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Closing the Gap: How an Adaptive Behavioral Based Program on a Tablet Can Help Low Performing Children Catch Up in Math: a Randomized Placebo Controlled Study
Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-2645-4831
2018 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Early mathematic skills have a substantial impact on later school achievement. Children with poor school achievement are at risk for adverse consequences later in life. Math competencies also have consequences for the economy at large because societies are becoming increasingly dependent on skill sets including mathematics. Proficiency with basic arithmetic, also known as math fact (i.e., 3+8, 12-3), is considered to be a critical early math skill. Intervention research in mathematics have demonstrated that math fact deficits among students with low math performance can be improved with additional targeted, non- technological interventions (i.e., small-group tutoring).

The aim of the present thesis was to investigate the effect, using a randomized placebo controlled design, of addititional adaptive, behavioral based, math training on a tablet on low performing second graders. The first study (study I), investigated if arithmetic skills could be assessed in a reliable and valid way on tablet. The examination showed that arithmetic scales could be transferred from paper-based tests to tablet with comparable psychometric properties, although not for a pictorial scale, and that separate norms are needed for tablet. Study II demonstrated that training on a tablet, for on average 19 hours across 20 weeks, improved basic arithmetic skills after training in the math conditions compared to control/ placebo conditions. The effects were medium sized at post assessment. There was a fadeout of effects at 6 months follow-up, where small effects were shown, and the effects decreased further at 12 months follow-up. Children with lower non-verbal IQ seemed to gain significantly more at follow- ups than children with higher non-verbal IQ. The study found no additional effects of combining working memory training and math training. Study III, using a machine learning analysis, found that children demonstrating a positive response at 6 months follow-up were characterized by having completed 90 % or more of the math program at the default level, in combination with having a fairly favorable socioeconomic background.

In summation, this work demonstrates how an adaptive behavioral based program on a tablet can help low performing children improve critical early math skills.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. , s. 88
Serie
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Social Sciences, ISSN 1652-9030 ; 150
Nyckelord [en]
intervention, mathematics, tablet, fluency, short and long-term effects, educational technology
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336694ISBN: 978-91-513-0200-3 (tryckt)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-336694DiVA, id: diva2:1166690
Disputation
2018-02-16, (13:026) Sydney Alrutz-salen, Blåsen hus, von Kraemers Allé 1A/1E, Uppsala, 10:00 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Tillgänglig från: 2018-01-25 Skapad: 2017-12-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-03-07
Delarbeten
1. Tablets instead of paper-based tests for young children? Comparability between paper and tablet versions of the mathematical Heidelberger Rechen Test 1-4
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Tablets instead of paper-based tests for young children? Comparability between paper and tablet versions of the mathematical Heidelberger Rechen Test 1-4
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Educational Assessment, ISSN 1062-7197, E-ISSN 1532-6977, Vol. 23, nr 3, s. 195-210Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Tablets can be used to facilitate systematic testing of academic skills. Yet, when using validated paper tests on tablet, comparability between the mediums must be established. Comparability between a tablet and a paper version of a basic math skills test (HRT: Heidelberger Rechen Test 1–4) was investigated. Five samples with second and third grade students participated. The associations between the tablet and paper version of HRT showed that these modes of administration were comparable for three arithmetic scales, but unacceptable for a pictorial counting scale. Scores were lower on tablet. Test-retest reliability for arithmetic scales on tablet was satisfactory, but was inferior for a low-performing sample. The overall convergent validity was satisfactory. No effect of test administrator was found. Arithmetic scales can potentially be transferred to tablet with good comparability and maintained test-retest reliability. Precautions are necessary when transferring pictorial scales into tablet. Separate norms for tablet are needed when interpreting scores.

Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336678 (URN)10.1080/10627197.2018.1488587 (DOI)000440523100003 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Socialstyrelsen, 2252/2010-158Jerringfonden
Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-15 Skapad: 2017-12-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-11-12Bibliografiskt granskad
2. Short and Long-Term Effects of a Mathematics Tablet Intervention for Low Performing Second Graders
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Short and Long-Term Effects of a Mathematics Tablet Intervention for Low Performing Second Graders
(Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Educational Psychology, ISSN 0022-0663, E-ISSN 1939-2176Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Accepted
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336681 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-15 Skapad: 2017-12-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-15
3. Predicting long-term response in a mathematics tablet intervention
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Predicting long-term response in a mathematics tablet intervention
(Engelska)Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Forskningsämne
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-336691 (URN)
Tillgänglig från: 2017-12-15 Skapad: 2017-12-15 Senast uppdaterad: 2017-12-15

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