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Magma plumbing architecture in Indonesia and the North Atlantic Igneous Province
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics. (CEMPEG)
2016 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Magma plumbing systems represent the physical framework of magma transport and storage from the source region in the mantle, through the crust, until reaching the surface in a volcanic eruption. Characterising the different aspects of magma plumbing, in particular the distribution of magma storage zones throughout the crust, is of key importance to better understand the behaviour of individual volcanoes. In particular, shallow crustal magma storage and associated magma-crust interaction processes could potentially explain some of the worlds most unpredictable and explosive volcanoes. This thesis studies magma plumbing architecture in the Sunda Arc (Indonesia), and the North Atlantic Igneous Province, based on elemental and isotope geochemistry, and derived petrological modelling.

In this study, I have employed petrological models, so called geothermobarometers, to calculate pressures and temperatures (P-T) of crustal magma storage. Geothermobarometers are calibrated thermodynamic formulations based on the composition of magmatic minerals and their co-existing melt as a function of the P-T conditions of crystallisation. Using the calculated P-T estimates, I was able to derive the depth of magma storage, and thereby reconstruct the architecture of magma storage systems. A number of different geothermobarometers based on different mineral phases, including plagioclase, clinopyroxene and olivine, were used for this purpose,

The geothermobarometric modelling was combined with additional elemental and isotope geochemical analyses, as well as collaborations with geophysical investigations. These additional approaches were used to corroborate the findings of the geothermobarometric modelling, and also to model and quantify magma-crust interaction processes that take place during crustal magma storage, such as assimilation of crustal lithologies into the magmatic system.

The findings of this thesis build upon the growing body of evidence in support of the prevalence of shallow magma storage in different volcanic settings worldwide. This realisation is relevant to volcano monitoring and hazard mitigation worldwide.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2016. , 46 p.
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1328
Keyword [en]
magma plumbing, geothermobarometry, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, magma-crust interaction, hazard mitigation
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267764ISBN: 978-91-554-9430-8 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-267764DiVA: diva2:874213
Public defence
2016-01-28, Hambergsalen, Geocentrum, Villavägen 16, Uppsala, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2016-01-04 Created: 2015-11-26 Last updated: 2017-07-12
List of papers
1. Magma plumbing beneath Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia: evidence for multiple magma storage regions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magma plumbing beneath Anak Krakatau volcano, Indonesia: evidence for multiple magma storage regions
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2012 (English)In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 163, no 4, 631-651 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Understanding magma plumbing is essential for predicting the behaviour of explosive volcanoes. We investigate magma plumbing at the highly active Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), situated on the rim of the 1883 Krakatau caldera by employing a suite of thermobarometric models. These include clinopyroxene-melt thermobarometry, plagioclase-melt thermobarometry, clinopyroxene composition barometry and olivine-melt thermometry. Petrological studies have previously identified shallow magma storage in the region of 2–8 km beneath Krakatau, while existing seismic evidence points towards mid- to deep-crustal storage zone(s), at 9 and 22 km, respectively. Our results show that clinopyroxene in Anak Krakatau lavas crystallized at a depth of 7–12 km, while plagioclase records both shallow crustal (3–7 km) and sub-Moho (23–28 km) levels of crystallization. These magma storage regions coincide with well-constrained major lithological boundaries in the crust, implying that magma ascent and storage at Anak Krakatau is strongly controlled by crustal properties. A tandem seismic tomography survey independently identified a separate upper crustal (<7 km) and a lower to mid-crustal magma storage region (>7 km). Both petrological and seismic methods are sensitive in detecting magma bodies in the crust, but suffer from various limitations. Combined geophysical and petrological surveys, in turn, offer increased potential for a comprehensive characterization of magma plumbing at active volcanic complexes.

Keyword
Anak Krakatau, Thermobarometry, Clinopyroxene, Plagioclase, Magma plumbing, Seismic tomography
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-159368 (URN)10.1007/s00410-011-0690-8 (DOI)000302373800004 ()
Available from: 2011-09-29 Created: 2011-09-29 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
2. Evidence for high fluid/melt content beneath Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) from local earthquake tomography
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence for high fluid/melt content beneath Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) from local earthquake tomography
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, ISSN 0377-0273, E-ISSN 1872-6097, Vol. 206, no 3-4, 96-105 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Within the KRAKMON project for multiparameter monitoring of Anak Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), a network of temporary stations was installed on the islands of the Krakatau complex as well as in the surrounding areas of the Sunda Strait, Sumatra and Java. The network was operated from June 2005 until January 2006. More than 700 local events were recorded during this experiment, and travel times from these events were used to perform a tomographic inversion for P and S velocities and for the Vp/Vs ratio. In this study, special attention was paid to the validation of the computed model based on different tests, such as inversion of independent data subsets and synthetic modeling. Although the network configuration and the distribution of the events are not favorable for high-quality tomographic imaging, we have obtained some important and robust features which give information about sources of volcanic activity in the Krakatau complex. The most interesting feature of this study is a zone of high Vp/Vs ratio beneath the Krakatau complex. At depths down to 4 km depth we observe anticorrelation of higher P- and lower S-velocities that leads to Vp/Vs ratio higher than 2. This is a probable indicator of the presence of partially molten and/or with high fluid content material with a composition corresponding to deeper layers. It is important that the anomaly of high Vp/Vs ratio beneath the Krakatau complex appears to be separated in two parts at a depth of 5-6 km. This fits to results of geobarometric analysis that presume the existence of several levels of magma chambers beneath Anak Krakatau.

Keyword
Seismic tomography, Krakatau, Volcanism, Magma chamber
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-160412 (URN)10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2011.06.009 (DOI)000295502900005 ()
Available from: 2011-10-24 Created: 2011-10-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
3. The pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 2007–2008 dome-forming eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, Indonesia
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The pre-eruptive magma plumbing system of the 2007–2008 dome-forming eruption of Kelut volcano, East Java, Indonesia
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2013 (English)In: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, ISSN 0010-7999, E-ISSN 1432-0967, Vol. 166, no 1, 275-308 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Kelut volcano, East Java, is an active volcanic complex hosting a summit crater lake that has been the source of some of Indonesia’s most destructive lahars. In November 2007, an effusive eruption lasting approximately 7 months led to the formation of a 260-m-high and 400-m-wide lava dome that displaced most of the crater lake. The 2007–2008 Kelut dome comprises crystal-rich basaltic andesite with a texturally complex crystal cargo of strongly zoned and in part resorbed plagioclase (An47–94), orthopyroxene (En64–72, Fs24–32, Wo2–4), clinopyroxene (En40–48, Fs14–19, Wo34–46), Ti-magnetite (Usp16–34) and trace amounts of apatite, as well as ubiquitous glomerocrysts of varying magmatic mineral assemblages. In addition, the notable occurrence of magmatic and crustal xenoliths (meta-basalts, amphibole-bearing cumulates, and skarn-type calc-silicates and meta-volcaniclastic rocks) is a distinct feature of the dome. New petrographical, whole rock major and trace element data, mineral chemistry as well as oxygen isotope data for both whole rocks and minerals indicate a complex regime of magma-mixing, decompression-driven resorption, degassing and crystallisation and crustal assimilation within the Kelut plumbing system prior to extrusion of the dome. Detailed investigation of plagioclase textures alongside crystal size distribution analyses provide evidence for magma mixing as a major pre-eruptive process that blends multiple crystal cargoes together. Distinct magma storage zones are postulated, with a deeper zone at lower crustal levels or near the crust-mantle boundary (>15 km depth), a second zone at mid-crustal levels (~10 km depth) and several magma storage zones distributed throughout the uppermost crust (<10 km depth). Plagioclase-melt and amphibole hygrometry indicate magmatic H2O contents ranging from ~8.1 to 8.6 wt.% in the lower crustal system to ~1.5 to 3.3 wt.% in the mid to upper crust. Pyroxene and plagioclase δ18O values range from 5.4 to 6.7 ‰, and 6.5 to 7.6 ‰, respectively. A single whole rock analysis of the 2007–2008 dome lava gave a δ18O value of 7.6 ‰, whereas meta-basaltic and calc-silicate xenoliths are characterised by δ18O values of 6.2 and 10.3 ‰, respectively. Magmatic δ18O values calculated from individual pyroxene and plagioclase analyses range from 5.7 to 7.0 ‰, and 6.2 to 7.4 ‰, respectively. This range in O-isotopic compositions is explained by crystallisation of pyroxenes in the lower to mid-crust, where crustal contamination is either absent or masked by assimilation of material having similar δ18O values to the ascending melts. This population is mixed with isotopically distinct plagioclase and pyroxenes that crystallised from a more contaminated magma in the upper crustal system. Binary bulk mixing models suggest that shallow-level, recycled volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks together with calc-silicates and/or limestones are the most likely contaminants of the 2007–2008 Kelut magma, with the volcaniclastic sediments being dominant.

Keyword
Kelut volcano, Sunda arc, Lava dome, CSD, Oxygen isotopes, Magma mixing, Crustal contamination, Volcanic hazards
National Category
Geology Geochemistry
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-198047 (URN)10.1007/s00410-013-0875-4 (DOI)000320655900014 ()
Available from: 2013-04-08 Created: 2013-04-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
4. Ancient oral tradition describes volcano-earthquake interaction at Merapi volcano, Indonesia.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ancient oral tradition describes volcano-earthquake interaction at Merapi volcano, Indonesia.
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2015 (English)In: Geografiska Annaler. Series A, Physical Geography, ISSN 0435-3676, E-ISSN 1468-0459, Vol. 97, no 1, 137-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-240752 (URN)10.1111/geoa.12099 (DOI)000350500400010 ()
Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
5. Plagioclase mineral chemistry in the Faroe Islands Basalt Group
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Plagioclase mineral chemistry in the Faroe Islands Basalt Group
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2015 (English)In: Faroe Islands Exploration Conference: Proceedings of the 4th ConferenceArticle in journal (Refereed) In press
Keyword
plagioclase, magma plumbing, Large Igneous Province
National Category
Geology Geosciences, Multidisciplinary
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267639 (URN)
Conference
The 4th Faroe Islands Exploration Conference, Torshavn, Faroe Islands, 1-2 May 2012
Available from: 2015-11-25 Created: 2015-11-25 Last updated: 2016-01-13
6. A geochemical probe into the magma plumbing system and the ancient continental crust underlying the Faroe Islands Basalt Group
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A geochemical probe into the magma plumbing system and the ancient continental crust underlying the Faroe Islands Basalt Group
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
geobarometry, magma plumbing, AFC, crustal assimilation, isotope geochemistry, plagioclase
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267703 (URN)
Available from: 2015-11-25 Created: 2015-11-25 Last updated: 2017-07-12
7. Magma transport through communicating vessels explains Hekla's short-fused eruptions
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magma transport through communicating vessels explains Hekla's short-fused eruptions
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(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Keyword
Thermobarometry, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, hazard mitigation, magma plumbing
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267700 (URN)
Available from: 2015-11-25 Created: 2015-11-25 Last updated: 2016-01-13
8. Persistent two-tiered magma plumbing beneath Katla volcano, Iceland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Persistent two-tiered magma plumbing beneath Katla volcano, Iceland
(English)In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
National Category
Geology
Research subject
Earth Science with specialization in Mineral Chemistry, Petrology and Tectonics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-267448 (URN)
Available from: 2015-11-23 Created: 2015-11-23 Last updated: 2017-12-01

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