdays increased the probability of having depressive, musculoskeletal, and psychosomatic symptoms. However, these relations with time spent gaming were further explained by online gaming motives. Weekday online gaming for more than five hours a day, in combination with escape motives, was associated with an increased probability of depressive symptoms (odds ratio (OR) 4.614, 95% CI 3.230-6.590), musculoskeletal symptoms (OR 2.494, 95% CI 1.598-3.892), and psychosomatic symptoms (OR 4.437, 95% CI 2.966-6.637). The probability of ill health decreased when gaming was for fun or had social motives.

Conclusion. Excessive gaming time and escape motives were found to be associated with increased probability of ill health among adolescents. Gaming motives may identify gamers in need of support to reduce unhealthy gaming behaviour as well as identify individuals at risk for ill health.

Nyckelord
Adolescent; computer games; depression; health; musculoskeletal symptoms; psychosomatic symptoms
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap Psykologi
Forskningsämne
Allmänmedicin
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261153 (URN)10.3109/03009734.2015.1049724 (DOI)000365684900006 ()26072677 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-08-31 Skapad: 2015-08-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-04Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Gambling frequency and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to problem gambling among Swedish adolescents: A population-based study
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Gambling frequency and symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in relation to problem gambling among Swedish adolescents: A population-based study
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2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 22, nr 2, s. 119-126Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim: To investigate the associations between gambling frequency, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, and problem gambling among adolescent boys and girls. One hypothesis was that adolescents with increased ADHD symptoms have a higher frequency of gambling compared to adolescents with fewer ADHD symptoms.

Method: A population-based sample of adolescents (aged 15–18 years) completed a questionnaire on demographics, gambling habits, ADHD symptoms, and problematic gambling; 1412 adolescents (from 4440 sampled) with gambling experience were included in the final sample.

Results: A zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis revealed that increased ADHD symptoms, higher gambling frequency, and higher age were associated with lower odds for being non-susceptible to gambling problems. Moreover, gambling frequency interacted with ADHD symptoms in predicting probability of being non-susceptible to gambling problems. However, when analysing those already susceptible to problem gambling, ADHD symptoms did not modify the effect of gambling frequency on the expected magnitude of gambling problems. In susceptible individuals, problem gambling increased with both increased ADHD symptoms and increased gambling frequency, but the level of problems due to gambling frequency did not change depending on the ADHD symptom level. There was an interaction effect between sex and gambling frequency in relation to gambling problems.

Conclusions: Adolescents with ADHD symptoms seem to be more sensitive to gambling, in terms of being susceptible to developing gambling problems. However, once susceptible, adolescents with ADHD symptoms are affected by gambling frequency similarly to other susceptible participants.

Nyckelord
Adolescent, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms, gambling, problem gambling, Problem Gambling Severity Index
Nationell ämneskategori
Medicin och hälsovetenskap Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Forskningsämne
Allmänmedicin
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261154 (URN)10.1080/03009734.2017.1294636 (DOI)000401756500008 ()28436719 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-08-31 Skapad: 2015-08-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-09-14Bibliografiskt granskad
4. Online computer gaming among adolescent girls is associated with higher probability for online gambling
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Online computer gaming among adolescent girls is associated with higher probability for online gambling
Visa övriga...
(Engelska)Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Submitted
Nationell ämneskategori
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi
Forskningsämne
Allmänmedicin
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-261155 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2015-08-31 Skapad: 2015-08-31 Senast uppdaterad: 2015-10-01

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