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Entrepreneurs and Small-Scale Enterprises: Self Reported Health, Work Conditions, Work Environment Management and Occupational Health Services
Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This thesis focused on factors contributing to improved work environment in small-scale enterprises and sustainable health for the entrepreneurs.

In Study I, implementation of the provision of Systematic Work Environment Management (SWEM) with and without support was investigated. Two implementation methods were used, supervised and network method. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved in all enterprises. However, extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advice and networking aimed at fulfilling SWEM regulations had limited effect – especially considering the cost of applying these methods.

Studies II, III, and IV focused on entrepreneurs’ health, work conditions, strategies for maintaining good health, and utilisation of Occupational Health Service (OHS). A closed cohort of entrepreneurs in ten different trades responded to two self-administered questionnaires on health and work conditions, with five years between the surveys: at baseline, 496 entrepreneurs responded, and 251 entrepreneurs responded at follow-up. Differences were tested by Chi2-test, and associations estimated with logistic regression analyses. Qualitative interviews on entrepreneurs’ strategies for maintaining good health were included. In Study II, the most frequently reported complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. In Study III, consistent self-reported good health, i.e. good health both at baseline and at follow up, was associated with self-valued good social life when adjusted for physical work conditions and job satisfaction. Entrepreneurs’ strategies for maintaining good health included good planning and control over work, flexibility at work, good social contact with family, friends and other entrepreneurs, and regular physical exercise.

Study IV concerned entrepreneur’s utilisation of OHS. Entrepreneurs affiliated to OHS had either better or more adverse work conditions than non-affiliated entrepreneurs. Medical care and health check-ups were the services most utilised. Affiliation to OHS correlated with use of specific information sources and active work environment management. The entrepreneurs were not consistently affiliated to OHS over the five-year-period.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Uppsala: Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis , 2010. , p. 61
Series
Digital Comprehensive Summaries of Uppsala Dissertations from the Faculty of Medicine, ISSN 1651-6206 ; 574
Keywords [en]
small-scale enterprises, SSE, entrepreneur, self-rated health, systematic work environment management, work conditions, social life, Occupational Health Service, OHS
National Category
Occupational Health and Environmental Health
Research subject
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-126549ISBN: 978-91-554-7838-4 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:uu-126549DiVA, id: diva2:324790
Public defence
2010-09-16, Frödingsalen, Ulleråkersvägen 40, Uppsala, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2010-08-17 Created: 2010-06-16 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Systematic Work Environment Management: Experiences from Implementation in Swedish Small-scale Enterprises
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Systematic Work Environment Management: Experiences from Implementation in Swedish Small-scale Enterprises
2010 (English)In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 185-196Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Small-scale enterprises face difficulties in fulfilling the regulations for organising Systematic Work Environment Management. This study compared three groups of small-scale manufacturing enterprises with and without support for implementing the provision. Two implementation methods, supervised and network method, were used. The third group worked according to their own ideas. Twenty-three enterprises participated. The effects of the implementation were evaluated after one year by semi-structured dialogue with the manager and safety representative. Each enterprise was classified on compliance with ten demands concerning the provision. The work environment was estimated by the WEST-method. Impact of the implementation on daily work was also studied. At the follow-up, the enterprises in the supervised method reported slightly more improvements in the fulfilment of the demands in the provision than the enterprises in the network method and the enterprises working on their own did. The effect of the project reached the employees faster in the enterprises with the supervised method. In general, the work environment improved to some extent in all enterprises. Extensive support to small-scale enterprises in terms of advise and networking aimed to fulfil the regulations of Systematic Work Environment Management had limited effect - especially considering the cost of applying these methods.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-126489 (URN)10.2486/indhealth.48.185 (DOI)000276256000008 ()20424349 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-06-15 Created: 2010-06-15 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
2. Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self rated health and working conditions of small-scale enterprisers in sweden
2007 (English)In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 775-780Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study was an investigation of prevalence and associations between self-rated health and working conditions for small-scale enterprisers in a county in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was answered by 340 male and 153 female small-scale enterprisers in different sectors, with a response rate of 66%. For comparative purposes, data from a population study of 1,699 employees in private companies was included in the analyses. Differences were tested by Chi²-test and associations were presented as odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The frequency of health problems in male enterprisers was higher than in employees in the private sector, while the frequency of health problems in female enterprisers was equal to that of the control employees. The main findings highlighted that male enterprisers reported higher rate of health problems and female enterprisers equal rate compared with employees in the private sector. Enterprisers stated musculoskeletal pain (women 59%, men 56%) and mental health problems (women 47%, men 45%) as the most frequent health problems. Poor job satisfaction, reported by 17% of the females and 20% of the male enterprisers, revealed an OR of 10.42 (95% CI 5.78-18.77) for poor general health. For the enterprisers, the most frequent complaints, musculoskeletal pain and mental health problems, were associated with poor job satisfaction and poor physical work environment. An association between poor general health and working as an enterpriser remained after adjusting for working conditions, sex and age.

Keywords
Small-scale enterpriser, Self-rated health, Working conditions, Small-scale enterprises, SSE, Occupational health
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:uu:diva-14821 (URN)10.2486/indhealth.45.775 (DOI)000251975000008 ()18212472 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2008-01-31 Created: 2008-01-31 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
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