uu.seUppsala universitets publikationer
Ändra sökning
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Infants in Control: Prospective Motor Control and Executive Functions in Action Development
Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. (Uppsala Child and Baby Lab)ORCID-id: 0000-0001-5497-4001
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

This thesis assesses the link between action and cognition early in development. Thus the notion of an embodied cognition is investigated by tying together two levels of action control in the context of reaching in infancy: prospective motor control and executive functions.

The ability to plan our actions is the inevitable foundation of reaching our goals. Thus actions can be stratified on different levels of control. There is the relatively low level of prospective motor control and the comparatively high level of cognitive control. Prospective motor control is concerned with goal-directed actions on the level of single movements and movement combinations of our body and ensures purposeful, coordinated movements, such as reaching for a cup of coffee. Cognitive control, in the context of this thesis more precisely referred to as executive functions, deals with goal-directed actions on the level of whole actions and action combinations and facilitates directedness towards mid- and long-term goals, such as finishing a doctoral thesis. Whereas prospective motor control and executive functions are well studied in adulthood, the early development of both is not sufficiently understood.

This thesis comprises three empirical motion-tracking studies that shed light on prospective motor control and executive functions in infancy. Study I investigated the prospective motor control of current actions by having 14-month-olds lift objects of varying weights. In doing so, multi-cue integration was addressed by comparing the use of visual and non-visual information to non-visual information only. Study II examined the prospective motor control of future actions in action sequences by investigating reach-to-place actions in 14-month-olds. Thus the extent to which Fitts’ law can explain movement duration in infancy was addressed. Study III lifted prospective motor control to a higher that is cognitive level, by investigating it relative to executive functions in 18-months-olds.

Main results were that 14-month-olds are able to prospectively control their manual actions based on object weight. In this action planning process, infants use different sources of information. Beyond this ability to prospectively control their current action, 14-month-olds also take future actions into account and plan their actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action in action sequences. In 18-month-olds, prospective motor control in manual actions, such as reaching, is related to early executive functions, as demonstrated for behavioral prohibition and working memory. These findings are consistent with the idea that executive functions derive from prospective motor control. I suggest that executive functions could be grounded in the development of motor control. In other words, early executive functions should be seen as embodied. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , s. 103
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 127
Nyckelord [en]
infant development, action development, prospective motor control, executive functions, action planning, motor development, motion tracking, embodied cognition, developmental psychology
Nationell ämneskategori
Samhällsvetenskap
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297642ISBN: 978-91-554-9618-0 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-297642DiVA, id: diva2:942682
Disputation
2016-09-16, Sydnez Alrutz (13:026), von Kraemers Allé 1A (Blåsenhus), Uppsala, 10:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-26 Skapad: 2016-06-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2016-09-05
Delarbeten
1. Infants' prospective control during object manipulation in an uncertain environment
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Infants' prospective control during object manipulation in an uncertain environment
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 233, nr 8, s. 2383-2390Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

This study investigates how infants use visual and sensorimotor information to prospectively control their actions. We gave 14-month-olds two objects of different weight and observed how high they were lifted, using a Qualisys Motion Capture System. In one condition, the two objects were visually distinct (different color condition) in another they were visually identical (same color condition). Lifting amplitudes of the first movement unit were analyzed in order to assess prospective control. Results demonstrate that infants lifted a light object higher than a heavy object, especially when vision could be used to assess weight (different color condition). When being confronted with two visually identical objects of different weight (same color condition), infants showed a different lifting pattern than what could be observed in the different color condition, expressed by a significant interaction effect between object weight and color condition on lifting amplitude. These results indicate that (a) visual information about object weight can be used to prospectively control lifting actions and that (b) infants are able to prospectively control their lifting actions even without visual information about object weight. We argue that infants, in the absence of reliable visual information about object weight, heighten their dependence on non-visual information (tactile, sensorimotor memory) in order to estimate weight and pre-adjust their lifting actions in a prospective manner.

Nyckelord
Prospective control, Object manipulation, Sensorimotor, Action, Motor development, Motor control
Nationell ämneskategori
Neurologi Neurovetenskaper
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-260605 (URN)10.1007/s00221-015-4308-7 (DOI)000358322500014 ()25963753 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, FP7, Sjunde ramprogrammet, 289404
Anmärkning

Funding: ERC-StG CACTUS, 312292

Tillgänglig från: 2015-08-24 Skapad: 2015-08-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple step actions be explained by Fitts' law?
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Infants prospectively control reaching based on the difficulty of future actions: To what extent can infants' multiple step actions be explained by Fitts' law?
Visa övriga...
2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, nr 1, s. 4-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Prospective motor control, a key element of action planning, is the ability to adjust one's actions with respect to task demands and action goals in an anticipatory manner. The current study investigates whether 14-month-olds can prospectively control their reaching actions based on the difficulty of the subsequent action. We used a reach-to-place task, with difficulty of the placing action varied by goal size and goal distance. To target prospective motor control, we determined the kinematics of the prior reaching movements using a motion-tracking system. Peak velocity of the first movement unit of the reach served as indicator for prospective motor control. Both difficulty aspects (goal size and goal distance) affected prior reaching, suggesting that both these aspects of the subsequent action have an impact on the prior action. The smaller the goal size and the longer the distance to the goal, the slower infants were in the beginning of their reach toward the object. Additionally, we modeled movement times of both reaching and placing actions using a formulation of Fitts' law (as in heading). The model was significant for placement and reaching movement times. These findings suggest that 14-month-olds can plan their future actions and prospectively control their related movements with respect to future task difficulties.

Nyckelord
prospective motor control, action planning, action sequence, action development, movement unit, Fitts' law, infancy
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297638 (URN)10.1037/dev0000212 (DOI)000391700500002 ()28026189 (PubMedID)
Forskningsfinansiär
EU, Europeiska forskningsrådet, 289404
Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-26 Skapad: 2016-06-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-28Bibliografiskt granskad
3. An embodied account of early executive functions development: Prospective motor control in infancy is related to prohibition and working memory
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>An embodied account of early executive functions development: Prospective motor control in infancy is related to prohibition and working memory
Visa övriga...
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Psychological Science, ISSN 0956-7976, E-ISSN 1467-9280, Vol. 27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-297641 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-26 Skapad: 2016-06-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-11-28

Open Access i DiVA

fulltext(1490 kB)1574 nedladdningar
Filinformation
Filnamn FULLTEXT01.pdfFilstorlek 1490 kBChecksumma SHA-512
47e4156c047e4e22a1301c300cf90fc4591ee19dc6f96c31b9cbbfe74d47b3222bc76978010e6eb3f00b1a70cb388aa4609b3db7d3bd196bfe02b0d9cee52782
Typ fulltextMimetyp application/pdf
Köp publikationen >>

Personposter BETA

Gottwald, Janna Marleen

Sök vidare i DiVA

Av författaren/redaktören
Gottwald, Janna Marleen
Av organisationen
Institutionen för psykologi
Samhällsvetenskap

Sök vidare utanför DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Totalt: 1574 nedladdningar
Antalet nedladdningar är summan av nedladdningar för alla fulltexter. Det kan inkludera t.ex tidigare versioner som nu inte längre är tillgängliga.

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetricpoäng

isbn
urn-nbn
Totalt: 3190 träffar
RefereraExporteraLänk till posten
Permanent länk

Direktlänk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association
  • vancouver
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf