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The potential of using residential PV-battery systems to provide primary frequency control on a national level
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. (Built Environment Energy Systems Group)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-6745-3635
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. (Built Environment Energy Systems Group)
2018 (English)In: Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, Energynautics GmbH, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

To keep the frequency stable in a synchronous electric grid, power sources providing primary frequency control (PFC) are needed. Today, hydro power dominates the PFC  market in the Nordic countries. However, if PFC can be offered as an ancillary service from PV-battery systems, the hydro power could be used more efficiently for low-cost electricity production. This can also improve the profitability of PV-battery systems. In this study of 2231 detached houses in Sweden, the potential to use residential PV-battery systems for PFC is examined. The results show that prices of up to 500 EUR/kWh excluding VAT for a 2.5 kW/5 kWh battery storage system can make enough PV-battery systems profitable to replace existing PFC sources in Sweden. The results are based on hourly electricity and PFC prices from 2015-2017 and a discount rate of 0%. If the prices for PFC are reduced by 50% and the discount rate is 5%, a system price of roughly 100 EUR/kWh excluding VAT would be enough to reach the same goal. The battery storage needs to be replaced during the lifespan of the PV system, meaning that the battery system prices are the average of the expected prices during the coming 25 years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Energynautics GmbH, 2018.
Keywords [en]
Photovoltaics, PV, battery storage, primary frequency control
National Category
Energy Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362754OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-362754DiVA, id: diva2:1254672
Conference
8th International Workshop on Integration of Solar into Power Systems, 16-17 October 2018, Stockholm, Sweden
Available from: 2018-10-09 Created: 2018-10-09 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Self-Consumption of Photovoltaic Electricity in Residential Buildings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-Consumption of Photovoltaic Electricity in Residential Buildings
2018 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Alternative title[sv]
Egenanvändning av solel i bostadshus
Abstract [en]

Worldwide installations of photovoltaics (PV) have increased rapidly due to national subsidies and decreasing prices. One important market segment is building-applied PV systems, for which the generated electricity can be self-consumed. Self-consumption is likely to become important both for the profitability and to facilitate integration of high shares of PV in the power system. The purpose of this doctoral thesis is to examine opportunities and challenges with distributed PV in the power system on four system levels: detached houses, communities, distribution systems and national level. This was done through literature studies and computer simulations. Previous research has shown a larger potential to increase the PV self-consumption in detached houses by using battery storage rather than shifting the household appliance loads. This thesis shows that, on the community level, the self-consumption increased more when sharing one large storage instead of individual storages in each house. On the distribution system level, PV power curtailment was identified as an effective solution to reduce the risk of overvoltage due to high PV penetration levels. However, the curtailment losses were high: up to 28% of the electricity production had to be curtailed in the studied distribution grid with a PV penetration of 100% of the yearly electricity consumption. However, the penetration of distributed PV on a national level is not likely to reach these levels. Around 12% of the Swedish households were estimated to have PV systems in 2040, although the uncertainties in the results were high, mainly related to the development of the electricity prices. The low profits from both PV but especially battery systems reduce future market shares. If residential batteries could also be used for primary frequency control, the profitability and thus the market shares for PV and battery systems could increase. The overall conclusions are that improved self-consumption can increase the profitability of PV systems and lower the negative impacts on grids with high PV penetration. Energy storage has a large potential to increase the self-consumption, but the profitability is still low for a storage that is only used to increase the self-consumption.     

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2018. p. 113
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Science and Technology, ISSN 1651-6214 ; 1728
Keywords
Photovoltaics, Solar energy, Self-consumption, Grid integration, Distributed generation, Energy storage, Curtailment, Power system
National Category
Energy Engineering
Research subject
Engineering Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-362819 (URN)978-91-513-0470-0 (ISBN)
Public defence
2018-11-29, Häggsalen, Ångströmlaboratoriet, Lägerhyddsvägen 1, Uppsala, 13:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P37511-1
Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-10-10 Last updated: 2018-11-19

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Luthander, Rasmus

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