uu.seUppsala universitets publikationer
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Self-Regulation in Childhood: Developmental Mechanisms and Relations to ADHD Symptoms
Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Uppsala University.
2019 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Self-regulation is a multi-faceted construct that concerns goal-directed behaviors, which aid individuals in everyday life and in achieving long-term goals. Self-regulation in believed to progress in a hierarchical fashion, in that simple cognitive functions are integrated into more complex functions across development. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous childhood-onset disorder, characterized by deficits in various aspects of self-regulation, including core symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and comorbidity with externalizing disorders such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). The last decade has seen a shift from simple etiological models towards more complex ones, which stress multiple pathways to the disorder. In addition, there is an ongoing search for early markers of the condition, which will increase our understanding, enable early detection, intervention, and perhaps even prevention of the full disorder. Cognitive regulation, aspects of temperament (i.e. negative affect, surgency, and effortful control), and parenting are three areas of importance for self-regulation in general and of ADHD symptoms in particular. Grounded in these three constructs, informed by the hierarchical model of self-regulation development, and a multiple pathway perspective on ADHD, the present thesis aimed to map development of self-regulation, with a special focus on inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Four studies were conducted based on three samples, ranging from infancy to 12 years, including both typically developing children and children diagnosed with ADHD. Study I found that early sustained attention predicted later cognitive regulation, providing support for the hierarchical model of self-regulation development. In addition, maternal sensitivity contributed to higher levels of emotion regulation whereas surgency contributed to lower levels of emotion regulation. Study II gained support for a multiple pathway perspective on ADHD, in that higher temperamental regulation and maternal sensitivity contributed to lower levels of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and higher surgency contributed to higher levels of hyperactivity/impulsivity. Study III replicated findings from Study II and confirmed early temperament markers of later inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and that early cognitive regulation was a poor predictor of later symptoms. Study IV proposed contributions of multiple regulatory functions to ADHD symptoms and elevated negative affect in ODD. The latter was moderated by parental support, which seemed to be a protective factor for children with high levels of negative affect. In all, the findings point to the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the development of self-regulation, which seems to progress in a hierarchical fashion. Aspects of temperament rather than cognitive regulation seem to be valid early markers of later inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity. Multiple pathways to ADHD symptoms are proposed, with contributions of maternal sensitivity and temperament early in development and different regulatory functions in school-aged children. In addition, elevated negative affect in combination with low parental support seem to be characteristic of ODD rather than of core symptoms of ADHD. The thesis contributes to the complexity and heterogeneity of ADHD and that ADHD is best viewed as a developmental disorder, in that the influence of various regulatory factors change over time.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2019. , s. 77
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 167
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380106ISBN: 978-91-513-0614-8 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-380106DiVA, id: diva2:1299282
Disputation
2019-05-17, Humanistiska teatern, Thunbergsvägen 3, Uppsala, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-25 Skapad: 2019-03-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-17
Delarbeten
1. The role of sustained attention, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament in the development of early self-regulation
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The role of sustained attention, maternal sensitivity, and infant temperament in the development of early self-regulation
Visa övriga...
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: British Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0007-1269, E-ISSN 2044-8295, Vol. 109, nr 2, s. 277-298Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigated infant predictors of early cognitive and emotional self-regulation from an intrinsic and caregiving environmental perspective. Sustained attention, reactive aspects of infant temperament, and maternal sensitivity were assessed at 10months (n=124) and early self-regulation (including executive functions, EF, and emotion regulation) was assessed at 18months. The results indicated that sustained attention predicted early EF, which provide empirical support for the hierarchical framework of EF development, advocating early attention as a foundation for the development of cognitive self-regulation. Maternal sensitivity and surgency predicted emotion regulation, in that infants of sensitive mothers showed more regulatory behaviours and a longer latency to distress, whereas high levels of surgency predicted low emotion regulation, suggesting both the caregiving environment and temperament as important in the development of self-regulation. Interaction effects suggested high sustained attention to be a protective factor for children of insensitive mothers, in relation to emotion regulation. In addition, high levels of maternal sensitivity seemed to foster development of emotion regulation among children with low to medium levels of sustained attention and/or surgency. In all, our findings point to the importance of both intrinsic and extrinsic factors in infant development of self-regulation.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
WILEY, 2018
Nyckelord
emotion regulation, executive functions, infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, self-regulation, sustained attention
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-352572 (URN)10.1111/bjop.12266 (DOI)000429702400007 ()28895129 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 421-2012-1222
Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-07 Skapad: 2018-08-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-26Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Can reactivity and regulation in infancy predict inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior in 3-year-olds?
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Can reactivity and regulation in infancy predict inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior in 3-year-olds?
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Development and psychopathology (Print), ISSN 0954-5794, E-ISSN 1469-2198, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 619-629Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

A need to identify early infant markers of later occurring inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors has come to the fore in the current attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder literature. The purpose of such studies is to identify driving mechanisms that could enable early detection of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder liability and thus facilitate early intervention. Here we study independent and interactive effects of cognitive regulation (inhibition and sustained attention), temperament (reactive and regulatory aspects), and maternal sensitivity (as external regulation) in a sample of 112 typically developing 10-month-old infants (59 boys, 52.7%), in relation to inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior at 3 years. The results showed that infant temperamental regulation and maternal sensitivity made independent contributions to both inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, in that higher levels of temperamental regulation and maternal sensitivity were related to less inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior. In addition, the temperamental factor positive affectivity/surgency made a significant contribution to later hyperactivity/impulsivity, in that higher levels of positive affectivity/surgency were related to more hyperactive/impulsive behavior. No interaction effects were found. Our findings suggest temperament and parental regulation as potential and independent markers of later inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior.

Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-348127 (URN)10.1017/S0954579418000160 (DOI)000466341900017 ()29606186 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 421-2012-1222
Tillgänglig från: 2018-04-10 Skapad: 2018-04-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-24Bibliografiskt granskad
3. Temperament and Cognitive Regulation During the First 3 Years of Life as Predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity at 6 Years
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Temperament and Cognitive Regulation During the First 3 Years of Life as Predictors of Inattention and Hyperactivity/Impulsivity at 6 Years
2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 23, nr 11, s. 1291-1302Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: With a wish to identify early markers of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, we examined effects of temperament and cognitive regulation, during the first 3 years of life, on later inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior.

METHOD: Temperament and cognitive regulation were assessed at 12, 18, 24, and 36 months in 66 typically developing children. Teachers rated inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity at 6 years.

RESULTS: Temperamental activity at all studied time points was predictive of later hyperactive/impulsive behavior, thus appearing as a stable marker thereof. Activity at 12 months was also predictive of inattention, whereas temperamental persistence was correlated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, but with no independent contributions. No significant relations between cognitive regulation and the outcome measures were found.

CONCLUSION: Our findings add to the scarce literature proposing that markers of inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior in early school age can be found within the first years of life, using parental ratings of child temperament.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Sage Publications, 2019
Nyckelord
cognitive regulation, early markers, hyperactivity/impulsivity, inattention, temperament
Nationell ämneskategori
Tillämpad psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-367226 (URN)10.1177/1087054718804342 (DOI)000481493400008 ()30296881 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 421-2012-1222
Tillgänglig från: 2018-11-29 Skapad: 2018-11-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-03Bibliografiskt granskad
4. A Multi-Factorial Perspecitve on ADHD and ODD in School-Aged Children: What is the Role of Cognitive Regulation, Temperament, and Parental Support?
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A Multi-Factorial Perspecitve on ADHD and ODD in School-Aged Children: What is the Role of Cognitive Regulation, Temperament, and Parental Support?
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Introduction: It is well established that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder of self-regulation. As such, ADHD is associated with disturbed cognitive regulation, extreme temperament traits, and deficient extrinsic regulation such as parenting. Despite these associations, cognitive regulation, temperament, and parenting have not previously been examined simultaneously in relation to ADHD symptoms in school-aged children. To bridge this gap of knowledge, we examined effects of these important aspects of self-regulation on symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and comorbid symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in children with and without a diagnosis of ADHD. Method: The sample consisted of 77 children aged 8-12 years (~40% had a diagnosis of ADHD). Cognitive regulation (i.e. complex inhibition and working memory) was assessed during a lab visit and parental ratings were used for measures of temperament (negative affect, surgency, and effortful control) and parental support. Parents and teachers rated ADHD and ODD symptoms in the child. Informed by a dimensional perspective on ADHD, continuous analyses were performed. Results: Working memory contributed independently to inattention (β = -.19, p < .05). Effortful control contributed independently to inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity (βs = -.50 and -.49, ps < .01). Negative affect contributed to ODD as moderated by parental support (β = .58, p < .01). Specifically, for children who received lower levels of parental support there was a significant positive association between negative affect and ODD symptoms. Conclusions: The results propose that both cognitive regulation and effortful control influence ADHD symptoms. Moreover, different factors seem to be involved in ADHD and ODD, with regulatory deficits specifically related to ADHD symptoms, and elevated negative affect specifically related to ODD symptoms. Interestingly, parenting moderated the relationship between negative affect and ODD symptoms, with a suggested protective effect of high parental support for children with high levels of negative affect.

Nyckelord
ADHD, ODD, executive functions, temperament, parenting
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-380103 (URN)
Forskningsfinansiär
Jerringfonden, 2017/29
Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-26 Skapad: 2019-03-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-03-26

Open Access i DiVA

fulltext(1126 kB)190 nedladdningar
Filinformation
Filnamn FULLTEXT01.pdfFilstorlek 1126 kBChecksumma SHA-512
245fa6e0ab21f4064861edd35e559a5020f3e00e7eeef4c617854ff830dc215675a73df808958ae9a8eb74aa189a129bffb83daa9460360e6be5b2959e38ac89
Typ fulltextMimetyp application/pdf
Köp publikationen >>

Personposter BETA

Frick, Matilda A

Sök vidare i DiVA

Av författaren/redaktören
Frick, Matilda A
Av organisationen
Institutionen för psykologi
Psykologi

Sök vidare utanför DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Totalt: 190 nedladdningar
Antalet nedladdningar är summan av nedladdningar för alla fulltexter. Det kan inkludera t.ex tidigare versioner som nu inte längre är tillgängliga.

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetricpoäng

isbn
urn-nbn
Totalt: 514 träffar
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf