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The perception of actions and interactions: And the importance of context
Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. (Barn och Babylab)
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The perception of actions and interactions is a dynamic process linked with perceptual processes, the internal and external states of the individual, prior experiences, and the immediate environment. Given these differential contexts, it is very likely there are differences in how infants perceive, interpret, and respond to actions. The present thesis took a developmental and individual differences approach to understanding action perception and processing in infancy. The overarching aim was to understand the development of action perception and how individual differences contribute to the perception and processing of actions. More specifically, individual differences included the capacity to which variations in a child’s context can affect the development of action perception. Study I demonstrated that, like adults, infants could differentiate between physically possible and physically impossible apparent motion paths, as evidenced by pupil dilation. This perception may be related to the context of whether the motion was performed by a human figure or an object. Study II found that in the context of a more complex social interaction, infants differentiated between appropriate and inappropriate responses to a giving action. Furthermore, infants’ individual differences in perceiving a giving action were related to their own giving behaviors later in childhood, suggesting possible specialized mechanisms. Study III took an integrative perspective on context and demonstrated the joint impact of internal and external emotional contexts for infants’ subsequent selective attention during visual search. Infants’ visual attention was affected by previous exposure to a facial emotion and by the mothers’ negative affect. The results of these three studies demonstrate that given differential environmental contexts and experiences, there are differences in how individuals perceive and interpret actions and interactions. Together, this thesis proposes an integrative role of context in perception and demonstrates that perception can never be truly decontextualized.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. , s. 102
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 164
Nyckelord [en]
action understanding, action perception, motion, perception, context, environment, eye-tracking, pupil dilation
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi Socialpsykologi
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379490ISBN: 978-91-513-0597-4 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-379490DiVA, id: diva2:1296727
Disputation
2019-05-03, Sal IV, Universitetshuset, Biskopsgatan 3, Uppsala, 13:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-11 Skapad: 2019-03-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-05-07
Delarbeten
1. Context dependent perception of apparent motion in 12-month-old infants and adults
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Context dependent perception of apparent motion in 12-month-old infants and adults
(Engelska)Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
Abstract [en]

The current study examines if 12-month-old infants and adults perceptions of apparent motion stimuli are context dependent by measuring sensitivity to possible and impossible apparent motion performed by a human figure.  In Study 1, infants and adults viewed an apparent motion stimulus comprising of an arm moving from one side of a leg to the other. Results showed that both infants and adults reacted with larger pupil dilation when observing an impossible apparent motion, that is, larger pupil dilation when it appears that a hand passed through the leg as opposed to moving around the leg. Study 2 found no such effect when 12-month-old infants observed an object control stimulus with perceptually similar properties. These findings suggest that apparent motion perception is context dependent and that the constraints of the human body and human actions are taken into account when perceiving rapidly changing static images as fluid motion.

Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379488 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-17 Skapad: 2019-03-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-17
2. Longitudinal Continuity in Understanding and Production of Giving-Related Behavior From Infancy to Childhood
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Longitudinal Continuity in Understanding and Production of Giving-Related Behavior From Infancy to Childhood
Visa övriga...
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 90, nr 2, s. e182-e191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Infants have an early understanding of giving (the transfer of an item by one agent to another), but little is known about individual differences in these abilities or their developmental outcomes. Here, 9-month-olds (N = 59) showing clearer neural processing (Event-related potential, ERP) of a give-me gesture also evidenced a stronger reaction (pupil dilation) to an inappropriate response to a give-me gesture, and at 2 years were more likely to give in response to a give-me gesture. None of the differences in understanding and production of giving-related behaviors were associated with other sociocognitive variables investigated: language, gaze-following, and nongiving helping. The early developmental continuity in understanding and production of giving behavior is consistent with the great importance of giving for humans throughout the life span.

Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-370001 (URN)10.1111/cdev.13131 (DOI)000460664900001 ()30102423 (PubMedID)
Tillgänglig från: 2018-12-18 Skapad: 2018-12-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-11Bibliografiskt granskad
3. How infants view the world: The functional role of emotional context and maternal affect
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>How infants view the world: The functional role of emotional context and maternal affect
(Engelska)Ingår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Individual differences in their emotional context may differentially impact infants’ ability to selectively encode and learn from their environment. The current study takes an integrative approach in considering three emotional contexts that have independently been found to modulate infants’ allocation of selective attention: maternal negative affect, infant temperament, and an emotional face prime (the mother and a stranger’s face). The study looked at the effects of that these contexts had on 9-month-old infants’ performance on a subsequent eye-tracking visual search task. Results revealed that infants were faster to find the target after viewing their mother’s angry face or a fearful face, regardless of familiarity. When the mother reported high negative affect, infants’ visual search performance was increasingly impacted by a fearful face, resulting in significantly faster visual search times. The findings demonstrate that both immediate emotional face prime and the mother’s negative affect have the capacity to influence what infants attend to and consequently influence their processing of information in their environment.

Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-379489 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-17 Skapad: 2019-03-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-17

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